The Vilayet of the Danube or Danubian Vilayet (Ottoman Turkish: ولايت طونه, Vilâyet-i Tuna) was a vilayet of the Ottoman Empire from 1864 to 1878. In the late 19th century it reportedly had an area of 34,120 square miles (88,400 km2).
The vilayet was created from the northern parts of Silistria Province along the Danube River and eyalets of Niš, Vidin and Silistra. This vilayet was meant to become a model province, showcasing all the progress achieved by the Porte through the modernising Tanzimat reforms. Other vilayets modelled on the vilayet of the Danube were ultimately established throughout the empire by 1876, with the exception of the Arabian peninsula and the by then semi-independent Egypt.
Midhat Pasha was the first governor of the vilayet (1864–1868). During his time as a governor, steamship lines were established on the Danube River; the Ruse-Varna railroad was completed; agricultural credit cooperatives providing farmers with low-interest loans were introduced; tax incentives were also offered to encourage new industrial enterprises.
The first official vilayet newspaper in the Ottoman Empire, Tuna/Dunav, was published in both Ottoman Turkish and Bulgarian and had both Ottoman and Bulgarian editors. Its editors in chief included Ismail Kemal and Ahmed Midhat Efendi.
The vilayet had an Administrative Assembly that included state officials appointed by Istanbul as well as six representatives (three Muslims and three non-Muslims) elected from among the inhabitants of the province. Non-Muslims also participated in the provincial criminal and commercial courts that were based on a secular code of law and justice. Mixed Muslim-Christian schools were also introduced, but this reform was abolished after it was met by strong opposition by the populace.
Governors of the Vilayet:
- Hafiz Ahmed Midhat Shefik Pasha (October 1864 - March 1868)
- Mehmed Sabri Pasha (March 1868 - December 1868)
- Arnavud Mehmed Akif Pasha (February 1869 - October 1870)
- Kücük ömer Fevzi Pasha (October 1870 - October 1871)
- Ahmed Rasim Pasha (October 1871 - June 1872)
- Ahmed Hamdi Pasha (June 1872 - April 1873)
- Abdurrahman Nureddine Pasha (April 1873 - April 1874)
- Mehmed Asim Pasha (April 1874 - September 1876)
- Halil Rifat Pasha (October 1876 - February 1877)
- Oman Mazhar Ahmed (1876–1877)
Administrative divisions 
The province included the following sanjaks:
- Sanjak of Tulcea
- Sanjak of Varna
- Sanjak of Ruse
- Sanjak of Turnovo
- Sanjak of Vidin
- Sanjak of Sofia
- Sanjak of Niš
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