Taoism

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Taoism
青羊宫法事.jpg
Taoist rite at the Qingyanggong (Green Goat Temple) in Chengdu
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese or
Simplified Chinese or
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese đạo giáo
Korean name
Hangul
Hanja
Japanese name
Kanji
Hiragana どう きょう

Taoism (or Daoism) is a philosophical, ethical, and religious tradition of Chinese origin that emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as Dao). The term Tao means "way", "path" or "principle", and can also be found in Chinese philosophies and religions other than Taoism. In Taoism, however, Tao denotes something that is both the source and the force behind everything that exists.

While Taoism drew its cosmological notions from the tenets of the School of Yin Yang, the Tao Te Ching, a compact and ambiguous book containing teachings attributed to Laozi (Chinese: 老子; pinyin: Lǎozǐ; Wade–Giles: Lao Tzu), is widely considered its keystone work. Together with the writings of Zhuangzi, these two texts build the philosophical foundation of Taoism deriving from the 8 Hexagrams of Fu Xi in the 2700s BCE in China.

Taoist propriety and ethics may vary depending on the particular school, but in general tends to emphasize wu-wei (action through non-action), "naturalness", simplicity, spontaneity, and the Three Treasures: compassion, moderation, and humility.

Taoism has had profound influence on Chinese culture in the course of the centuries, and clerics of institutionalised Taoism (Chinese: 道士; pinyin: dàoshi) usually take care to note distinction between their ritual tradition and the customs and practices found in Chinese folk religion as these distinctions sometimes appear blurred. Chinese alchemy (especially neidan), Chinese astrology, Chan (Zen) Buddhism, several martial arts, traditional Chinese medicine, feng shui, and many styles of qigong have been intertwined with Taoism throughout history. Beyond China, Taoism also had influence on surrounding societies in Asia.

After Laozi and Zhuangzi, the literature of Taoism grew steadily and was compiled in form of a canon—the Daozang—which was published at the behest of the emperor. Throughout Chinese history, Taoism was several times nominated as a state religion. After the 17th century, however, it fell from favor.

Today, Taoism is one of five religions officially recognized in China, and although it does not travel readily from its Asian roots, claims adherents in a number of societies.[1] Taoism also has sizable communities in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan and in Southeast Asia.

A Chinese philosopher defines Taoism as “early forms comes from understanding and experience of the dao. Experience of the dao is an irreducible element of the formation and transformation of Chinese experience of the ultimate”.[2]

Definition[edit]

Spelling and pronunciation[edit]

English-speakers continue to debate the preferred romanization of the words "Daoism" and "Taoism". The root Chinese word "way, path" is romanized tao in the older Wade–Giles system and dào in the modern Pinyin system. In linguistic terminology, English Taoism/Daoism is formed from the Chinese loanword tao/dao "way; route; principle" and the native suffix -ism. The debate over Taoism vs. Daoism involves sinology, phonemes, loanwords, and politics – not to mention whether Taoism should be pronounced /ˈt.ɪzəm/ or /ˈd.ɪzəm/.

Daoism is pronounced /ˈd.ɪzəm/, but English speakers disagree whether Taoism should be /ˈd.ɪzəm/ or /ˈt.ɪzəm/. In theory, both Wade–Giles tao and Pinyin dao are articulated identically, as are Taoism and Daoism. An investment book titled The Tao Jones Averages (a pun on the Dow Jones Indexes) illustrates this /daʊ/ pronunciation's widespread familiarity.[3] In speech, Tao and Taoism are often pronounced /ˈtaʊ/ and ˈtaʊ.ɪzəm/, reading the Chinese unaspirated lenis ("weak") /t/ as the English voiceless stop consonant /t/. Lexicography shows American and British English differences in pronouncing Taoism. A study of major English dictionaries published in Great Britain and the United States found the most common Taoism glosses were /taʊ.ɪzəm/ in British sources and /daʊ.ɪzəm, taʊ.ɪzəm/ in American ones.[4]

Categorization[edit]

There is debate over how, and whether, Taoism should be categorized. Traditionally, it is divided into two categories:[citation needed]

  1. Philosophical Taoism (Daojia, Chinese: 道家; pinyin: dàojiā; lit. "school or family of Dao") – The philosophy based on the texts of the Tao Te Ching (or Daodejing, Chinese: 道德經; pinyin: dàodéjīng) and the Zhuangzi (Chinese: 莊子; pinyin: zhuāngzi). These texts were linked together under the term of Daojia during the early Han Dynasty, but notably not before.[5][6] It is unlikely that Zhuangzi was familiar with the text of the Daodejing,[7][8] and Zhuangzi would not have identified himself as a Taoist as this classification did not arise until well after his death.[8]
  2. Religious Taoism (Daojiao, Chinese: 道教; pinyin: dàojiào; lit. "teachings of Dao") – A family of organized religious movements sharing concepts or terminology derived from Daojia;[9] the first of these is recognized as the Celestial Masters school.

However, the distinction between Daojia and Daojiao is supposedly rejected by the majority of Western and Japanese scholars.[10][11] It is, among others, contested by hermeneutic (interpretive) difficulties in the categorization of the different Taoist schools, sects and movements.[12] Taoism does not fall under an umbrella or a definition of a single organized religion like the Abrahamic traditions; nor can it be studied as the originator or a variant of Chinese folk religion, as although the two share some similar concepts, much of Chinese folk religion is outside of the tenets and core teachings of Taoism.[13] Sinologists Isabelle Robinet and Livia Kohn agree that "Taoism has never been a unified religion, and has constantly consisted of a combination of teachings based on a variety of original revelations."[14]

Chung-ying Cheng, a Chinese philosopher views Daoism as a religion that has been embedded into Chinese history and tradition. “Whether Confucianism, Daoism, or later Chinese Buddhism, they all fall into this pattern of thinking and organizing and in this sense remain religious, even though individually and intellectually they also assume forms of philosophy and practical wisdom”.[2] Chung-ying Cheng also noted that through the Daoism view of heaven, their main approached of this idea mainly from “observation and meditation, the teaching of the way (dao) can also include the way of heaven independently of human nature”.[2] In Chinese history, while all three religions from Buddhism, Daoism, and Confucianism stand their own independence views, yet they “involved in a process of attempting to find harmonization and convergence among themselves, so that we can speak of a ‘unity of three religious teaching’ (sanjiao heyi)”.[15]

Origins and development[edit]

Birth of Laozi, a painting at the Green Goat Temple in Chengdu, Sichuan.
Gates of the Chunyang gong in Datong, Shanxi. It's a temple dedicated to Lü Dongbin.
A daoshi (Taoist priest) in Macau.
Main article: History of Taoism

Laozi is traditionally regarded as the founder of Taoism and is closely associated in this context with "original", or "primordial", Taoism.[16] Whether he actually existed is disputed;[17][18] however, the work attributed to him – the Tao Te Ching – is dated to the late 4th century BCE.[19]

Taoism draws its cosmological foundations from the School of Naturalists (in form of its main elements – yin and yang and the Five Phases), which developed during the Warring States period (4th to 3rd centuries BC).[20]

Robinet identifies four components in the emergence of Taoism:

  1. Philosophical Taoism, i.e. the Tao Te Ching and Zhuangzi
  2. techniques for achieving ecstasy
  3. practices for achieving longevity or immortality
  4. exorcism.[17]

Some elements of Taoism may be traced to prehistoric folk religions in China that later coalesced into a Taoist tradition.[21][22] In particular, many Taoist practices drew from the Warring-States-era phenomena of the wu (connected to the "shamanism" of Southern China) and the fangshi (which probably derived from the "archivist-soothsayers of antiquity, one of whom supposedly was Laozi himself"), even though later Taoists insisted that this was not the case.[23] Both terms were used to designate individuals dedicated to "... magic, medicine, divination,... methods of longevity and to ecstatic wanderings" as well as exorcism; in the case of the wu, "shamans" or "sorcerers" is often used as a translation.[23] The fangshi were philosophically close to the School of Naturalists, and relied much on astrological and calendrical speculations in their divinatory activities.[24]

The first organized form of Taoism, the Tianshi (Celestial Masters') school (later known as Zhengyi school), developed from the Five Pecks of Rice movement at the end of the 2nd century CE; the latter had been founded by Zhang Daoling, who claimed that Laozi appeared to him in the year 142.[25] The Tianshi school was officially recognized by ruler Cao Cao in 215, legitimizing Cao Cao's rise to power in return.[26] Laozi received imperial recognition as a divinity in the mid-2nd century BCE.[27]

Taoism, in form of the Shangqing school, gained official status in China again during the Tang Dynasty (618–907), whose emperors claimed Laozi as their relative.[28] The Shangqing movement, however, had developed much earlier, in the 4th century, on the basis of a series of revelations by gods and spirits to a certain Yang Xi in the years between 364 to 370.[29]

Between 397 and 402, Ge Chaofu compiled a series of scriptures which later served as the foundation of the Lingbao school,[30] which unfolded its greatest influence during the Song Dynasty (960–1279).[31] Several Song emperors, most notably Huizong, were active in promoting Taoism, collecting Taoist texts and publishing editions of the Daozang.[32]

In the 12th century, the Quanzhen School was founded in Shandong. It flourished during the 13th and 14th century and during the Yuan dynasty became the largest and most important Taoist school in Northern China. The school's most revered master, Qiu Chuji, met with Genghis Khan in 1222 and was successful in influencing the Khan towards exerting more restraint during his brutal conquests. By the Khan's decree, the school also was exempt from taxation.[33]

Aspects of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism were consciously synthesized in the Neo-Confucian school, which eventually became Imperial orthodoxy for state bureaucratic purposes under the Ming (1368–1644).[34]

The Qing Dynasty (1644–1912), however, much favored Confucian classics over Taoist works.

During the 18th century, the imperial library was constituted, but excluded virtually all Taoist books.[35] By the beginning of the 20th century, Taoism had fallen much from favor (for example, only one complete copy of the Daozang still remained, at the White Cloud Monastery in Beijing).[36]

Today, Taoism is one of five religions recognized by the People's Republic of China. The government regulates its activities through the Chinese Taoist Association.[37] Taoism is freely practiced in Taiwan, where it claims millions of adherents.

Doctrines[edit]

Ethics[edit]

Jintai guan (金台观) in Baoji, Shaanxi.
A Taoist temple of Mount Longhu, in Jiangxi.
Golden Lotus Taoist Temple (Jinlian daoguan) on Jinshan, in Lucheng, Wenzhou, Zhejiang.

Taoism tends to emphasize various themes of the Tao Te Ching and Zhuangzi, such as naturalness, spontaneity, simplicity, detachment from desires, and most important of all, wu wei.[38] However, the concepts of those keystone texts cannot be equated with Taoism as a whole.[39]

Tao and Te[edit]

Main articles: Tao and De (Chinese)

Tao (Chinese: ; pinyin: dào) literally means "way", but can also be interpreted as road, channel, path, doctrine, or line.[40] In Taoism, it is "the One, which is natural, spontaneous, eternal, nameless, and indescribable. It is at once the beginning of all things and the way in which all things pursue their course."[41] It has variously been denoted as the "flow of the universe",[42] a "conceptually necessary ontological ground",[43] or a demonstration of nature.[44] The Tao also is something that individuals can find immanent in themselves.[45]

The active expression of Tao is called Te (also spelled – and pronounced – De, or even Teh; often translated with Virtue or Power; Chinese: ; pinyin: ),[46] in a sense that Te results from an individual living and cultivating the Tao.[47]

Wu-wei[edit]

Main article: Wu wei

The ambiguous term wu-wei (simplified Chinese: 无为; traditional Chinese: 無爲; pinyin: wú wéi) constitutes the leading ethical concept in Taoism.[48] Wei refers to any intentional or deliberated action, while wu carries the meaning of "there is no ..." or "lacking, without". Common translations are "nonaction", "effortless action" or "action without intent".[48] The meaning is sometimes emphasized by using the paradoxical expression "wei wu wei": "action without action".[49]

In ancient Taoist texts, wu-wei is associated with water through its yielding nature.[50] Taoist philosophy proposes that the universe works harmoniously according to its own ways. When someone exerts their will against the world, they disrupt that harmony. Taoism does not identify one's will as the root problem. Rather, it asserts that one must place their will in harmony with the natural universe.[51] Thus, a potentially harmful interference must be avoided, and in this way, goals can be achieved effortlessly.[52][53] "By wu-wei, the sage seeks to come into harmony with the great Tao, which itself accomplishes by nonaction."[48]

Naturalness[edit]

Main article: Ziran

Naturalness (Chinese: 自然; pinyin: zìrán; Wade–Giles: tzu-jan; lit. "self-such") is regarded as a central value in Taoism.[54] It describes the "primordial state" of all things[55] as well as a basic character of the Tao,[56] and is usually associated with spontaneity and creativity.[57][56] To attain naturalness, one has to identify with the Tao;[56] this involves freeing oneself from selfishness and desire, and appreciating simplicity.[54]

An often cited metaphor for naturalness is pu (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: pǔ, pú; Wade–Giles: p'u; lit. "uncut wood"), the "uncarved block", which represents the "original nature... prior to the imprint of culture" of an individual.[58] It is usually referred to as a state one returns to.[59]

Three Treasures[edit]

The Taoist Three Treasures or Three Jewels (simplified Chinese: 三宝; traditional Chinese: 三寶; pinyin: sānbǎo) comprise the basic virtues of ci (Chinese: ; pinyin: , usually translated as compassion), jian (Chinese: ; pinyin: jiǎn, usually translated as moderation), and bugan wei tianxia xian (Chinese: 不敢为天下先; pinyin: bùgǎn wéi tiānxià xiān, literally "not daring to act as first under the heavens", but usually translated as humility).

As the "practical, political side" of Taoist philosophy, Arthur Waley translated them as "abstention from aggressive war and capital punishment", "absolute simplicity of living", and "refusal to assert active authority".[60]

The Three Treasures can also refer to jing, qi and shen (Chinese: 精氣神; pinyin: jīng-qì-shén; jing is usually translated with "essence" and shen with "spirit"). These terms are elements of the traditional Chinese concept of the human body, which shares its cosmological foundation - Yinyangism - with Taoism. Within this framework, they play an important role in neidan ("Taoist yoga").[61]

Cosmology[edit]

Further information: School of Yin Yang, Qi and Taoism and death

Taoist cosmology is based on the School of Yin Yang[20] which was headed by Zou Yan (305 BCE – 240 BCE). The school's tenets harmonized the concepts of the Wu Xing (Five Phases) and yin and yang. In this spirit, the universe is seen as being in a constant process of re-creating itself, as everything that exists is a mere aspect of qi, which, "condensed, becomes life; diluted, it is indefinite potential".[62] Qi is in a perpetual transformation between its condensed and diluted state.[63] These two different states of qi, on the other hand, are embodiments of the abstract entities of yin and yang,[63] two complementary extremes that constantly play against and with each other and cannot exist without the other.[64]

Human beings are seen as a microcosm of the universe,[13] and for example comprise the Wu Xing in form of the zang-fu organs.[65] As a consequence, it is believed that deeper understanding of the universe can be achieved by understanding oneself.[66]

Theology[edit]

Altar to Shangdi (上帝 "Primordial God") and Doumu (斗母 "Mother of the Great Chariot"), together representing the originating principle of the universe in some Taoist cosmologies, in the Chengxu Temple of Zhouzhuang, Jiangxi.
Further information: Category:Chinese deities

Taoist beliefs include teachings based on various sources. Therefore, different branches of Taoism often have differing beliefs, especially concerning deities and the proper composition of the pantheon.[67] Nevertheless, there are certain core beliefs that nearly all the sects share.[68] Traditional conceptions of Tao should not be confused with the Western concepts of theism, however. Being one with the Tao does not necessarily indicate a union with an eternal spirit in, for example, the Hindu sense.[44][51]

Popular Taoism typically presents the Jade Emperor as the official head deity. Intellectual ("elite") Taoists, such as the Celestial Masters sect, usually present Laozi (Laojun, "Lord Lao") and the Three Pure Ones at the top of the pantheon of deities.[16][69] The pantheon tends to mirror the bureaucracy of Imperial China; deities also may be promoted or demoted for their actions.[70]

While a number of immortals or other mysterious figures appear in the Zhuangzi, and to a lesser extent in the Tao Te Ching, these have generally not become the objects of worship.

Texts[edit]

1770 Wang Bi edition of the Tao Te Ching.

Tao Te Ching[edit]

Main article: Tao Te Ching

The Tao Te Ching or Daodejing is widely considered the most influential Taoist text.[71] According to legend, it was written by Laozi,[72] and often the book is simply referred to as the "Laozi." However, authorship, precise date of origin, and even unity of the text are still subject of debate,[73] and will probably never be known with certainty.[74] The earliest texts of the Tao Te Ching that have been excavated (written on bamboo tablets) date back to the late 4th century BCE.[75] Throughout the history of religious Taoism, the Tao Te Ching has been used as a ritual text.[76]

The famous opening lines of the Tao Te Ching are:

道可道非常道 (pinyin: dào kĕ dào fēi cháng dào)

"The Tao that can be told is not the eternal Tao"
名可名非常名 (pinyin: míng kĕ míng fēi cháng míng)

"The name that can be named is not the eternal name."[77]

There is significant, at times acrimonious debate regarding which English translation of the Tao Te Ching is preferable, and which particular translation methodology is best.[78] The Tao Te Ching is not thematically ordered. However, the main themes of the text are repeatedly expressed using variant formulations, often with only a slight difference.[79]

The leading themes revolve around the nature of Tao and how to attain it. Tao is said to be ineffable, and accomplishing great things through small means.[80] Ancient commentaries on the Tao Te Ching are important texts in their own right. Perhaps the oldest one, the Heshang Gong commentary, was most likely written in the 2nd century CE.[81] Other important commentaries include the one from Wang Bi and the Xiang'er.[82]

Zhuangzi[edit]

Main article: Zhuangzi (book)

The Taoist book Zhuangzi (simplified Chinese: 庄子; traditional Chinese: 莊子; pinyin: Zhuāngzǐ), named after its purported author Zhuangzi, is a composite of writings from various sources, and is considered one of the most important texts in Taoism. The commentator Guo Xiang (circa 300 AD) helped established the text as an important source for Taoist thought. The traditional view is that Zhuangzi himself wrote the first seven chapters (the "inner chapters") and his students and related thinkers were responsible for the other parts (the "outer" and "miscellaneous" chapters). The work uses anecdotes, parables and dialogues to express one of its main themes, that is aligning oneself to the laws of the natural world and "the way" of the elements.[83][84]

Daozang[edit]

Main article: Daozang

The Daozang (道藏, Treasury of Tao) is also referred to as the Taoist canon. It was originally compiled during the Jin, Tang, and Song dynasties. The version surviving today was published during the Ming Dynasty.[85][86] The Ming Daozang includes almost 1500 texts.[87] Following the example of the Buddhist Tripiṭaka, it is divided into three dong (, "caves", "grottoes"). They are arranged from "highest" to "lowest":[88][89]

  1. The Zhen ("real" or "truth" ) grotto. Includes the Shangqing texts.
  2. The Xuan ("mystery" ) grotto. Includes the Lingbao scriptures.
  3. The Shen ("divine" ) grotto. Includes texts predating the Maoshan (茅山) revelations.

Daoshi generally do not consult published versions of the Daozang, but individually choose, or inherit, texts included in the Daozang. These texts have been passed down for generations from teacher to student.[90]

The Shangqing school has a tradition of approaching Taoism through scriptural study. It is believed that by reciting certain texts often enough one will be rewarded with immortality.[91]

Other texts[edit]

See also: Mozi

While the Tao Te Ching is most famous, there are many other important texts in traditional Taoism including Mohism. Taishang Ganying Pian ("Treatise of the Exalted One on Response and Retribution") discusses sin and ethics, and has become a popular morality tract in the last few centuries.[92] It asserts that those in harmony with Tao will live long and fruitful lives. The wicked, and their descendants, will suffer and have shortened lives.[80]

Symbols and images[edit]

A zaojing depicting a taijitu surrounded by the bagua.
Ruyi motifs of a Taoist temple roof in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

The taijitu (simplified Chinese: 太极图; traditional Chinese: 太極圖; pinyin: tàijítú; commonly known as the "yin and yang symbol") as well as the bagua 八卦 ("Eight Trigrams") are associated with Taoist symbolism.[93] The taijitu is not an exclusive symbol of Taoism, however. While almost all Taoist organizations make use of it, one could actually also call it Confucian, Neo-Confucian or pan-Chinese. One is likely to see this symbol as decorations on Taoist organization flags and logos, temple floors, or stitched into clerical robes. According to Song Dynasty sources, it originated around the 10th century.[94] Previously, yin and yang were symbolized by a tiger and dragon.[94]

Taoist temples may fly square or triangular flags. They typically feature mystical writing or diagrams and are intended to fulfill various functions including providing guidance for the spirits of the dead, to bring good fortune, increase life span, etc.[95] Other flags and banners may be those of the gods or immortals themselves.[96]

A zigzag with seven stars is sometimes displayed, representing the Big Dipper (or the Bushel, the Chinese equivalent). In the Shang Dynasty the Big Dipper was considered a deity, while during the Han Dynasty, it was considered a qi path of the circumpolar god, Taiyi.[97]

Taoist temples in southern China and Taiwan may often be identified by their roofs, which feature Chinese dragons and phoenix made from multi-colored ceramic tiles. They also stand for the harmony of yin and yang (with the phoenix being yin). A related symbol is the flaming pearl which may be seen on such roofs between two dragons, as well as on the hairpin of a Celestial Master.[98] In general though, Chinese Taoist architecture has no universal features that distinguish it from other structures.[99]

Practices[edit]

Rituals[edit]

A hall of worship of the Erwang Temple, a Taoist temple in Dujiangyan, Sichuan. There are elements of the jingxiang religious practice (incense and candle offerings).
An ancestral worship ceremony led by Taoist priests at the pyramidal shaped Great Temple of Zhang Hui (张挥公大殿 Zhāng Huī gōng dàdiàn), the main ancestral shrine dedicated to the progenitor of the Zhang lineage, located at Zhangs' ancestral home in Qinghe, Hebei.

At certain dates, food may be set out as a sacrifice to the spirits of the deceased or the gods, such as during the Qingming Festival. This may include slaughtered animals, such as pigs and ducks, or fruit. Another form of sacrifice involves the burning of Joss paper, or Hell Bank Notes, on the assumption that images thus consumed by the fire will reappear—not as a mere image, but as the actual item—in the spirit world, making them available for revered ancestors and departed loved ones. At other points, a vegan diet or full fast may be observed.

Also on particular holidays, street parades take place. These are lively affairs which invariably involve firecrackers and flower-covered floats broadcasting traditional music. They also variously include lion dances and dragon dances; human-occupied puppets (often of the "Seventh Lord" and "Eighth Lord"); tongji (童乩 "spirit-medium; shaman") who cut their skin with knives; Bajiajiang, which are Kungfu-practicing honor guards in demonic makeup; and palanquins carrying god-images. The various participants are not considered performers, but rather possessed by the gods and spirits in question.[100]

Fortune-telling—including astrology, I Ching, and other forms of divination—has long been considered a traditional Taoist pursuit. Mediumship is also widely encountered in some sects. There is an academic and social distinction between martial forms of mediumship (such as tongji) and the spirit-writing that is typically practiced through planchette writing.[101]

Physical cultivation[edit]

Main article: Neidan

A recurrent and important element of Taoism are rituals, exercises and substances aiming at aligning oneself spiritually with cosmic forces, at undertaking ecstatic spiritual journeys, or at improving physical health and thereby extending one's life, ideally to the point of immortality.[102][103] Enlightened and immortal beings are referred to as xian.

A characteristic method aiming for longevity is Taoist alchemy. Already in very early Taoist scriptures - like the Taiping Jing and the Baopuzi - alchemical formulas for achieving immortality were outlined.[104][105]

A number of martial arts traditions, particularly the ones falling under the category of Neijia (like T'ai Chi Ch'uan, Bagua Zhang and Xing Yi Quan) embody Taoist principles to a significant extent, and some practitioners consider their art a means of practicing Taoism.[106]

Society[edit]

Demographics of adherence to Taoism according to the most recent data.

Adherents[edit]

The number of Taoists is difficult to estimate, due to a variety of factors including defining Taoism. According to a survey of religion in China in the year 2010, the number of people practicing some form of Chinese folk religion is near to 950 million (70% of the Chinese).[107] Among these, 173 million (13%) practice some form of Taoist-defined folk faith.[107] Further in detail, 12 million people have passed some formal initiation into Taoism, or adhere to the official Chinese Taoist Association.[107]

Most Chinese people and many others have been influenced in some way by Taoist tradition. Recently, there have been some efforts to revive the practice of Taoist religion. In 1956, the Chinese Taoist Association was formed, and received official approval in 1957. It was disbanded during the Cultural Revolution under Mao, but re-established in 1980. The headquarters of the Association are at the Baiyun guan, or White Cloud Temple, of the Longmen branch of Quanzhen Taoism.[108]

Since 1980, many Taoist monasteries and temples have been reopened or rebuilt, most of them belonging to the Zhengyi or Quanzhen schools. For these two schools, ordination has been officially allowed again. However, "the Chinese government prefers the celibate model of ... Quanzhen clergy", while "Zhengyi clergy are often married, and often reside at home."[109]

Geographically, Taoism flourishes best in regions populated by Chinese people: mainland China, Taiwan, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and various Chinese diaspora communities. Taoist literature and art has influenced the cultures of Korea, Japan, and Vietnam. Organized Taoism seems not to have attracted a large non-Chinese following until modern times. In Taiwan 7.5 million people (33% of the population) identify themselves as Taoists.[110] Data collected in 2010 for religious demographics of Hong Kong[111] and Singapore[112] show that, respectively, 14% and 11% of the people of these cities identify as Taoists.

Art and poetry[edit]

Six Persimmons, a Taoist-influenced 13th-century Chinese painting by the monk, Mu Qi.

Throughout Chinese history there have been many examples of art being influenced by Taoist thought. Notable painters influenced by Taosim include Wu Wei, Huang Gongwang, Mi Fu, Muqi Fachang, Shitao, Ni Zan, T'ang Mi, and Wang Tseng-tsu.[113] Taoist arts represents the diverse regions, dialects, and time spans that are commonly associated with Taoism. Ancient Taoist art was commissioned by the aristocracy, however scholars masters and adepts also directly engaged in the art themselves.[114]

Political aspects[edit]

Unlike Confucianism, Taoism favors philosophical anarchism, pluralism and laissez-faire-government.[115] Laozi has been cited as an early example of a proponent of liberalism.[116][117] On the other hand, politics never have been a main issue in Taoism.

Relations with other religions and philosophies[edit]

Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism are one, a painting in the litang style portraying three men laughing by a river stream, 12th century, Song Dynasty.
See also: Vinegar tasters

Many scholars believe Taoism arose as a countermovement to Confucianism.[118] The philosophical terms Tao and De are indeed shared by both Taoism and Confucianism,[119] and Laozi is traditionally held to have been a teacher of Confucius.[120] Zhuangzi explicitly criticized Confucianist and Mohist tenets in his work. In general, Taoism rejects the Confucianist emphasis on rituals, hierarchical social order, and conventional morality, and favors naturalness, spontaneity, and individualism instead.[121]

The entry of Buddhism into China was marked by significant interaction and syncretism with Taoism.[122] Originally seen as a kind of "foreign Taoism", Buddhism's scriptures were translated into Chinese using the Taoist vocabulary.[123] Representatives of early Chinese Buddhism, like Sengzhao and Tao Sheng, knew and were deeply influenced by the Taoist keystone texts.[124]

Taoism especially shaped the development of Chan (Zen) Buddhism,[125] introducing elements like the concept of naturalness, distrust of scripture and text, and emphasis on embracing "this life" and living in the "every-moment".[126]

Taoism on the other hand also incorporated Buddhist elements during the Tang period, such as monasteries, vegetarianism, prohibition of alcohol, the doctrine of emptiness, and collecting scripture in tripartite organisation.

Ideological and political rivals for centuries, Taoism, Confucianism, and Buddhism deeply influenced one another.[127] For example, Wang Bi, one of the most influential philosophical commentators on Laozi (and Yijing), was a Confucian.[128] The three rivals also share some similar values, with all three embracing a humanist philosophy emphasizing moral behavior and human perfection. In time, most Chinese people identified to some extent with all three traditions simultaneously.[129] This became institutionalised when aspects of the three schools were synthesised in the Neo-Confucian school.[130]

Some authors have dealt with comparative studies between Taoism and Christianity. This has been of interest for students of history of religion such as J.J.M. de Groot,[131] among others. The comparison of the teachings of Laozi and Jesus of Nazareth has been done by several authors such as Martin Aronson,[132] and Toropov & Hansen (2002), who believe that they have pararells that should not to be ignored.[133] In the opinion of J. Isamu Yamamoto [134] the main difference is that Christianity preaches a personal God while Theist Taoism does not. Yet, a number of authors, including Lin Yutang,[135] have argued that some moral and ethical tenets of these religions are similar.[136][137]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ The Ancient Chinese Super State of Primary Societies: Taoist Philosophy for the 21st Century, You-Sheng Li, June 2010, p. 300
  2. ^ a b c Meister, edited by Chad; Copan, Paul (2010). The Routledge companion to philosophy religion (1st paperback ed. ed.). London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0415435536. 
  3. ^ Goodspeed (1983).
  4. ^ Carr (1990, pp. 63–65). Converting the various pronunciation respelling systems into IPA, British dictionaries (1933–1989, Table 3) give 9 /taʊ.ɪzəm/, 2 /taʊ.ɪzəm, daʊ.ɪzəm/, and 1 /daʊ.ɪzəm/; American dictionaries (1948–1987, Table 4) give 6 /daʊ.ɪzəm, taʊ.ɪzəm/, 2 /taʊ.ɪzəm, daʊ.ɪzəm/, 2 /taʊ.ɪzəm/, and 1 /daʊ.ɪzəm/.
  5. ^ Kohn (2000), p. 44.
  6. ^ Chad Hansen. "Taoism". Standford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, CSLI, Stanford University. Retrieved 2008-10-01. 
  7. ^ Chad Hansen. "Taoism". Standford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, CSLI, Stanford University. Retrieved 2008-10-01. 
  8. ^ a b Graham (1989) p. 170–171
  9. ^ Robinet (2000), p. xxix
  10. ^ Robinet (1997), p. 3
  11. ^ Kohn (2000), p. xi
  12. ^ Mair (2001) p. 174
  13. ^ a b Robinet (1997), p. 103.
  14. ^ Robinet (1997), p. 2
  15. ^ . ISBN 978-0415435536.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  16. ^ a b Robinet (1997), p. 63.
  17. ^ a b Robinet 1997, p. 25
  18. ^ Kirkland 2004, p. 62
  19. ^ Kirkland 2004, p. 61
  20. ^ a b Robinet 1997, p. 6
  21. ^ Demerath (2003), p. 149.
  22. ^ Hucker (1995), pp. 203–04.
  23. ^ a b Robinet 1997, p. 36
  24. ^ Robinet 1997, p. 39
  25. ^ Robinet 1997, p. 54
  26. ^ Robinet 1997, p. 1
  27. ^ Robinet (1997), p. 50.
  28. ^ Robinet (1997), p. 184.
  29. ^ Robinet 1997, p. 115
  30. ^ Robinet 1997, p. 150
  31. ^ Robinet 1997, p. xvi
  32. ^ Robinet (1997), p. 213.
  33. ^ Eskildsen, Stephen (2004). The Teachings and Practices of the Early Quanzhen Taoist Masters. State University of New York Press. p. 17. 
  34. ^ Kohn (2000), p. XVII.
  35. ^ Schipper (1993), p. 19.
  36. ^ Schipper (1993), p. 220.
  37. ^ Human Rights Without Frontiers "Religious Freedom in China in 2006"[dead link] PDF (30.6 KB) An address given to the Delegation EU-China of the European Parliament.
  38. ^ Chan (1963)
  39. ^ Kirkland (2004), p. 3
  40. ^ DeFrancis (1996) p. 113
  41. ^ Chan (1963) p. 136
  42. ^ Cane (2002), p. 13.
  43. ^ A. Chan, in Kohn (2000), p. 20
  44. ^ a b Martinson (1987), pp. 168–169.
  45. ^ LaFargue (1994) p. 283.
  46. ^ Sharot (2001), pp. 77–78, 88.
  47. ^ Maspero (1981), p. 32.
  48. ^ a b c Van Voorst 2005, p. 170.
  49. ^ Kirkland (2004), p. 60.
  50. ^ Oldmeadow (2007), p. 109.
  51. ^ a b Faching & deChant (2001), p. 35.
  52. ^ A source book in Chinese philosophy, Wing-tsit Chan, p137, p
  53. ^ Living in the Tao: The Effortless Path of Self-Discovery, Mantak Chia
  54. ^ a b Fowler 2005, p. 122.
  55. ^ Slingerland 2003, p. 97.
  56. ^ a b c Girardot 1988, p. 56.
  57. ^ Fowler 2005, p. 121.
  58. ^ Kraemer 1986, p. 286.
  59. ^ Girardot 1988, p. 70.
  60. ^ Waley (1958), p. 225.
  61. ^ Blofeld, John. Taoism. Shambhala, 2000.
  62. ^ Robinet (1997), p. 7
  63. ^ a b Robinet (1997), p. 8
  64. ^ Robinet (1997), p. 9
  65. ^ Kohn (2000), p. 825.
  66. ^ Occhiogrosso (2004), p. 171.
  67. ^ Segal (2006), p. 50.
  68. ^ Robinet (1997), p. 1.
  69. ^ Maspero (1981), p. 41.
  70. ^ Maspero (1981), p. 92.
  71. ^ Miller (2003), p. ix
  72. ^ "Patheos Library – Taoism". Patheos.com. 2011-01-05. Retrieved 2011-05-16. 
  73. ^ Eliade (1984), p. 26
  74. ^ Watts (1975), p. xxiii
  75. ^ "Laozi". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy by Stanford University. "The discovery of two Laozi silk manuscripts at Mawangdui, near Changsha, Hunan province in 1973 marks an important milestone in modern Laozi research. The manuscripts, identified simply as “A” (jia) and “B” (yi), were found in a tomb that was sealed in 168 B.C. The texts themselves can be dated earlier, the “A” manuscript being the older of the two, copied in all likelihood before 195 B.C.

    Until recently, the Mawangdui manuscripts have held the pride of place as the oldest extant manuscripts of the Laozi. In late 1993, the excavation of a tomb (identified as M1) in Guodian, Jingmen city, Hubei province, has yielded among other things some 800 bamboo slips, of which 730 are inscribed, containing over 13,000 Chinese characters. Some of these, amounting to about 2,000 characters, match the Laozi. The tomb...is dated around 300 B.C." 

  76. ^ Kohn & LaFargue (1998), p. 158.
  77. ^ Laozi. "Tao Te Ching, 1. chapter, translated by Livia Kohn (1993)". Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  78. ^ Kohn & LaFargue (1998), pp. 185–86.
  79. ^ Kim (2003), p. 13
  80. ^ a b Van Voorst (2005), p. 165
  81. ^ Schipper & Verellen (2004), p. 73.
  82. ^ Schipper & Verellen (2004), p. 74–77.
  83. ^ "Zhuangzi". About.com. Retrieved 2013-05-02. 
  84. ^ "Zhuangzi". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2013-05-02. 
  85. ^ Schipper & Verellen (2004), p. 1.
  86. ^ Schipper & Verellen (2004), p. 30.
  87. ^ Schipper & Verellen (2004), p. 36.
  88. ^ Schipper & Verellen (2004), p. 15.
  89. ^ Litte (2000), p. 46
  90. ^ Schipper & Verellen (2004), p. 44.
  91. ^ Robinet (1997), p. 132.
  92. ^ "Jordan: The Taoist Canon". Weber.ucsd.edu. Retrieved 2011-05-16. 
  93. ^ Little (2000), pp. 131–139
  94. ^ a b Little (2000), p. 131
  95. ^ Kohn (2004), p. 116.
  96. ^ Kohn (2004), p. 119
  97. ^ Little (2000), p. 128
  98. ^ Schipper (1993), p. 21.
  99. ^ Little (2000), p. 74
  100. ^ Schipper (1993), p. 28–29.
  101. ^ Silvers (2005), p. 129–132.
  102. ^ Kohn (2000), p. 672.
  103. ^ Robinet (1993) pp. 228 & 103.
  104. ^ Schipper & Verellen (2004), p. 70–71.
  105. ^ Robinet (1997), p. 73.
  106. ^ Silvers (2005), pp. 135–137
  107. ^ a b c 2010 Chinese Spiritual Life Survey conducted by Dr. Yang Fenggang, Purdue University’s Center on Religion and Chinese Society. Statistics published in: Katharina Wenzel-Teuber, David Strait. People’s Republic of China: Religions and Churches Statistical Overview 2011. Religions & Christianity in Today's China, Vol. II, 2012, No. 3, pp. 29-54, ISSN: 2192-9289.
  108. ^ "Patheos Library – Taoism: Modern Age". Patheos.com. Retrieved 2011-05-16. 
  109. ^ "Patheos Library – Taoism: Modern Age". Patheos.com. Retrieved 2011-05-16. 
  110. ^ "International Religious Freedom Report 2006: China (includes Taiwan only)". State.gov. 2006-09-15. Retrieved 2011-05-16. 
  111. ^ Hong Kong Government. 2010 Yearbook – Religion. Retrieved 23 September 2012.
  112. ^ Singapore Department of Statistics (12 January 2011). "Census of population 2010: Statistical Release 1 on Demographic Characteristics, Education, Language and Religion". Retrieved 16 January 2011. 
  113. ^ Chang, Chung-yuan. Creativity and Taoism: A Study of Chinese Philosophy, Art and Poetry. Singing Dragon, 2011
  114. ^ Augustin, Birgitta. "Daoism and Daoist Art". The Metropolitan Museum of Art,. 
  115. ^ Taoism, Hansen, Chad, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2012 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.)
  116. ^ Don't Discount Chinese Liberalism, Liu Junning, Wall Street Journal, July 6, 2011
  117. ^ Lao Tsu, Liberal International
  118. ^ Fisher (1997). p. 167.
  119. ^ Markham & Ruparell (2001). p. 254.
  120. ^ Hansen (2000). pp. 202, 210.
  121. ^ Maspero (1981). p. 39.
  122. ^ Maspero (1981). p. 46.
  123. ^ Prebish (1975). p. 192.
  124. ^ Dumoulin et al. (2005), pp.70&74
  125. ^ Mollier (2008).
  126. ^ Dumoulin et al. (2005), pp. 68, 70–73, 167–168.
  127. ^ Markham & Ruparell (2001). pp. 248–249.
  128. ^ Schipper (1993), p. 192.
  129. ^ Windows on Asia[dead link] Asian Studies Center, Michigan State University.
  130. ^ Moore (1967). pp. 133, 147.
  131. ^ Raphael Jehudah Zwi Werblowsky (2002). The Beaten Track of Science: The Life and Work of J.J.M. de Groot. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, p. 25
  132. ^ Aronson, Martin (2002). Jesus and Lao Tzu: The Parallel Sayings. Ulysses Press. ISBN 1569753199, 9781569753194
  133. ^ Toropov, Brandon; & Hansen, Chadwick (2002). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Taoism. Chapter 15: The Tao and the Judeo-Christian Tradition. pp. 181-169. ISBN 9781440695735
  134. ^ Yamamoto, J. Isamu (1998). Buddhism, Taoism, and Other Far Eastern Religions, Zondervan. p. 69-70
  135. ^ Ruokanen, Miikka; Zhanzhu Huang, Paulos (2010). Christianity and Chinese Culture. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 137
  136. ^ Zhiming, Yuan (2010). Lao Tzu and the Bible. AuthorHous. ISBN 9781449091101
  137. ^ Chung, David (2001). Syncretism: The Religious Context of Christian Beginnings in Korea. SUNY Press, pp. 141-145

Bibliography[edit]

  • Balfour, Frederic Henry, tr. The Divine Classic of Nan-Hua; Being the Works of Chuang Tsze, Taoist Philosopher (Kelly & Walsh, 1881).
  • Barrett, Rick. Taijiquan: Through the Western Gate (Blue Snake Books, 2006). ISBN 1-58394-139-8.
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  • Carr, Michael (1990). "Whence the Pronunciation of Taoism?". Dictionaries 12: 55–74. 
  • Carr, David T. & Zhang, Canhui. Space, Time, and Culture (Springer, 2004). ISBN 1-4020-2823-7.
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  • Eliade, Mircea. A History of Religious Ideas, Volume 2. Translated by Willard R. Trask. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984.
  • Fasching, Darrell J. & deChant, Dell. Comparative Religious Ethics: a narrative approach (Blackwell Publishing, 2001). ISBN 0-631-20125-4.
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  • Girardot, Norman J. Myth and Meaning in Early Taoism: The Themes of Chaos (Hun-Tun) (University of California Press, 1988)
  • Goodspeed, Bennett W. The Tao Jones Averages: A Guide to Whole-Brained Investing (E. P. Dutton, 1983).
  • Graham, Angus. Disputers of the Tao (Open Court, 1989) ISBN 0-8126-9087-7.
  • Hansen, Chad D. A Daoist Theory of Chinese Thought: A Philosophical Interpretation (Oxford University Press, 2000). ISBN 0-19-513419-2.
  • Hucker, Charles O. China's Imperial Past: An Introduction to Chinese History and Culture (Stanford University Press, 1995). ISBN 0-8047-2353-2.
  • Jones, Richard H. Mysticism and Morality: a new look at old questions (Lexington Books, 2004). ISBN 0-7391-0784-4.
  • Keller, Catherine. The Face of the Deep: A Theology of Becoming (Routledge, 2003). ISBN 0-415-25648-8.
  • Kim, Ha Poong. Reading Lao Tzu: A Companion to the Tao Te Ching With a New Translation (Xlibris Corporation, 2003). ISBN 1-4010-8316-1.
  • Kirkland, Russel. Taoism: The Enduring Tradition (Routledge, 2004). ISBN 0-415-26322-0.
  • Kohn, Livia, ed. Daoism Handbook (Leiden: Brill, 2000).
  • Kohn, Livia. The Daoist Monastic Manual: A Translation of the Fengdao Kejie (New York: Oxford University Press 2004)
  • Kohn, Livia & LaFargue, Michael, ed. Lao-Tzu and the Tao-Te-Ching (SUNY Press, 1998). ISBN 0-7914-3599-7.
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  • Kraemer, Kenneth. World Scriptures: An Introduction to Comparative Religions (Paulist Press, 1986). ISBN 0-8091-2781-4.
  • LaFargue, Michael. Tao and Method: A Reasoned Approach to the Tao Te Ching (SUNY Press. 1994) ISBN 0-7914-1601-1.
  • Little, Stephen and Shawn Eichman, et al. Taoism and the Arts of China (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 2000). ISBN 0-520-22784-0
  • Mair, Victor H. The Columbia History of Chinese Literature (Columbia University Press, 2001). ISBN 0-231-10984-9
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  • Markham, Ian S. & Ruparell, Tinu. Encountering Religion: an introduction to the religions of the world (Blackwell Publishing, 2001). ISBN 0-631-20674-4.
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  • Martinson, Paul Varo. A theology of world religions: Interpreting God, self, and world in Semitic, Indian, and Chinese thought (Augsburg Publishing House, 1987). ISBN 0-8066-2253-9.
  • Maspero, Henri. Translated by Frank A. Kierman, Jr. Taoism and Chinese Religion (University of Massachusetts Press, 1981). ISBN 0-87023-308-4
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  • Mollier, Christine. Buddhism and Taoism Face to Face: Scripture, Ritual, and Iconographic Exchange in Medieval China. (University of Hawai'i Press, 2008). ISBN 0-8248-3169-1.
  • Moore, Charles Alexander. The Chinese Mind: Essentials of Chinese Philosophy and Culture (University of Hawaii Press, 1967). ISBN 0-8248-0075-3.
  • Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects (Doubleday, 1994). ISBN 0-385-42564-3
  • Pas, Julian F. & Leung, Man Kam. Historical Dictionary of Taoism (Scarecrow Press, 1998). ISBN 0-8108-3369-7.
  • Prebish, Charles. Buddhism: A Modern Perspective (Penn State Press, 1975). ISBN 0-271-01195-5.
  • Robinet, Isabelle. Taoist Meditation: The Mao-shan Tradition of Great Purity (Albany: SUNY Press, 1993 [original French 1989]).
  • Robinet, Isabelle. Taoism: Growth of a Religion (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1997 [original French 1992]). ISBN 0-8047-2839-9
  • Segal, Robert Alan. The Blackwell Companion to the Study of Religion (Blackwell Publishing, 2006). ISBN 0-631-23216-8.
  • Schipper, Kristopher. The Taoist Body (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993 [original French version 1982]).
  • Schipper, Kristopher and Franciscus Verellen. The Taoist Canon: A Historical Companion to the Daozang (Chicago: University of Chicago, 2004).
  • Sharot, Stephen. A Comparative Sociology of World Religions: virtuosos, priests, and popular religion (New York: NYU Press, 2001). ISBN 0-8147-9805-5.
  • Silvers, Brock. The Taoist Manual (Honolulu: Sacred Mountain Press, 2005).
  • Slingerland, Edward Gilman. Effortless Action: Wu-Wei as Conceptual Metaphor and Spiritual Ideal in Early China (Oxford University Press, 2003). ISBN 0-19-513899-6.
  • Van Voorst, Robert E. Anthology of World Scriptures (Thomson Wadsworth, 2005). ISBN 0-534-52099-5.
  • Waley, Arthur. The Way and Its Power: A Study of the Tao Te Ching and Its Place in Chinese Thought (Grove Press, 1958). ISBN 0-8021-5085-3.
  • Watts, Alan Wilson. Tao: The Watercourse Way with Al Chung-liang Huang (Pantheon, 1977). ISBN 0-394-73311-8 .

Further reading[edit]

  • Chung-yuan, Chang (1963/1970). Creativity and Taoism, A Study of Chinese Philosophy, Art, and Poetry. New York: Harper Torchbooks. ISBN 0-06-131968-6.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  • Kirkland, Russell. Taoism: The Enduring Tradition. (London and New York: Routledge, 2004). ISBN 978-0-415-26321-4
  • Klaus, Hilmar. The Tao of Wisdom. Laozi – Daodejing. Chinese-English-German. Aachen: Hochschulverlag 600 p. 2009 ISBN 978-3-8107-0055-1
  • Kohn, Livia. The Taoist Experience: An Anthology. (Albany: SUNY Press, 1993). ISBN 978-0-7914-1579-5
  • Komjathy, Louis. Handbooks for Daoist Practice. 10 vols. (Hong Kong: Yuen Yuen Institute, 2008).
  • Miller, James. Daoism: A Short Introduction. (Oxford: Oneworld Publications, 2003). ISBN 1-85168-315-1
  • Pregadio, Fabrizio, ed. The Encyclopedia of Taoism. 2 vol. (London and New York: Routledge, 2008). ISBN 978-0-7007-1200-7
  • Saso, Michael R. Taoism and the Rite of Cosmic Renewal. 2nd ed. (Pullman: Washington State University Press, 1990). ISBN 978-0-87422-054-4
  • Sivin, Nathan. Chinese Alchemy: Preliminary Studies. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1968). ISBN 978-0-674-12150-8
  • Sommer, Deborah. Chinese Religion: An Anthology of Sources. (Oxford University Press, 1995). ISBN 978-0-19-508895-3
  • Tian, Chenshan. Chinese Dialectics: From Yijing To Marxism. (Lanham: Lexington Books, 2005). ISBN 0-7391-0922-7
  • Watts, Alan. Tao: The Watercourse Way. (New York: Pantheon, 1977). ISBN 978-0-394-73311-1
  • Welch, H. and Seidel, A., Facets of Taoism. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979). ISBN 0-300-01695-6
Popular (non-academic) interpretations of Taoism

External links[edit]