Daniel Varoujan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Daniel Varujan)
Jump to: navigation, search
Daniel Varoujan
Varuzhan.jpg
Born (1884-04-20)20 April 1884
Brgnik village, Vilayet of Sebastia, Ottoman Empire
Died 26 August 1915(1915-08-26)
Çankırı, Vilayet of Kastamonu, Ottoman Empire[1]
Occupation poet
Nationality Armenian
Education University of Ghent
Spouse Araksi Varujan

Daniel Varoujan (Armenian: Դանիէլ Վարուժան, 20 April 1884 – 26 August 1915) was a major Armenian poet of the early 20th century. At the age of 31, when he was reaching international stature, he was deported and murdered by the Young Turk government, as part of the officially planned and executed Armenian Genocide.[2][3]

Life and education[edit]

Varoujan was born Daniel Tchboukkarian (Դանիէլ Չպուքքարեան)[4] in the Prknig village of Sivas, Turkey. After attending the local school, he was sent in 1896, the year of the Hamidian massacres, to Istanbul, where he attended the Mkhitarian school. He then continued his education at Mourad-Rafaelian school of Venice, and in 1905 entered Ghent University in Belgium, where he followed courses in literature, sociology and economics. In 1909 he returned to his village where he taught for three years. After his marriage with Araksi Varoujan in 1912, he became the principal of St. Gregory The Illuminator School in Istanbul.

Mehian literary group[edit]

In 1914, he established the Mehian literary group and magazine with Gostan Zarian, Hagop Oshagan, Aharon Parseghian and Kegham Parseghian. The movement aimed to start an Armenian Renaissance. Participants saw their purpose as rousing the nation from centuries of slavery and darkness, reconnecting it to its Pre-Christian past ("Mehian" means "Temple"), and encouraging independence and a rejection of tyranny, whether from its own corrupt leadership or the Turkish government. The fundamental ideology of Mehian was expressed as:

"We announce the worship and the expression of the Armenian spirit, because the Armenian spirit is alive, but appears occasionally. We say: Without the Armenian spirit there is no Armenian literature and Armenian artist. Every true artist expresses only his own race's spirit...We say: External factors, acquired customs, foreign influences, diverted and deformed emotions have dominated the Armenian spirit, but were unable to assimilate it."[citation needed]

Death[edit]

The Armenian writer and doctor Roupen Sevag and three other eyewitnesses described the torture and death of Varoujan. After being arrested and jailed, they were told that they were being taken to a village. On the way, a Turkish official and his assistant, accompanied by five heavily armed "policemen", stopped the convoy. After robbing the five prisoners, the first two who were in charge left and ordered the other five to take them away. After taking them to the woods, they attacked the prisoners, took off their clothes until all of them were left naked. Then they tied them one by one to the trees and started cutting them slowly with knives. Their screams could be heard by witnesses in hiding from a long distance.

One of Varoujan's major works was The Song of the Bread (Հացին երգը) a fifty page collection of poems. Confiscated during the genocide, it was an unfinished manuscript at the time of his death. Reportedly saved by bribing Turkish officials. The Song of the Bread was published posthumously in 1921. The poems celebrate the simple majesty of village agricultural life led by the Armenian peasants of Anatolia.

More than anyone else of their time, Siamanto and Varoujan verbalized the hopes of the Armenians around the start of the 20th century. Using legends, old epics, and pagan history at the springboard and allegory for their aspirations, they waited for deliverance from oppression and the rebirth in Armenian arts.

Bibliography[edit]

Varoujan produced four major volumes of poetry:

  • Shivers (Սարսուռներ, 1906, Venice)
  • The Heart of the Race (Ցեղին սիրտը, 1909, Constantinople)
  • Pagan Songs (Հեթանոս երգեր, 1912, Constantinople)
  • The Song of the Bread (Հացին երգը, 1921, Constantinople).

Other writings:

  • Varoujan, Daniel. Le chant du pain (Marseilles: Editions Parentheses, 1990).
  • Varujan, Daniel. Il canto del pane (Milan: Edizioni Angelo Guerini e Associati, 1992).
  • Varuzhan, Daniel. Արծիւներու կարավանը (Erevan: "Hayastan" Hratarakchutyun, 1969).
  • Բանաստեղծական երկեր (Antelias: Tp. Kilikioy Katoghikosutean, 1986).
  • Բանաստեղծություններ (Erevan: Haypethrat, 1955).
  • Ձօն (Erevan: Hayastan Hratarakchutyun, 1975).
  • Երկեր (Erevan: "Hayastan," 1969).
  • Երկեր (Jerusalem: "Haralez Hratarakchutiwn," 1973).
  • Երկեր (Erevan: "Sovetakan Grogh" Hratarakchutyun, 1984).
  • Երկերի լիակատար ժողովածու երեք հատորով (Erevan: Haykakan SSH GA Hratarakchutyun, 1986, 1987).
  • Հարճը (Erevan: Haypethrat, 1946).
  • Հարճը (Beirut: Tparan Etvan, 1952).
  • Հարճը (Erevan: "Sovetakan Grogh" Hratarakchutyun, 1977).
  • Հատընտիր (Istanbul: Grakan Akumb-Zhamanak Gortsaktsutiwn, 1994).
  • Հատընտիրներ (Istanbul: Zhamanak, 1994).
  • Հացին երգը (Jerusalem: Tparan Srbots Hakobeants, 1950).
  • Հացին երգը (Erevan: Haypethrat, 1964).
  • Հացին երգը (Constantinople: O. Arzuman, 1921).
  • Հեթանոս երգեր (Ghalatia [Constantinople]: Tpagrutiwn "Shant," 1912).
  • Հեթանոս երգեր (Jerusalem: Tparan Srbots Hakobeants, 1953).
  • Հեթանոս երգեր. Հացին երգը. հատուածներ (Venice-S. Ghazar: Mkhitarean hratarakutiwn, 1981).
  • Նամականի (Erevan: Haypethrat, 1965).
  • Poemes Varoujean (Beirut: Impr. Hamaskaine, 1972).
  • Սարսուռներ ([Jerusalem:] Srbots Hakobeants, 1950).
  • Սարսուռներ. Ցեղին սիրտը. հատուածներ (Venice-S. Ghazar: Mkhitarean hratarakutiwn, 1981).
  • Stikhi (Moscow: Khudozhestvennaia lit-ra, 1984).
  • Stikhi (Erevan: Izd-vo "Sovetakan Grogh," 1985).
  • Ցեղին սիրտը (Constantinople: Hratarakutiwn Artsiw Zogh. Gravacharanotsi, 1909).
  • Ցեղին սիրտը (Jerusalem: Tparan Srbots Hakobeants, 1953).
  • Varoujean: poems (Beirut: Impr. Hamaskaine, n.d.).

About Varoujan:

  • Esajanian, Levon. Դանիէլ Վարուժան (կեանքը եւ գործը) (Constantinople: Berberian, 1919).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Raymond Kévorkian: Le Génocide des Arméniens, Odile Jacob, Paris 2006 2-7381-1830-5, p. 663
  2. ^ Aberbach, David (2012). The European Jews, Patriotism and the Liberal State 1789–1939: A Study of Literature and Social Psychology. Routledge. p. 194. ISBN 9781136158957. 
  3. ^ Dadrian, Vahakn N.; Akçam, Taner (2011). Judgment at Istanbul the Armenian genocide trials. New York: Berghahn Books. p. 123. ISBN 9780857452863. 
  4. ^ Balakian, Grigoris (2010). Armenian Golgotha: A Memoir of the Armenian Genocide, 1915–1918. New York: Vintage Books. p. 115. ISBN 9781400096770. 

External links[edit]