Daqing

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Daqing
大庆市
Prefecture-level city
Wanda Plaza, Daqing
Wanda Plaza, Daqing
Daqing City (red) in Heilongjiang (orange)
Daqing City (red) in Heilongjiang (orange)
Daqing is located in Heilongjiang
Daqing
Daqing
Location of the city centre in Heilongjiang
Coordinates: 46°35′N 125°00′E / 46.583°N 125.000°E / 46.583; 125.000
Country People's Republic of China
Province Heilongjiang
County-level divisions 9
Government
 • Type Prefecture-level city
 • CPC Daqing Secretary Han Xuejian (韩学键)
 • Mayor Xia Lihua (夏立华)
Area
 • Prefecture-level city 22,161 km2 (8,556 sq mi)
 • Urban 5,500 km2 (2,100 sq mi)
 • Metro 3,265 km2 (1,261 sq mi)
Elevation 149 m (489 ft)
Population (2010 census)[1]
 • Prefecture-level city 2,904,532
 • Density 130/km2 (340/sq mi)
 • Urban 1,323,252
 • Urban density 240/km2 (620/sq mi)
 • Metro 1,042,902
 • Metro density 320/km2 (830/sq mi)
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Postal code 163000
Area code(s) 0459
Licence plates 黑E
ISO 3166-2 cn-23-06
GDP (2010) CNY 290.0 billion (35th)
 - per capita CNY 103,576 (5th)
Website http://www.daqing.gov.cn/
Daqing
Simplified Chinese 大庆
Traditional Chinese 大慶
Postal Map Taching

Daqing (Chinese: 大庆; pinyin: Dàqìng; formerly spelled "Taching") (pronounced Da Tshing) is a prefecture-level city in the west of Heilongjiang province. The name literally means "Great Celebration". Daqing is known as the Oil Capital of China and has experienced a phenomenal boom since oil was discovered here in 1959.

Its population was 2,904,532 at the 2010 census, of whom 1,042,902 lived in the built-up area in 4 out of the total of 5 urban districts, ie (Sartu, Longfeng, Ranghulu and Honggang).[1]

History[edit]

The region now known as Daqing Prefecture was a reasonably insignificant place until the Qing Dynasty, known only as a unsettled hunting ground due to its wetland and prairies. The region began to grew slightly after Czarist Russia constructed the Chinese Eastern Railway(KVZhD) through the area with a station at Saertu (萨尔图). It was not until 1959 that oil was discovered in the region as part of the large scale oil exploration put into motion across the Songliao Basin. In 1979 it was named Daqing, which literally means "Great Celebration". The Daqing oil field was discovered in the late 1950s, and drilling began in 1958. Daqing was founded in 1959 to house workers extracting oil and gas from the Daqing oilfield and to host industries which could take advantage of the energy and petrochemicals, shortly before the 10th anniversary of the founding of the PRC. Since its foundation it has been advocated as a model of good practice in industry and healthcare by the Chinese government. The fact that Mao Zedong promulgated his Supreme Directive, In industry, learn from Daqing, in the 1960s reflects how important a role Daqing has historically played in industry in China. The film Entrepreneurial Pioneers (创业), made in the early 1970s, is a literary rendition of the history of Daqing. During the Mao era, Daqing's agricultural counterpart was Dazhai, a village in the hilly Xiyang county, Shanxi Province, for which Chairman Mao issued the directive In agriculture, learn from Dazhai, also in the 1960s.

Administrative divisions[edit]

Daqing is divided into 9 county-level divisions: 5 districts, 3 counties and 1 autonomous county.

Map
Daqing mcp.png
# Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population (2003 est.) Area (km²) Density (/km²)
1 Sartu District 萨尔图区 Sà'ěrtú Qū 260,000 549 474
2 Longfeng District 龙凤区 Lóngfèng Qū 160,000 510 314
3 Ranghulu District 让胡路区 Rànghúlù Qū 380,000 1,394 273
4 Datong District 大同区 Dàtóng Qū 250,000 2,235 112
5 Honggang District 红岗区 Hónggǎng Qū 130,000 812 160
6 Zhaozhou County 肇州县 Zhàozhōu Xiàn 440,000 2,445 180
7 Zhaoyuan County 肇源县 Zhàoyuán Xiàn 450,000 4,198 107
8 Lindian County 林甸县 Líndiàn Xiàn 270,000 3,591 75
9 Dorbod Mongol Autonomous County 杜尔伯特蒙古族自治县 Dù'ěrbótè Měnggǔzú Zìzhìxiàn 250,000 6,427 39

Demographics[edit]

Daqing has a population of 2.9 million, of them mainly Han Chinese, with a few population of other 31 minority ethnic groups including Manchu, Mongolian, Korean, and Hui nationalities. The population density is 112.69/km², urban population density 205.07/km².

Climate[edit]

Located in the north temperate zone, Daqing has a humid continental climate and is affected by the Siberian high and the East Asian monsoon. Generally, winter is bitterly cold with occasional snowfalls, and spring and autumn are prevailed by monsoons. The yearly average temperature is 5.6 °C (42.1 °F) with a summer average of 22.0 °C (71.6 °F), and 2658.1 hours of sunshine. The vast majority of the annual rainfall occurs during summer. The diurnal temperature variation can be up to 14 °C (25 °F) during the growing period.

Economy[edit]

Daqing panorama

Daqing's economy highly depends on petroleum and related industries. Daqing's oilfield is China's largest and the world's fourth most productive. Petroleum accounts for 60.8% of GDP. In 2011, Daqing's gross domestic product (GDP) was RMB374 billion yuan, representing a rise of 12.1% year on year. Primary industries output (including agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and the fisheries) increased by 13.5% to RMB13.29 billion. Secondary and value-added industries and construction output experienced an increase of 10.1%, reaching RMB307 billion, while the tertiary industry output increased 22.9% to RMB53.74 billion.[2]

Foreign trade[edit]

Daqing exports over 10 million tons of crude oil each year. Over 160 varieties of paraffin wax, ethylene, tar oil and benzene are exported to more than 10 nations and regions including the USA, the UK, Thailand and Hong Kong.

In 2011, total import and export volume in Daqing reached US$2.16 billion, up by 40.1%.[2] Export volume was US$550 million and import volume was US$1.61 billion. Daqing's main exports include six categories of petrochemical products, construction materials, processed foodstuffs, office furniture and mechanical and electronic equipment.[3]

Banking and insurance[edit]

There were 32 banking institutions in Daqing by the end of 2006; none were foreign-invested banks.[3] In 2011, savings deposits in Renminbi and foreign exchange totaled 170.5 billion RMB.[2] The local finance sector plays an important role in building up Daqing's Century Oilfield and in developing new industries.

The Industrial and Commercial Bank of China, China Agricultural Bank, China Construction Bank, Bank of China, China Communications Bank, the Everbright Bank, Guangdong Development Bank, the Daqing Urban Commercial Bank, Daqing Rural Credit Cooperative Union and the County Urban Credit Cooperative are the major banks serving Daqing.

Transportation[edit]

Railway[edit]

Daqing is located on the Harbin-Manzhouli Railway.

Airport[edit]

Daqing Sartu Airport was opened on 1 September 2009.[4] There are flights to several large cities including Beijing, Chengdu, Guangzhou, Hangzhou, Qingdao and Shanghai.

Culture[edit]

Daqing spirit[edit]

Generated by the history of the city, Daqing has a culture centering around the Iron man spirit. It consists of patriotism, truth-seeking, entrepreneurial spirit and dedication. Wang Jinxi (known as 'Iron man' Wang, who led No. 1205 drilling team), a petroleum worker on the Daqing Oilfield, was honored as a national hero due to his contributions to the petroleum industry of China. Daqing was established by the central government as a model for the secondary industry during the 1960s. In order to illuminate the entrepreneurial history of Daqing and its people, several films was made by film companies in China.[5]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China". Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c "2011年大庆市国民经济和社会发展统计公报". 大庆市统计局. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  3. ^ a b "Daqing Business Guide - Economic Overview". echinacities.com. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  4. ^ 大庆萨尔图机场正式通航
  5. ^ Profiles of China Provinces, Cities and Industrial Parks