Daria Khaltourina

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Daria Khaltourina

Daria Andreyevna Khaltourina (Russian: Дáрья Андрéевна Халтýрина; born 4 January 1978 in Chelyabinsk) is a Russian sociologist, anthropologist, demographer, and a public figure. She is the head of the Group of the Monitoring of Global and Regional Risks of the Russian Academy of Sciences, co-chaiperson of the Russian Coalition for Alcohol Control,[1] as well as the Russian Coalition for Tobacco Control. She is a laureate of the Russian Science Support Foundation Award in "The Best Economists of the Russian Academy of Sciences" nomination (2006).[2]

Mathematical modeling of global dynamics[edit]

In this field she has proposed one of the most convincing mathematical explanations for von Foerster's Doomsday Equation.[3] In collaboration with her colleagues, Artemy Malkov and Andrey Korotayev, she has shown that till the 1970s the hyperbolic growth of the world population was accompanied by quadratic-hyperbolic growth of the world GDP, and developed a number of mathematical models describing both this phenomenon, and the World System withdrawal from the blow-up regime observed in the recent decades. The hyperbolic growth of the world population and quadratic-hyperbolic growth of the world GDP observed till the 1970s have been correlated by him and his colleagues to a non-linear second order positive feedback between the demographic growth and technological development that can be spelled out as follows: technological growth – increase in the carrying capacity of land for people – demographic growth – more people – more potential inventors – acceleration of technological growth – accelerating growth of the carrying capacity – the faster population growth – accelerating growth of the number of potential inventors – faster technological growth – hence, the faster growth of the Earth's carrying capacity for people, and so on.[4]

Russian demographic crisis[edit]

"Russian Cross"; the black curve reflects the death rate dynamics, the red one corresponds to the birth rate (per thousand)
"Russian Cross"; the black curve reflects the death rate dynamics, the red one corresponds to the birth rate (per thousand)

In collaboration with Andrey Korotayev she has made a significant contribution to the study of the factors of the current Russian demographic crisis. They have demonstrated that post-Soviet Russia experiences one of the world's highest prevalence of alcohol-related problems, which contributes to high mortality rates in this region. Reduction in alcohol-related problems in Russia can have strong effects on mortality decline. They have analyzed the plausibility of application of general principles of alcohol policy translated in the Russian Federation. Khaltourina has shown that alcohol policy approaches could be implemented in the same ways as they have been in other countries. In addition, according to Khaltourina, there should be special attention to decreasing distilled spirits consumption, illegal alcohol production, nonbeverage alcohol consumption, and enforcement of current governmental regulations.[5]

Literacy and the Spirit of Capitalism[edit]

Khaltourina and her colleagues have demonstrated that Protestantism has indeed influenced positively the capitalist development of respective social systems not so much through the "Protestant ethics" (as was suggested by Max Weber) but rather through the promotion of literacy.[6]

Die protestantische Ethik und der 'Geist' des Kapitalismus original cover.jpg

They draw attention to the fact that the ability to read was essential for Protestants (unlike Catholics) to perform their religious duty − to read the Bible. The reading of Holy Scripture was not necessary for Catholic laymen. The edict of the Toulouse Synod (1229) prohibited the Catholic laymen from possessing copies of the Bible. Soon after that, a decision by the Tarragon Synod spread this prohibition to ecclesiastic people as well. In 1408, the Oxford Synod absolutely prohibited translations of the Holy Scripture. From the very beginning, Protestant groups did not accept this prohibition. Thus, Luther translated in 1522–1534 first the New Testament, and then the Old Testament, into German, so that any German-speaking person could read the Holy Scripture in his or her native language. Moreover, the Protestants viewed reading the Holy Scripture as a religious duty of any Christian. As a result, the level of literacy and education was, in general, higher for Protestants than it was for Catholics and for followers of other confessions that did not provide religious stimuli for learning literacy. It has been shown that literate populations have many more opportunities to obtain and utilize the achievements of modernization than illiterate ones. On the other hand, literate people could be characterized by a greater innovative-activity level, which provides opportunities for modernization, development, and economic growth. Empirical tests performed by Korotayev and his colleagues have confirmed the presence of a rather strong and highly significant correlation between the early introduction of mass literacy and subsequent high rates of capitalist economic development.[7]

Select publications[edit]

She has authored over 120 scholarly publications. These include

Among her more important articles are

  • "Concepts of Culture in Cross-National and Cross-Cultural Perspectives" (World Cultures 12, 2001)
  • "Methods of Cross-Cultural Research and Modern Anthropology" (Etnograficheskoe obozrenie 5, 2002)
  • Daria Khaltourina, Andrey Korotayev & William Divale. "A Corrected Version of the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample Database" (World Cultures 13/1, 2002)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Круглый стол "Влияние государственной политики производства алкоголя на смертность населения: законодательный аспект"
  2. ^ URSS.ru – Buy the book: Korotayev A., Khaltourina D. / Introduction to Social Macrodynamics: Secular Cycles and Millennial Trends in Africa / Korotayev A., Khaltourina D. / IS...
  3. ^ Korotayev A., Malkov A., Khaltourina D. Introduction to Social Macrodynamics. Secular Cycles and Millennial Trends. Moscow: URSS, 2006.
  4. ^ See, e.g., Introduction to Social Macrodynamics: Compact Macromodels of the World System Growth. Moscow: URSS Publishers, 2006.
  5. ^ See, e.g., Russian Demographic Crisis in Cross-National Perspective. Russia and Globalization: Identity, Security, and Society in an Era of Change. Ed. by D. W. Blum. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008. P. 37-78; Khaltourina, D. A., & Korotayev, A. V. 'Potential for alcohol policy to decrease the mortality crisis in Russia', Evaluation & the Health Professions, vol. 31, no. 3, Sep 2008. pp. 272–281.
  6. ^ Korotayev A., Malkov A., Khaltourina D. (2006), Introduction to Social Macrodynamics, Moscow: URSS, ISBN 5-484-00414-4 [1] (Chapter 6: Reconsidering Weber: Literacy and "the Spirit of Capitalism"). P.87-91.
  7. ^ Korotayev A., Malkov A., Khaltourina D. (2006), Introduction to Social Macrodynamics, Moscow: URSS, ISBN 5-484-00414-4 [2] (Chapter 6: Reconsidering Weber: Literacy and "the Spirit of Capitalism"). P.88-91.