Dark tourism

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Murambi Technical School where many of the murders in the Rwandan genocide took place is now a genocide museum.

Dark tourism (also black tourism or grief tourism) has been defined as tourism involving travel to sites historically associated with death and tragedy.[1] More recently it was suggested that the concept should also include reasons tourists visit that site, since the site’s attributes alone may not make a visitor a 'dark tourist'.[2] Thanatourism,[3] derived from the ancient Greek word thanatos for the personification of death, refers more specifically to violent death; it is used in fewer contexts than the terms 'dark tourism' and 'grief tourism'. The main draw to dark locations is their historical value rather than their associations with death and suffering.[2][4]

Example destinations[edit]

Destinations of dark tourism include castles and battlefields such as Culloden in Scotland and Bran Castle and Poienari Castle in Romania, former prisons such as Beaumaris Prison in Anglesey, Wales, the Jack the Ripper exhibition in the London Dungeon, sites of natural disasters or man made disasters, such as Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park in Japan,[5] Chornobyl in the Ukraine[6][7][8] and the commercial activity at Ground Zero in New York one year after 9-11-2001.[9] It also includes sites of human atrocities and genocide, such as the Auschwitz concentration camp in Poland,[10] the Nanjing Massacre Memorial Hall in China, the Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum in Cambodia, the sites of the Jeju Uprising in South Korea[11] and the Spirit Lake Internment Camp Centre near La Ferme, Quebec as an example of Canada's internment operationsof 1914-1920.[12]

On Bali “death and funeral rites have become commodified for tourism [...], where enterprising businesses begin arranging tourist vans and sell tickets as soon as they hear someone is dying.”[13] In the US, visitors can tour the Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, DC "with an identity card which matches their age and gender with that of a name and photo of a real holocaust victim. Against a backdrop of video interpretation portraying killing squads in action, the pseudo holocaust victim enters a personal ID into monitors as they wander around the attraction to discover how their real-life counterpart is faring."[14]

Field of study[edit]

While there is a long tradition of people visiting recent and ancient settings of death like travel to gladiator games in the Roman colosseum, attending public executions by decapitation for example, and visiting the catacombs, this has been studied academically only relatively recently. Travel writers were the first to describe their tourism to deadly places like P.J. O'Rourke who called his travel to Warsaw, Managua, and Belfast in 1988 ‘holidays in hell’,[15] or Chris Rojek talking about ‘black-spot’ tourism in 1993 [16] or the ‘milking the macabre’[17]

Academic attention to the subject originated in Glasgow (Scotland): The term 'dark tourism' was coined in 1996 by Lennon and Foley, two faculty members of the Department of Hospitality, Tourism & Leisure Management at Glasgow Caledonian University.[1] The term 'thanatourism' was first mentioned by A.V. Seaton in 1996, then Professor of tourism marketing at University of Strathclyde Glasgow.[18]

As of 2014, innumerable studies on definitions, subcategorizations, like Holocaust tourism, slavery-heritage tourism etc, and labels exist, and the term continues to be molded outside academia by authors of travel literature.[19] There is very little empirical research on the perspective of the dark tourist.[2] Dark tourism has been formally studied from three main perspectives by a variety of different disciplines:

Hospitality and Tourism[edit]

Scholars in this interdisciplinary field have examined many different aspects. Lennon and Foley expanded their original idea [1] in their first book, deploring that "tact and taste do not prevail over economic considerations” and that the "blame for transgressions cannot lie solely on the shoulders of the proprietors, but also upon those of the tourists, for without their demand there would be no need to supply."[20]

Economy[edit]

Philip Stone and Richard Sharpley from the Department of Tourism and Leisure Management of the Lancashire Business School at the University of Central Lancashire, UK have looked through the lens of the market place at dark tourism; they have coined the term 'product of dark tourism', and discuss its supply, demand, and consumption by the ‘dark tourist’. Stone and Sharpley have published prolifically in this area, although not conducted empirical research, and founded an Institute for Dark Tourism. In 2005 Stone suggested that "within contemporary society people regularly consume death and suffering in touristic form, seemingly in the guise of education and/or entertainment", and sounded a call for research on "Dark Tourism Consumption" to "establish consumer behavior models that incorporate contemporary socio-cultural aspects of death and dying."[14] In a 2006 paper Stone discussed "the dark tourism product range", arguing that "certain suppliers [of dark tourism] may [...] share particular product features, perceptions and characteristics, which can then be loosely translated into various 'shades of darkness'." His typology of death-related tourist sites consists of seven different types, ordered from light to dark: dark fun factories, dark exhibitions, dark dungeons, dark resting places, dark shrines, dark conflict sites and dark camps of genocide.[21]

In 2008 Stone and Sharpley hypothesized, that coming together in places associated with grief and death in dark tourism represents immorality, so that morality may be communicated.[22]

Psychology, Philosophy and Anthropology[edit]

Studies in these fields aim at understanding the motivation and the meaning for both visitors and local developers of dark tourism locations, the social and cultural context of dark tourism and its consequences. The development of a sanctuary after the so-called "tragedy of Cromañón" on 30 December 2004, when a fire due to a pyrotechnic flare in the Buenos Aires nightclub 'Republica de Cromagnon' killed 194 people trapped by closed emergency exits was described by M. Korstanje in 2011. He noted a simple shrine evolve into a "sanctuary, that not only resists being recycled in the form of a tourist attraction, but also still inspires a deep sadness in public opinion", and that "a sense of community reduced the gap between society and officials". This is not backed up by evidence even though he claims to have collected "information []in the field,...too large to be described in this piece" akin to "diverse ethnographies conducted in this sanctuary".[23] The same author hypothesized in 2012 that "dark tourism could be a mechanism of resiliency helping society to recover after a disaster or catastrophe, a form of domesticating death in a secularized world."[24] The detailed exploration of the aftermath by a socio-linguist,[25] discussed in [26] however interesting, does not explain the genesis of the sanctuary, nor why it has not become a tourist attraction.

Criticism of dark tourism: a form of exploitation[edit]

Entrepreneurs may use the emotional reactions of the visitors to the site to generate profit.[citation needed] Whether a tourist attraction is educational or exploitative is defined by both its operators and its visitors.[11] Tourism operators motivated by greed can "milk the macabre" [17] or reexamine tragedies for a learning experience. Tourists consuming dark tourism products may desecrate a place and case studies are needed to probe who gains and loses [27]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Foley, Malcolm; J. John Lennon (1996). "JFK and dark tourism: A fascination with assassination". International Journal of Heritage Studies (Taylor & Francis) 2 (4): 198–211. doi:10.1080/13527259608722175. Retrieved 28 February 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c Rami Khalil Isaac and Erdinç Çakmak (2013). "Understanding visitor's motivation at sites of death and disaster: the case of former transit camp Westerbork, the Netherlands". Current Issues in Tourism (Taylor and Francis): 1–16. doi:10.1080/13683500.2013.776021. Retrieved 1 March 2014. 
  3. ^ Gerard Corsane (2005). Heritage, Museums and Galleries: An Introductory Reader. Routledge. p. 266. ISBN 0415289467. 
  4. ^ Courtney C. Reed. "Shedding Light on Dark Tourism". gonomad.com. Retrieved 1 March 2014. 
  5. ^ "Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum website". Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum. 2011. Retrieved 1 March 2014. 
  6. ^ "Chernobylzone" (in Ukrainian). chernobylzone.com.ua. Retrieved February 28, 2014. 
  7. ^ "Chernobyl Tours". Ukrainianweb.com. Retrieved February 28, 2014. 
  8. ^ "Chernobyl tour, official provider of Chernobyl exclusion zone". Chernobyl-TOUR. Retrieved 28 February 2014. 
  9. ^ Jayson Blair (June 29, 2002). "Tragedy turns to tourism at Ground Zero". 2002 The Age Company Ltd. Retrieved March 1, 2014. 
  10. ^ "Memorial Museum Auschwitz Birkenau". Państwowe Muzeum Auschwitz-Birkenau w Oświęcimiu. Retrieved February 28, 2014. 
  11. ^ a b Darryl Coote (2010-06-12). "Exploitation or healthy interest? An analysis of dark tourism.". Jeju Weekly. Retrieved 28 February 2014. 
  12. ^ "Launch of Quebec Internment Spirit Lake Interpretive Centre". press release. Canadian First World War Internment Recognition Fund. July 2010. Retrieved February 28, 2014. 
  13. ^ McLaren, Deborah (June 2003). Rethinking Tourism and Ecotravel (2 ed.). Kumarian Press. p. 48. ISBN 1565491696. Retrieved 1 March 2014. "One of the most disturbing phenomena in Bali is the commercialization of cremation ceremonies." 
  14. ^ a b Stone, P (2005). "Dark Tourism Consumption – A call for research". e-Review of Tourism Research 2 (5): 109–117. "contemporary society with its ...late capitalism broad defining features include an increased commercial ethic and commodification; a de-differentiation of time and space through global technological communication; and an introduction of anxiety and doubt over the project of modernity." 
  15. ^ O'Rourke, P. J. (1989). Holidays in Hell. London: Picador,. ISBN 0330306839. 
  16. ^ Rojek, Chris (1993). Ways of Escape: Modern Transformations in Leisure and Travel. London: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 033347578X. Retrieved 1 March 2014. "(P 142)The leisure forms constructed around black spots certainly give signs of repetition-compulsion and seeking the duplication of experience. (p170) The gravity and solemnity of Black Spots have been reduced by moves to make them more colorful and more spectacular than other sights on the tourist trail. For example, in 1987 the government of Thailand unveiled plans to restore the famous Death Railway …" 
  17. ^ a b Dann, G (1994). "Tourism the nostalgia industry of the future". In W. Theobald. Global Tourism: The Next Decade. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann. pp. 55–67. 
  18. ^ Seaton, AV (1996). "Guided by the dark: from thanatopsis to thanatourism". Int Journal of Heritage studies 2: 234–244. doi:10.1080/13527259608722178. Retrieved 1 March 2014. 
  19. ^ Jonathan Skinner, ed. (March 15, 2012). Writings On The Dark Side Of Travel. Berghahn Books. ISBN 0857453416. 
  20. ^ Lennon, J.; Foley, M. (2000). Dark tourism: The attraction of death and disasters. London: Thomson Learning. 
  21. ^ Stone, P (2006). "A dark tourism spectrum: Towards a typology of death and macabre related tourist sites, attractions and exhibitions". Tourism 54 (2): 145–160. 
  22. ^ Stone, P. and Sharpley, R (2008). "Consuming dark-tourism a thanatological perspective". Annals of Tourism Research 35: 574–595. doi:10.1016/j.annals.2008.02.003. 
  23. ^ Korstanje, Maximiliano (November 2011). "Detaching the elementary forms of Dark Tourism". Anatolia, an international Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research (Taylor & Francis) 22 (3): 424–427. doi:10.1080/13032917.2011.620800. 
  24. ^ Korstanje, Maximiliano; Ivanov, S. (2012). "Tourism as a Form of New Psychological Resilience: The Inception of Dark Tourism.". Cultur: Revista de Cultura e Turismo 6 (4): 56–71. 
  25. ^ Andrea Estrada (2010). The Discourse of Tragedy: What Cromagnon Represents(La Tragedia segun el discurso: así se siente Cromagnon). Buenos Aires: Prometeo. p. 227. ISBN 978-987574404-2. 
  26. ^ Korstanje,Maximiliano (2012). "Review of The Discourse of Tragedy: what Cromagnon Represents". Essays in Philosophy (Oregon, USA) 13 (1): 392–394. 
  27. ^ Richard W. Butler, Douglas G., ed. (1999). Contemporary ISSUES IN TOURIST development. Routledge. p. 122. ISBN 1134623607. 

External links[edit]