|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|Trade names||Forxiga, Farxiga|
|Licence data||EMA: , US FDA:|
|(what is this?)|
The FDA approved dapagliflozin on January 8, 2014 for glycemic control, along with diet and exercise, in adults with type 2 diabetes. The FDA approved the combination product dapagliflozin and metformin hydrochloride extended-release, called Xigduo XR, in October 2014.
In April 2012, the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the European Medicines Agency issued a positive opinion on the drug. It is now marketed in a number of European countries including the UK and Germany.
Dapagliflozin's method of action could potentially be effective for treatment of both types of diabetes and other conditions resulting in hyperglycemia. Clinical trials to assess effectiveness for patients with type 1 diabetes are underway.
Mechanism of action
Dapagliflozin inhibits subtype 2 of the sodium-glucose transport proteins (SGLT2) which are responsible for at least 90% of the glucose reabsorption in the kidney. Blocking this transporter mechanism causes blood glucose to be eliminated through the urine. In clinical trials, dapagliflozin lowered HbA1c by 0.90 percentage points when added to metformin.
Since dapagliflozin leads to heavy glycosuria (sometimes up to about 70 grams per day) it can lead to rapid weight loss and tiredness. The glucose acts as an osmotic diuretic (this effect is the cause of polyuria in diabetes) which can lead to dehydration. The increased amount of glucose in the urine can also worsen the infections already associated with diabetes, particularly urinary tract infections and thrush (candidiasis). Dapagliflozin is also associated with hypotensive reactions.
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