Dark Side of the Moon (film)
|Dark Side of the Moon|
Photo of Buzz Aldrin on the moon, used for the DVD cover
|Directed by||William Karel|
|Produced by||Arte France / Point du Jour|
|Starring||Buzz Aldrin, Christiane Kubrick, Henry Kissinger, Donald Rumsfeld, Vernon Walters, etc.|
|Narrated by||Philippe Faure (French) / Andrew Solomon (English)|
|Cinematography||Stéphane Saporito, A.S.C.|
|Edited by||Tal Zana|
|Distributed by||Point du Jour International|
|Release dates||16 October 2002, France|
|Running time||52 mn|
|Language||French / English|
Dark Side of the Moon is a French mockumentary by director William Karel which originally aired on Arte in 2002 with the title Opération Lune. The basic premise for the film is the theory that the television footage from the Apollo 11 Moon landing was faked and recorded in a studio by the CIA with help from director Stanley Kubrick. It features some surprising guest appearances, most notably by Donald Rumsfeld, Dr. Henry Kissinger, Alexander Haig, Vernon Walters, Buzz Aldrin and Stanley Kubrick's widow, Christiane Kubrick.
The official presentation of the film says: "Filmmaker William Karel pursues his reflection on the relation of the United States with image, cinema and their capacity to produce "show". What other story can lend itself to such a examination but the space conquest, a war of image and show more than anything else. What if it was just a huge hoax initiated by the two great powers? Between lies and truths, this film mixes actual facts and others, completely trumped-up. Playing with irony and lie, its purpose is to entertain and raise the question of the use of archive, which can be made to tell whatever you want".
- 1 Production
- 2 Giveaways
- 3 Characters
- 4 Reception
- 5 Awards
- 6 Influences
- 7 The Zeiss 1:0.7 / 50 mm lens story
- 8 See also
- 9 Literature
- 10 References
- 11 External links
- Karel interviewed Kubrick's widow, Christiane Kubrick, and his surviving brother-in-law, Jan Harlan, pretending he was making a documentary on Kubrick, his film 2001: A Space Odyssey, the moon or NASA, and asking intentionally vague questions. Karel also interviewed Vernon Walters, Edwin Aldrin, his wife and some NASA personnel, under the same pretext of making a real documentary.
- He used footage of staff of President Richard Nixon, including Rumsfeld, Kissinger, Alexander Haig, Lawrence Eagleburger and CIA director Richard Helms, recycled from his earlier documentary Les hommes de la Maison Blanche  and edited in order to twist their words.
- Other "witnesses" are played by actors to make the connections between the sentences pronounced by "real witnesses" and make a credible story. Among many giveaways (mainly in the second half) that the entire film is a hoax in jest, these "staging" witnesses are named after characters in Kubrick and Hitchcock films, such as an Astronaut named "David Bowman" (2001: A Space Odyssey), a film producer named "Jack Torrance" (the Shining) or Nixon's secretary called "Eve Kendall" (North by Northwest).
- Other elements appearing in the second half are "borrowed" from various documentaries that are mentioned in the end credits. These are the only parts of the film in which deceptive subtitling is used: Australie, la route de Tanami (Arnaud Mansir, Hervé Rébillon, 1999), L'archipel aux savants (Laurence Graffin, 1997), Phillippine : la vallée des rizières éternelles (Patrick Boitet, Jacques Massart, 1994), Cambodge : Païlin, le refuge des criminels (Hubert Dubois, 1999), Chine : union furtive (Fang Wui Wang, 2000), Laos : les montagnards de l'opium (Eric Pierrot, 1997).
The photo showing a portrait of Kubrick on the lunar soil is the only image in which special effect was used.
In addition to the increasingly incredible claims made as the film progresses, several factual errors of note are introduced by the narrator, perhaps intended as clues for the viewer:
- John F. Kennedy’s "We choose to go to the moon" speech was in 1962, not 1961 as was claimed.
- Luna 9 landed on the moon in February 1966, but the narrator states it was in January.
- The narrator states that Apollo 11 was launched on July 17, 1969, when in fact it was launched the day before on July 16.
- Korolev died following surgery to remove a polyp from his intestines, not from a tonsillectomy as is claimed.
- Lyndon Johnson is said to have been the Governor of Texas – an office he never held.
- Likewise, Richard Nixon is erroneously stated as having once been the Governor of California.
- The narrator implies the Cape was selected in part due to the George Bush family influence in Florida, yet no Bush had any connection with Florida until 1980 when Jeb Bush moved his family there. The Cape, however, had become the new missile test facility by 1950.
- The premiere of "2001: A Space Odyssey" was in April 1968 and Richard Nixon was inaugurated as president in January 1969, so the latter could not possibly take advantage of the filming of "2001" as the narrator says.
- Farouk El-Baz is presented as NASA technical director, a position he never held.
The fictitious witnesses are named after characters from movies directed by Stanley Kubrick or by Alfred Hitchcock, or W.A. Konigsberg (Woody Allen's real name). They are listed in the credits along with the names of the actors portraying them.
The film crew member who takes shelter in a yeshiva in Brooklyn is said to be an "acidic" Jew. In the original French version the giveaway is more obvious: it is said that "he didn't work any more, he checked in with the Hasidic", ("Il ne travaillait plus, il pointait aux Hassidiques", which does not make sense in French but is an obvious pun between a branch of Judaism and ASSEDIC which was the French employment office at the time the film was made).
The soundtrack also includes the song "The American Dream" from Wag the Dog by Barry Levinson, a fiction feature about a secretly government-commissioned Hollywood production of a fake war. At one point, footage featuring the military boarding a plane is underscored by the "right, left, right, left" of Gunnery Sergeant Hartman (R. Lee Ermey) from Kubrick's own film, Full Metal Jacket.
The most obvious giveaway appears in the closing credits with blooper reels showing the characters, real and fictitious alike, laughing over their lines or over their inability to remember them. But there is a final trick here, a "hoax within the hoax": the real characters are shown joking, giving the false impression that they are voluntarily part of the hoax. In fact at least one of these "jokes" - Kissinger saying that he would do it all over again - appears in Les hommes de la Maison Blanche  where he turns out to be actually talking quite seriously about the war in Vietnam.
- Christiane Kubrick is Stanley Kubrick's widow.
- Jan Harlan is the executive producer for all Kubrick's films from Barry Lyndon on. He also is Christiane Kubrick’s brother: they both appear discussing the “plot” of the film on the same couch.
- Henry Kissinger, Donald Rumsfeld, Alexander Haig, Lawrence Eagleburger were members of Richard Nixon's staff while the latter was president.
- Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin was the second man to walk on the moon as LEM pilot of Apollo 11. The alcoholism and depression problems mentioned in the film are not fictitious: he discussed them in his autobiographic book Magnificent Desolation: the long journey home from the moon.
- Lois Aldrin was Aldrin's wife when the film was shot. They divorced in 2012.
- David Scott and Jeffrey A. Hoffman are both retired NASA astronauts. Scott walked on the moon as commander of Apollo 15.
- Farouk El-Baz is an Egyptian American scientist who worked with NASA on the Apollo programme, on the training of the astronauts in observations and photography, the analysis of data returned from the moon, and the supervision of the work of geoscientists and engineers in fields related to lunar exploration. Since 1986 he has been a professor and the director of the Center for Remote Sensing at Boston University. He was never technical director of NASA as said in the film.
- Richard Helms was director of the CIA during the Nixon presidency, from June 1966 to February 1973.
- Vernon Walters has a particular importance in the film because of his involvement in the moon race, and the competition with USSR. He was interviewed because of his in-depth knowledge of these aspects. He died a week after the first interview he gave to William Karel, preventing a scheduled second interview from taking place. The sentence in the New York Herald Tribune, saying that he appeared in a French television documentary, is a fake.
- Jack Torrance is a fictional character in Kubrick’s The Shining—not a Hollywood Producer and is played by David Winger.
- David Bowman is a fictional character in Kubrick’s 2001: A Space Odyssey, not a real astronaut and is played by Tad Brown.
- Maria Vargas (lead character in The Barefoot Contessa) is played by Jacquelyn Toman who is not Buzz Aldrin’s sister.
- Eve Kendall is a fictional character in Alfred Hitchcock’s North by Northwest and was not Nixon’s secretary (that woman's name was Rose Marie Woods) and is played by Barbara Rogers.
- Dimitri Muffley is a play on the names from Kubrick’s Dr. Strangelove (Soviet Premier Dimitri Kisov and American President Merkin Muffley) and is not a “former KGB agent.” He is played by Bernard Kirschoff.
- Ambrose Chapel is the name of a place in Hitchcock’s The Man Who Knew Too Much, not an “ex-CIA agent” who is played by John Rogers.
- George Kaplan (mentioned by narrator) is a fictional character within a fictional character in the Hitchcock film, North By Northwest.
- W. A. Koenigsberg (W. A. is for "Woody Allen," as Koenigsberg is Woody Allen’s true name) The character is played by Binem Oreg.
Arte aired the film for the first time on 16 October 2002, and a second time on 1 April 2004, followed by a debate and accompanied by a web site including an interview of William Karel and a quiz. At the press screening before the first airing, some people who had missed the beginning left the screening room infuriated.
About ten television channels worldwide aired the film on 1 April 2004, and Channel 4 aired it in September the same year. Australian broadcaster SBS television aired the film on April 1 as an April fools' joke, and again on 17 November 2008 as part of Kubrick week. It was aired again on 27 July 2009.
Dark side of the moon and moon landing conspiracy theories
When the film was shown to a group of sociology students studying conspiracy theories, many mistakenly believed that this was a sincere and serious film. Furthermore, moon-landing hoax advocate Wayne Green cited the film as evidence for his views, apparently believing the out of context footage of Nixon staff was really about a moon landing hoax, as discussed on Jay Windley's "clavius.org" site defending the reality of the moon landings. Extracts ranging from a few minutes to the whole film stripped of the credits and key sequences have been posted on YouTube by conspiracy theorists as "proof" that, either the images on the moon are fake, or the moon landing itself never happened. Karel himself received e-mails congratulating him for "exposing the moon landing hoax", which amused him.
- Adolf-Grimme-Preis (Germany / 2002) for best script & director 
- 'GO FIGURE!' Festival, Montreal, 2003: Best film on science and society
- 'GO FIGURE!' Festival, Montreal, 2003: Award for "Excellence in TV or Film"
- 7 d'Or, 2003: Mention in the "Best director" and "Best documentary" categories
William Karel indicated that he found inspiration in Orson Welles' radio broadcast The War of the Worlds, Capricorn One, and the docudramas by Peter Watkins. He refers to Dark side of the moon as a "documenteur", a French portmanteau word meaning "liar documentary", after the title of a film made by Agnès Varda in 1980-1981.
Other influences are the staging of well-known historical events for the camera, such as the raising of the flags at Iwo-Jima and at the Reichstag, the American landing in Somalia which was remade a couple of times for the cameras, examplifying the influence of cinema on news coverage.
The Zeiss 1:0.7 / 50 mm lens story
The starting point of the film is the alleged loan of a unique, secret lens by NASA to Kubrick. The truly rare, but not unique and definitely not secret, Carl Zeiss Planar 50mm f/0.7 lens was designed by Zeiss in 1966, on special request for NASA for the Apollo program, and a batch of ten were made. The cinematographer of Barry Lyndon, John Alcott, said that Kubrick bought three left over lenses from this batch, and had them extensively modified to make them usable on his 35 mm movie camera. Six other lenses of the batch had been sold to NASA, and the tenth one is at the German Movie Museum in Frankfurt. There is no evidence that NASA ever lent one of their own lenses to Kubrick.
- Taylor, Henry M. (2007): More than a Hoax. William Karel's Critical Mockumentary Dark Side of the Moon. In: Post Script, 26:3, p. 88–101.
- "Page of the film on the Point du Jour catalogue".
- "Interview: Entretien avec William Karel". Archived from the original on 2007-12-28.
- "Débat avec William Karel autour de son film Opération lune (video in French)". Retrieved 20 May 2013.
- "Page of "Les hommes de la Maison Blanche" on the Point du Jour catalogue". Retrieved 20 May 2013.
- "Farouk El-Baz curriculum vitae". Retrieved 6 September 2014.
- "Vernon A. Walters (Wikipedia)". Retrieved 22 May 2013.
- "Opération lune - ARTE". Archived from the original on 2007-12-28.
- "More than a hoax: William Karel's critical mockumentary dark side of the moon.". Retrieved 20 May 2013.
- "Clavius.org/Bibliography/Response to Wayne Green.". Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- "Fake Moon Landing explained- A Film by Kubrick , Nixon, Rumsfeld, Kissinger,CIA Richard Helms". Retrieved 23 May 2013.
- "WE NEVER WENT TO THE MOON - 1 of 3". Retrieved 22 May 2013.
- "(Grimme Pries) Kubrick, Nixon und der Mann im Mond". Retrieved 23 May 2013.
- Kämmerer, J. "When is it advisable to improve the quality of camera lenses?". Zeiss. Retrieved 23 May 2013.
- "Two Special Lenses for "Barry Lyndon"". Retrieved 23 May 2013.
- "John Alcott page on Great Cinematographers, from an article in American Cinematographer, December 1975". Retrieved 23 May 2013.
- "Glass Curiosities: A NASA lens becomes a filmmaker’s obsession". Retrieved 24 June 2014.
- "OMAGGIO ALL'IMMORTALE KUBRICK ED AL MITICO PLANAR 50mm f/0,7 (in Italian)". Retrieved 23 May 2013.