|This article's factual accuracy is disputed. (August 2012)|
Danish is a Scandinavian language related closely to Swedish and Norwegian, and more distantly to Icelandic and Faroese as well as to the other Germanic languages. However, Danish phonology is highly distinct from those found in these other languages. For example Danish has a suprasegmental feature known as stød to distinguish certain words. Its use of approximants in place of certain consonants is greater than its neighbors', though the Scandinavian languages are largely mutually intelligible, and Danish can easily be read by Swedes and Norwegians.
|in syllable onset||in syllable coda|
|/ɡ/||[ɡ̊]||[ɪ̯] after front vowels,
[ʊ̯] after back vowels
|/j/||[j], [ɕ] after [s] or [tˢ]||[ɪ̯]|
|/n/||[n]||[n], [ŋ] before /ɡ k/|
- /m, pʰ, b̥/ are bilabial, /f, ʋ/ are labiodental, whereas [ʊ̯] is labialized velar.
- /n, tˢ, d̥, l/ have been variously described as apical alveolar [n̺, t̺ˢʰ, d̺̊, l̺] and laminal denti-alveolar [n̪, t̪ˢʰ, d̪̊, l̪].
- Among stops, /p, t, k/ are voiceless and aspirated (in case of /t/ also affricated) in syllable onset: [pʰ, tˢʰ, kʰ] (some scholars analyse them as voiceless aspirated lenis: [b̥ʰ, d̥ˢʰ, ɡ̊ʰ]). Aspiration is lost in syllable coda.
- For simplicity, the aspirated and affricated allophone of /t/ is often transcribed as [tˢ]/[d̥ˢ], i.e. as if it were just affricated.
- In some varieties of standard Danish, /t/ is just aspirated, without the affrication.
- The exact place of articulation of /k, ɡ/ varies; it is more front (pre-velar) before front vowels, and more back (post-velar) before back vowels. Bornholmsk dialect features even stronger fronting of /k, ɡ/ before front vowels, i.e. to palatal [c, ɟ].
- Voiceless continuants /f, s, h/ and [ɕ] are fricatives.
- /s/ is an apical alveolar non-retracted sibilant [s̺], but some speakers realize it as dental [s̪]. It is always voiceless.
- /h/ is only weakly fricated. Between vowels, it is often voiced [ɦ].
- [ɕ] occurs only after /s/ or /t/. Since [j] doesn't occur after these phonemes, [ɕ] can be analyzed as /j/, which is devoiced after voiceless alveolar frication. This makes it unnecessary to postulate a /ɕ/-phoneme in Danish.
- Among voiced continuants, the lateral /l/ is an approximant, whereas /ʋ, ð, j, ʁ/ vary between being fricatives and approximants:
- /ʋ/ is either a voiced fricative [v] or, most often, a voiced approximant [ʋ].
- [ð] is a voiced velarized laminal alveolar approximant [ɹ̻ˠ] (often transcribed [ð̠˕ˠ]). It is weak, acoustically similar to [ɯ] or [ɤ]. British phonetician John C. Wells commented on his blog about the quality of Danish [ð] that to him, it sounds "awfully like a lateral". Very rarely, [ð] can be realised as a voiced laminal alveolar non-sibilant fricative [ð̠].[is the fricative variant also velarized?]
- /j/ is an approximant, but when it occurs word-finally after /l/, it is articulated more strongly than usual, sometimes even as a fricative [ʝ].
- An additional voiced continuant, namely the voiced velar fricative [ɣ] occurred in older Standard Danish. Some older speakers still use it in high register, but most often as an approximant [ɰ]. Young speakers of contemporary Standard Danish realize it in three ways:
- /ʁ/ has been variously described as:
- Uvular fricative [ʁ] or approximant [ʁ̞]. Initial /ʁ/ is most often an approximant. According to Nina Grønnum, the fricative variant is voiceless [χ].
- "Supra-pharyngeal" approximant
- Pharyngeal approximant [ʕ̞]
- When emphasising a word, word-initial /r/ may be realized as a voiced uvular trill fricative [ʀ̝].
- The alveolar realization [r] of /ʁ/ is very rare; it occurs in some varieties of Jutlandic dialect, and only for some speakers (mostly the elderly). This realization is considered non-standard, even in classical opera singing (Torp (2001) asserts that this is probably the only European language in which this is the case).
- /l, j, r/ are voiceless [l̥, ʝ̊ ~ ɕ, ʁ̥] after aspirated /p, t, k/, where the aspiration is realized as devoicing of the following sonorant. Note, however, that the sequence /tj/ is normally realized as a voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate [t͡ɕ].
The Danish allophones can be analyzed into 15 distinctive consonant phonemes, /p t k b d ɡ m n f s h v j r l/, where /p t k d ɡ v j r/ have different pronunciation in syllable onset vs. syllable coda.
Instances of [ŋ] can be analyzed as /n/ as it only occurs before /ɡ/ or /k/ and isn't contrasting with [n]. This makes it unnecessary to postulate an /ŋ/-phoneme in Danish.
/b, d, ɡ/ are voiceless and lenis in syllable onset: [b̥, d̥, ɡ̊]. In syllable coda /d, ɡ/ and sometimes /b/ are opened: [ʊ̯ ð̞ˠ̠ ɪ̯/ʊ̯]. /ɡ/ becomes [ɪ̯] after front vowels and [ʊ̯] after back vowels.
Final [b̥, d̥, ɡ̊] may be realized as [pʰ, tˢʰ, kʰ], in particular in distinct speech. In case of the alveolar plosive, in this position it may be either aspirated and affricated [tˢʰ] or just aspirated [tʰ].
In syllable coda, /v/ and /r/ are normally pronounced [ʊ̯] and [ɐ̯]. In slow and careful speech /v/ is often = [ʋ]). /r/ forms a diphthong with the preceding tautosyllabic vowel: e.g. stor "big" [ˈsd̥oɐ̯ˀ], næring "nourishment" [ˈnɛɐ̯eŋ]. /a(ː)r/ and /ɔ(ː)r/ coalesce into the long vowels [aː] and [ɒː] respectively. /ər/, /rə/ and /rər/ are all rendered as [ɐ], e.g. læger "doctors" = lære "teach, learn; doctrine" = lærer "teaches, learns; teacher" [ˈlɛːɐ].
/v.ə/, /j.ə/ and /d.ə/ (/əd/) are normally rendered as the vowels [ʊ], [ɪ] and [ð̩]. [ʊ], [ɪ] are pretty close to [o] and [e], e.g. leve "live" = Leo [leːʊ]. /v.əd/ and especially /j.əd/ are frequently assimilated to [ð̞̩] (in the case of /v.əd/ normally, but not exclusively, with an indication of a rounding at the outset),[clarification needed] e.g. meget "much, very" [ˈmɑːð̞̩], Strøget "a central shopping street" [ˈsd̥ʁʌð̞ˀð̞̩]. In Jutlandic Standard Danish, the word-final phoneme is /t/, so these words are normally pronounced [ˈmɑːɪd̥], [ˈsd̥ʁʌɪ̯ˀɪd̥] in that variety.
Modern Standard Danish has around 20 different vowel qualities. These vowels are shown here in a narrow transcription. In the rest of the article and in IPA transcriptions of Danish in Wikipedia the diacritics are usually omitted.
The vowel system is unstable, and the contemporary spoken language is experiencing a merger of more of these phonemes. The following vowel pairs may be merged:
- [eː] with [ɛː]
- [ɛː] with [æː]
- [e] with [ɛ]
- [øː] with [œː]
- [ø] with [œ]
- [oː] with [ɔː]
- [o] with [ɔ]
The following vowels are allophones. Phonemes are discussed below.
- Stressed vowels
- [i] is close front unrounded [i]. John Wells's impression is that it is slightly centralized [ï].
- [y] is close near-front rounded [ÿ].
- [u] is close back rounded [u].
- [e] has been variously described as near-close front unrounded [e̝] and close-mid front unrounded [e].
- [ø] is close-mid near-front rounded [ø̠].
- [o] is close-mid back rounded [o].
- [ɛ] has been variously described as close-mid front unrounded [e], mid front unrounded [ɛ̝] and open-mid front unrounded [ɛ].
- [œ] has been variously described as mid near-front rounded [œ̽] and slightly lowered mid near-front rounded [œ̽].
- [ʌ] is near-open near-back somewhat rounded [ɒ̜̽].
- [ɔ] has been variously described as slightly advanced mid back rounded [ɔ̝], mid near-back rounded [ɔ̽] and slightly lowered mid back rounded [ɔ̝].
- [æ] is open-mid front unrounded [ɛ].
- [a] has been variously described as slightly retracted near-open front unrounded [æ̠] and near-open front unrounded [æ]. For certain older or upper-class speakers, it may be somewhat lower [a].
- [ɶ] is near-open near-front rounded [ɶ̽].
- Grønnum (1998) includes an additional phoneme, namely /œ̞/, which phonetically is open-mid near-front rounded [œ̠]. Basbøll (2005) writes that "Nina Grønnum uses two different symbols for the vowels in these and similar words: gøre she transcribes with [œ̞] (semi-narrow transcription) and [œ] (narrow transcription), and grøn she transcribes with [ɶ] (semi-narrow transcription) and [ɶ̝] (narrow transcription). Clearly, there is variation within Standard Danish on this point, cf. the end of the present s. 2.2."
- [ɑ] has been variously described as open central unrounded [ä], somewhat raised open central unrounded [ä̝], advanced open back unrounded [ɑ̟] and slightly raised open back unrounded [ɑ̝].
- [ɒ] has been variously described as somewhat lowered open-mid back rounded [ɔ̞] and somewhat raised open advanced back rounded [ɒ̽].
- Unstressed vowels
- [ə] is mid central [ə].
- [ɐ] may be any of the following: near open central unrounded [ɐ], retracted mid central unrounded [ə̠], or simply the same as stressed /ʌ/. Basbøll (2005) states that /ɐ/ - /ʌ/ merger is probably the normal case. Grønnum (1998) transcribes both /ʌ/ and /ɐ/ as /ʌ/.
- [ɪ] is a lax, relatively close unrounded neutral front vowel. It is an assimilatory variant of [ɪ̯ə].
- [ʊ] is a lax, relatively close rounded neutral back vowel, which may be realized the same as short /o/. It is an assimilatory variant of [ʊ̯ə].
- Non-syllabic vowels
- [ɪ̯] is a non-syllabic, lax, relatively close unrounded neutral front vowel. Nina Grønnum transcribes it the same as [j].
- [ʊ̯] is a non-syllabic, lax, relatively close rounded neutral back vowel. Nina Grønnum transcribes it as [w].
- [ɐ̯] is a non-syllabic, central retracted neutral vowel (pharyngeal glide), which may be a non-syllabic equivalent of /ʌ/. Nina Grønnum transcribes it as [ʌ̯].
|default||before /r/||after /r/|
|/eː/||[eː]||[ɛː] ~ [æː]|
|/e/||[e]||[ɛ] ~ [æ]|
|/ɛː/||[ɛː]||[æː]||[æː] / [ɑ]1|
|/ɛ/||[ɛ]||[æ] ~ [a]||[a] / [ɑ]2|
|/a/||[a] ~ [æ] / [ɑ]3||[ɑ]|
|/ø/||[ø]||[œ] / [ɶ]4|
|/œː/||[œː] ~ [ɶː]||[œː]||NA|
|/œ/||[œ]||[ɶ] ~ [ʌ]||[œ] ~ [ɶ]|
|/uː/||[uː]||[uː] ~ [oː]|
|/u/||[u]||[u] ~ [o]|
|/o/||[o]5 / [ɔ]||[o]||[o]5 / [ɔ]|
|/ɔ/||[ʌ] / [ɒ]4||[ɒ]||[ʌ] / [ɒ]4|
[ə] and [ɐ] occur only in unstressed syllables. With the exception of [a], [ʌ], [ə] and [ɐ] all vowels may be either long and short. Long vowels may have stød, thus making it possible to distinguish 30 different vowels in stressed syllables. However, vowel length and stød are most likely features of the syllable rather than features of the vowel.
These allophones can be analyzed into 11 distinctive vowels, where allophonic alternation mainly depends on whether the vowel occurs before or after /r/. The vowel /ə/ only occurs in unstressed syllables. All other phonemes may occur both stressed and unstressed.
The three way distinction in front rounded vowels /y ø œ/ is upheld only before nasals, e.g. /syns sønˀs sœns/ synes, synds, søns ("seems, sin's, son's"). Furthermore, there are only three words where /y/ occurs before a nasal in a stressed syllable, i.e. synes, brynje, hymne ("seems, armor, hymn").
The distribution of [a] and [ɑ] is largely in complementary distribution. However, a two-phoneme interpretation can be justified with reference to the unexpected vowel quality in words like [ɑndʁɐ ɑnɐleːð̩s] andre, anderledes ("others, different"), and an increasing number of loanwords.
Long and short vowels
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Long vowels occur in syllables which were originally open, i.e. there was not more than one short consonant after the vowel. Since the long consonants have been shortened, vowel quantity has become phonological: /baːnə/ bane "course" ≠ /banə/ bande "swear", /iːlə/ ile "hasten" ≠ /ilə/ ilde "badly".
There are long vowels in some syllables which were originally closed, especially in neuters of adjective stems ending in /s/ and /n/ (e.g. pænt "nice" /pɛːˀnt/) and in the preterites and participles of verb stems ending in /s/, /n/ and /t/ (e.g. /sbiːstə/ spiste "ate" [ˈsb̥iːsd̥ə], /føːtə/ fødte "gave birth to" [ˈføːd̥ə]).
The distinction between long and short vowels is neutralised before tautosyllabic /v, j, d, ɡ, r/ that are all realized as vocoids in coda position.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (October 2014)|
[a], the regular allophone of /ɛ/ after /r/ is [ɑ] before labials and alveolars in the language of most younger speakers, thus neutralizing the distinction between /rɛ/ and /ra/ before these consonants. Before velars, it is often realised as a diphthong [ɑɪ] by younger speakers; the difference between strække ([ˈsd̥ʁa̝ɡ̊ə]) "stretch" and strejke ([ˈsd̥ʁɑ̈jɡ̊ə]) "strike", the only minimal pair, is practically non-existent.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (October 2014)|
Unlike the neighboring Mainland Scandinavian languages Swedish and Norwegian, the prosody of Danish does not have phonemic pitch. Stress is phonemic and distinguishes words like billigst [ˈb̥ilisd̥] "cheapest" and bilist [b̥iˈlisd̥] "car driver". The main rules for the position of the stress are:
- Inherited words are normally stressed on the first syllable.
- The prefixes be-, for-, ge-, u- are unstressed, e.g. for’stå "understand", be’tale "pay", u'mulig "impossible" (NB there is also a stressed for- in nouns corresponding to the verbal prefix fore-).
- In many compound adjectives, especially those ending in -ig and -lig, the stress is replaced from the first to the second syllable, e.g. vidt’løftig "circumstantial", sand'synlig "probable".
- Words of French origin are stressed on the last syllable (except /ə/), e.g. renæ’ssance, mil’jø.
- Words of Greek and Latin origin are stressed according to the Latin accent rules, i.e. stress on the penultimate if it is long or else on the antepenultimate, e.g. Ari’stoteles, Ho’rats.
- The suffixes borrowed from Romance languages -aner, -ansk, -ance, -a/ens, -a/ent, -ere, -i, -ik, -ion, -itet, -ør are stressed, e.g. finge’rere, situa’tion, poli’tik, århusi’aner. The preceding syllable is stressed before the latinate suffixes -isk, -iker, -or, e.g. po’lemisk, po’litiker, radi’ator. The suffix -or is stressed in the plural: radia’torer (colloquial: radi’atorer).
- Verbs lose their stress (and stød, if any) in certain positions:
- With an object without a definite or indefinite article: e.g. ’Jens ’spiser et ’brød [ˈjɛns ˈsb̥iːˀsɐ ed̥ ˈb̥ʁœðˀ] "Jens eats a loaf" ~ ’Jens spiser ’brød [ˈjɛns sb̥isɐ ˈb̥ʁœðˀ] "Jens eats bread".
- In names, only the surname is stressed, e.g. [johan̩ luiːsə ˈhɑjb̥æɐ̯ˀ] Johanne Luise Heiberg.
- In a fixed phrase with an adverb or an adverbial: ’Helle ’sov ’længe [ˈhɛlə ˈsʌʊˀ ˈlɛŋə] "Helle slept for a long time" ~ ’Helle sov ’længe [ˈhɛlə sʌʊ ˈlɛŋə] "Helle slept late".
- Before the direction adverbs af, hen, hjem, ind, indad, ned, nedad, op, opad, over, ud, udad, under (but not the location adverbs henne, inde, nede, oppe, ovre, ude): e.g. han ’går ’ude på ’gaden [hæn ˈɡɒːˀ ˈuːð̪̩ pʰɔ ˈɡ̊æːð̪̩n] "he walks on the street" ~ han går ’ud på ’gaden [hæn ɡɒ ˈuð̪ˀ pʰɔ ˈɡ̊æːð̪̩n] "he walks into the street".
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (October 2014)|
The original pitch tone has been replaced by an opposition between syllables with and without the stød. The stød is not a separate phoneme, but a suprasegmental feature that may accompany certain syllables; those with a long vowel or that end with a voiced consonant.
The stød is phonemic since many words are kept apart on the basis of the presence or absence of the stød alone, e.g. løber "runner" [ˈløːb̥ɐ] ≠ løber "runs" [ˈløːˀb̥ɐ / ˈløʊ̯ˀɐ], ånden "breathing" [ˈʌnn̩] ≠ ånden "the spirit" [ˈʌnˀn̩].
It is impossible to predict the presence or absence of the stød; it has to be learned. However there are some main rules:
- Original monosyllabic words have stød. Words that ended in consonant + r, l, n in Old Danish have the stød even though an anaptyctic vowel was later developed. The postposed definite article, which has become an inseparable part of the word, does not influence the word.
- All umlauting plurals in -er (ODan. -r) have the stød, e.g. hænder [ˈhɛnˀɐ] "hands".
- Most presents from strong verbs (ODan. -r) have the stød, e.g. finder [ˈfenˀɐ] "finds". Many of the presents of verbs with a preterite in -te have the stød as well (but not the presents of verbs with a preterite in -ede).
- Monosyllabic words that originally ended in a short vowel + a single n, r, l, v, ð, g do not have the stød. However, when the definite suffix is added, the stød "returns", e.g. ven [ˈʋɛn] ~ vennen [ˈʋɛnˀn̩] "friend".
- Stød is frequently avoided in words with the combinations rp, rt, rk, rs, e.g. vers [ˈʋæɐ̯s] "verse", kort [ˈkʰɒːd̥] "card, map"/"short".
- Most (non-derived) words in -el, -er have the stød. Most words in -en do not have the stød. Nomina agentis in -er do not have the stød.
- All words with the unstressed prefixes be-, for-, ge- have the stød.
- There is stød in most compounds that have a replacement of the stress from first to the second syllable.
- There is frequently the stød in the second part of compound verbs.
- Monosyllables regularly lose the stød when they are the first part of a compound: mål [ˈmɔːˀl] "target, goal" ~ målmand [ˈmɔːlˌmænˀ] "goalkeeper". The vowel is sometimes shortened: tag [ˈtˢæːˀ] "roof" ~ tagterrasse [ˈtˢɑʊ̯tˢaˌʁɑsə] ”roof terrace”
- Words of Greek or Latin origin have the stød on a stressed antepenultimate syllable or a stressed last syllable. A stressed penultimate syllable has the stød if the word ends in -er.
The sample text is a reading of The North Wind and the Sun.
Nordenvinden og solen kom engang i strid om, hvem af dem der var den stærkeste. Da så de en vandringsmand, der kom gående, svøbt i en varm kappe. Og de enedes om, at den der først kunne få kappen af ham skulle anses for den stærkeste. Først tog nordenvinden fat, og han blæste og blæste, men jo mere han blæste, des tættere holdt manden kappen sammen om sig. Til sidst måtte nordenvinden give fortabt. Så tog solen fat. Og han skinnende og skinnende, og til sidst fik manden det for varmt og måtte tage kappen af. Da måtte nordenvinden indrømme, at solen var den stærkeste af de to.
[ˈnoʌ̯ʌnvenˀn̩ ʌ ˈsoːˀl̩n kʰʌm eŋˈɡ̊ɑŋˀ i ˈsd̥ʁiðˀ ˈʌmˀ ˈvɛmˀ ˈa b̥m̩ d̥ɑ vɑ d̥n̩ ˈsd̥æʌ̯ɡ̊əsd̥ə || ˈd̥a ˈsɔːˀ d̥i n̩ ˈvɑnd̥ʁæŋsmanˀ d̥ɑ kʰʌm ˈɡ̊ɔːɔnə | ˈsvøb̥d̥ i n̩ ˈvɑːˀm ˈkʰɑb̥ə | ʌ d̥i ˈeːnð̩ðəs ˈʌmˀ | a ˈd̥ɛnˀ d̥ɑ ˈfœ̞ʌ̯sd̥ kʰu fɔ ˈkʰɑbm̩ ˈa hɑm | sɡ̊u ˈanseːˀs fʌ d̥n̩ ˈsd̥æʌ̯ɡ̊əsd̥ə || ˈfœ̞ʌ̯sd̥ tˢo ˈnoʌ̯ʌnvenˀn̩ ˈfad̥ | ʌ han ˈblɛːsd̥ə ʌ ˈblɛːsd̥ə | mɛn jo ˈmeːʌ han ˈblɛːsd̥ə d̥ɛs ˈtˢɛd̥ʌʌ hʌld̥ ˈmanˀn̩ ˈkʰɑbm̩ ˈsɑmm̩ ˈʌmˀ sɑ || tˢe ˈsisd̥ mʌd̥ə ˈnoʌ̯ʌnvenˀn̩ ɡ̊i fʌˈtˢɑb̥d̥ || ˈsʌ tˢo ˈsoːˀl̩n ˈfad̥ | ʌ han ˈsɡ̊enð̩ðə ʌ ˈsɡ̊enð̩ðə | ʌ tˢe ˈsisd̥ ˈfeɡ̊ ˈmanˀn̩ d̥e fʌ ˈvɑːˀmd̥ ʌ mʌd̥ə tˢa ˈkʰɑb̥m̩ ˈæːˀ || ˈd̥a mʌd̥ə ˈnoʌ̯ʌnvenˀn̩ ˈenʁɶmˀə a ˈsoːˀl̩n vɑ d̥n̩ ˈsd̥æʌ̯ɡ̊əsd̥ə a d̥i ˈtˢoːˀ]
- Basbøll (2005:60–63)
- Grønnum (2005:300)
- Thorborg (2003:64, 66, 68, 70 and 78)
- Basbøll (2005:60–63)
- Basbøll (2005:60–63 and 131). The author states that /n, tˢ, d̥, s, l/ are apical alveolar.
- Thorborg (2003:58, 73 and 75). The author states that /n, tˢ, d̥, l/ are pronounced with "the tip of the tongue behind upper teeth." This is confirmed by the accompanying images.
- Grønnum (2005:157)
- Basbøll (2005:126)
- For example Grønnum (1998:100)
- Grønnum (2005:303–305)
- Grønnum (2005:303)
- Grønnum (2005:123)
- Grønnum (2005:124)
- Basbøll (2005:61–62)
- Thorborg (2003:80). The author states that /s/ is pronounced with "the tip of the tongue right behind upper teeth, but without touching them." This is confirmed by the accompanying image.
- Grønnum (2005:144). Only this author mentions both alveolar and dental realizations.
- Grønnum (2005:125)
- Grønnum (2005:305–306)
- Basbøll (2005:63)
- Basbøll (2005:27, 62 and 66)
- Basbøll (2005:59 and 63)
- Grønnum (2003:121)
- Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:144)
- "John Wells's phonetic blog: Danish". 5 November 2010. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
- Bauer et al. (1980:?), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:144): "Only in a very distinct Danish - as from the stage of the Royal Theater - do we get a fricative."
- Basbøll (2005:62 and 212)
- Basbøll (2005:211–212)
- Grønnum (2005:123)
- Basbøll (2005:62)
- Basbøll (2005:66)
- Grønnum (1998:99–100)
- Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:323)
- Grønnum (2005:157)
- Torp (2001:78)
- Basbøll (2005:65–66)
- Grønnum (2005:148)
- Grønnum (2005:300–329)
- Grønnum (2005:307–310)
- Grønnum (2005:316–318)
- Basbøll (2005:212–213)
- Basbøll (2005:213)
- Krech et al. (2009:135)
- Ejstrup & Hansen (2004)
- Hernvig (2002), cited in Ejstrup & Hansen (2004:1)
- Grønnum (1998:100)
- Grønnum (2005:268)
- Grønnum (2003)
- Basbøll (2005:45)
- Allan, Holmes & Lundskær-Nielsen (2000:17)
- Uldall (1933), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:289)
- Ladefoged & Johnson (2010:227)
- Basbøll (2005:46)
- Ejstrup & Hansen (2004:4)
- Basbøll (2005:47). Only this author states the roundedness of /ʌ/ explicitly.
- Basbøll (2005:58)
- Basbøll (2005:47)
- Basbøll (2005:32)
- Fischer-Jørgensen (1972)
- Basbøll (2005:57)
- Basbøll (2005:58 and 63)
- Basbøll (2005:63)
- Basbøll (2005:52)
- Grønnum (2005:287–288)
- Basbøll (2005:51)
- Basbøll (2005:50–51)
- Grønnum (1998:104)
- Allan, Robin; Holmes, Philip; Lundskær-Nielsen, Tom (2000), Danish: An Essential Grammar, London: Routledge, ISBN 0-19-824268-9
- Basbøll, Hans (2005), The Phonology of Danish, ISBN 0-203-97876-5
- Bauer, Laurie; Dienhart, John M.; Hartvigson, Hans H.; Jakobsen, Leif Kvistgaard (1980), American English Pronunciation: Supplement, Comparison with Danish., Copenhagen: Gyldendalske Boghandel, OCLC 54869978
- Ejstrup, Michael; Hansen, Gert Foget (2004), Vowels in regional variants of Danish (PDF), Stockholm: Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University
- Fischer-Jørgensen, Eli (1972), "Formant Frequencies of Long and Short Danish Vowels", in Scherabon Firchow, Evelyn, Studies for Einar Haugen, The Hague: Mouton Publishers, pp. 189–200, ASIN B0037F3D1S
- Grønnum, Nina (1998), "Illustrations of the IPA: Danish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 28 (1 & 2): 99–105, doi:10.1017/s0025100300006290
- Grønnum, Nina (2003), Why are the Danes so hard to understand?
- Grønnum, Nina (2005), Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (3rd ed.), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, ISBN 87-500-3865-6
- Hernvig, Lotte Hagen (2002), Kvaler med vokaler? Akustisk og perceptuel undersøgelse af de danske urundede fortungevokaler [Agonising over vowels? An acoustic and perceptual study of Danish unrounded front vowels]
- Krech, Eva Maria; Stock, Eberhard; Hirschfeld, Ursula; Anders, Lutz-Christian (2009), "7.3.3 Dänisch", Deutsches Aussprachewörterbuch, Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 978-3-11-018202-6
- Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19814-8.
- Ladefoged, Peter; Johnson, Keith (2010), A Course in Phonetics (6th ed.), Boston, Massachusetts: Wadsworth Publishing, ISBN 978-1-4282-3126-9
- Thorborg, Lisbet (2003), Dansk udtale - øvebog, Forlaget Synope, ISBN 87-988509-4-6
- Torp, Arne (2001), "Retroflex consonants and dorsal /r/: mutually excluding innovations? On the diffusion of dorsal /r/ in Scandinavian", in Van de Velde, Hans; van Hout, Roeland, 'r-atics (PDF), Brussels: Etudes & Travaux, pp. 75–90, ISSN 0777-3692
- Uldall, Hans Jørgen (1933), A Danish Phonetic Reader, The London phonetic readers, London: University of London Press
- Basbøll, Hans (1985), "Stød in modern Danish", Folia Linguistica (De Gruyter) 19: 1–50
- Brink, Lars; Lund, Jørn (1975), Dansk rigsmål 1–2, Copenhagen: Gyldendal
- Brink, Lars; Lund, Jørn (1974), Udtaleforskelle i Danmark, Copenhagen: Gjellerup, ISBN 978-8713019465
- Brink, Lars (1991), Den store danske udtaleordbog, Copenhagen: Munksgaard, ISBN 978-87-16-06649-7
- Garlén, Claes (1988), Svenskans fonologi (1st ed.), Studentlitteratur AB, ISBN 91-44-28151-X
- Grønnum, Nina (1992), The groundworks of Danish intonation, Copenhagen: Museum Tuscalanum Press, ISBN 978-8772891699
- Grønnum, Nina (1996), "Danish vowels: Scratching the recent surface in a phonological experiment", Acta Linguistica Hafniensia (Taylor & Francis) 28: 5–63, doi:10.1080/03740463.1996.10416062
- Grønnum, Nina (2007), Rødgrød med fløde – En lille bog om dansk fonetik, Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, ISBN 978-87-500-3918-1
- Hansen, Peter Molbæk (1990), Dansk udtale, Copenhagen: Gyldendal, ISBN 978-87-02-05895-6
- Heger, Steffen (2003), Sprog & lyd: Elementær dansk fonetik, Copenhagen: Gjellerup, ISBN 87-500-3089-2