Daryal radar

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Daryal
Daryal Pechora radar concept.jpg
A US military artist's concept of a Daryal facility - transmitter on the left, receiver on the right.
Country of origin Soviet Union, Russia
Introduced 1984
Number built 8 planned, 2 operational
Type Early warning radar
Frequency 150-200 MHz (VHF)
Range Around 6,000 kilometres (3,728 mi) [1][2]:74
Diameter Transmitter 30x40 m
Receiver 80x80 m
separated by 0.5–1.5 km
Azimuth 90° [1][2]:74
Elevation 40°[2]:74[1]
Other Names NATO: Pechora
GRAU: 5N79, 90N6.

The Daryal-type radar (Russian: Дарьял) (NATO: Pechora) is a Soviet bistatic active electronically scanned array early warning radar. It consists of two separate large active phased-array antennas separated by around 500 metres (1,640 ft) to 1.5 kilometres (4,921 ft). The transmitter array is 30x40 m (98x131 ft) and the receiver is 80x80 m (262x252 ft) in size. The system is a VHF system operating at a wavelength of 1.5 to 2 meters (150 to 200 MHz). Its initial transmit capacity was 50 MW with a target capacity of 350 MW.[3][not in citation given]

The designer of the radars, RTI Mints, says that each Daryal receiver is 100m x 100m and has 4,000 cross dipoles. Each transmitter is 40m x 40m with 1,260 modules, each capable of 300 kW. They say the radar has a range of 6,000 km with targets between 0.1 m2 and 0.12 m2.[4][2]:74 It can track 20 objects at the same time and can cope with four jamming sources.[2]:74 The designer, V Ivantsov, was awarded the title "Hero of Socialist Labour" for his work on the Daryal.[5]

Planned and operational Daryal radars

The first Daryal type radar was built at Olenegorsk in the early 1970s. It was the receiver building only and was called a Daugava rather than a Daryal. It used the transmitter of the adjacent Dnestr-M radar. Following this, in 1975, two Daryal radars were constructed in Pechora and Gabala. In 1979 new Daryal-U radars were planned for Balkhash-9 near Sary Shagan in Kazakhstan, Mishelevka in Irkutsk and Yeniseysk-15 near Krasnoyarsk in Siberia. Two Daryal-UM systems were to be constructed at in Skrunda, Latvia and Mukachevo, Ukraine.[6][7][8]

Originally, at least seven Daryal facilities were planned, however, only the first two facilities completed, Pechora and Qabala, were ever operational.

The American Clinton administration offered financial assistance in completing the Mishelevka facility in exchange for amending the ABM treaty to allow US deployment of a national missile defense system.[9] The Mukachevo one in the Ukraine was never completed after the fall of the Soviet Union and the Skrunda facility was demolished by a newly independent Latvia, arranged by the US Department of Defence.[6][10] The Yeniseysk (Krasnoyarsk) Daryal-U site caused concern in the west over compliance with the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty during its construction in the 1980s. Article VI(b) requires radars to be on the periphery of national territory and to face outwards and the Yeniseysk radar faced over Siberia. Following negotiations, in September 1989 the Soviets admitted it was a violation of the treaty, construction ceased and the facility was eventually dismantled.[6][8][11][12]

Ruin of Daryal-UM radar in Mukachevo, Ukraine

Variants[edit]

The prototype Daryal receiver is called a Daugava (5U83) and works with a Dnestr-M transmitter. It is half the size of the Daryal receivers but has the same equipment and computer systems.[13]

The original Daryal (5N79) was improved by revisions Daryal-U (90N6) and Daryal-UM.[14][15] A Daryal-U had half the transmitters of a Daryal.[13] The Volga radar (70M6) is a Daryal-like radar operating on a decimeter wavelength (UHF) rather than the meter wavelength (VHF) of the Daryal. It was originally planned that there would be a number of these to complement the Daryal. The only Volga built is the one at Baranavichy which originally started in 1982, stopped in the early 1990s, restarted in 1999 and became operational in 2003.[6]

Locations[edit]

Designation Location Coordinates Azimuth [6] Type Built Details
RO-1 Olenegorsk-1, Olenegorsk, Kola Peninsula, Russia 68°6′59.63″N 33°55′8.69″E / 68.1165639°N 33.9190806°E / 68.1165639; 33.9190806 (Olenegorsk Daugava radar) receiver 308° Daugava 1975 Uses the Dnestr-M radar as transmitter [6] Operational [16][17]
RO-2 Skrunda-1, Latvia 56°43′40.92″N 21°58′58.10″E / 56.7280333°N 21.9828056°E / 56.7280333; 21.9828056 (Skrunda Daryal radar receiver) receiver 308° Daryal-UM 1985-1994 Demolished 1995 [10]
- Hantsavichy Radar Station (often listed as Baranavichy), Kleck-2, Belarus 52°49′59.95″N 26°28′31.83″E / 52.8333194°N 26.4755083°E / 52.8333194; 26.4755083 (Hantsavichy Volga radar transmitter) transmitter
52°51′41.98″N 26°28′2.88″E / 52.8616611°N 26.4674667°E / 52.8616611; 26.4674667 (Hantsavichy Volga radar receiver) receiver
262.5° Volga 1986-2003 In operation
RO-5 Mukachevo Radar Station, Ukraine 48°23′6.56″N 22°48′1.72″E / 48.3851556°N 22.8004778°E / 48.3851556; 22.8004778 (Mukachevo Daryal radar transmitter) transmitter
48°23′18.41″N 22°47′37.71″E / 48.3884472°N 22.7938083°E / 48.3884472; 22.7938083 (Mukachevo Daryal radar receiver) receiver
218° Daryal-UM -1991 Ruined
RO-7 Gabala Radar Station, Qabala, Azerbaijan 40°52′16.62″N 47°48′32.25″E / 40.8712833°N 47.8089583°E / 40.8712833; 47.8089583 (Gabala Daryal radar transmitter) transmitter
40°52′4.54″N 47°47′44.60″E / 40.8679278°N 47.7957222°E / 40.8679278; 47.7957222 (Gabala Daryal radar receiver) receiver
162° Daryal 1977-1985 Operational. Leased from Azerbaijan, current lease expires December 2012.[18][19]
RO-30 Pechora Radar Station, Pechora, Komi Republic, Russia 65°12′36.59″N 57°17′43.38″E / 65.2101639°N 57.2953833°E / 65.2101639; 57.2953833 (Pechora Daryal radar transmitter) transmitter
65°12′36.55″N 57°16′34.68″E / 65.2101528°N 57.2763000°E / 65.2101528; 57.2763000 (Pechora Daryal radar receiver) receiver
2° (estimated) Daryal 1978-1984 In operation [20]
OS-1 Mishelevka Radar Station, Usolye-Sibirskoye, Irkutsk, Siberia 52°51′20.11″N 103°13′53.94″E / 52.8555861°N 103.2316500°E / 52.8555861; 103.2316500 (Mishelevka Daryal radar transmitter) transmitter
52°51′42.02″N 103°14′20.49″E / 52.8616722°N 103.2390250°E / 52.8616722; 103.2390250 (Mishelevka Daryal radar receiver) receiver
135° Daryal-U 1979-1984 Demolished 2011. Being replaced by a Voronezh radar.[21]
OS-2 Balkhash Radar Station, Sary Shagan, Kazakhstan 46°35′19.48″N 74°27′59.19″E / 46.5887444°N 74.4664417°E / 46.5887444; 74.4664417 (Balkhash Daryal radar transmitter) transmitter
46°36′2.70″N 74°29′51.67″E / 46.6007500°N 74.4976861°E / 46.6007500; 74.4976861 (Balkhash Daryal radar receiver) receiver
152° (estimated) Daryal-U 1982-2004 Receiver destroyed by fire 2004 [22]
OS-3 Yeniseysk-15, Krasnoyarsk, Siberia 57°52′5.67″N 93°7′7.26″E / 57.8682417°N 93.1186833°E / 57.8682417; 93.1186833 (Yeniseysk Daryal radar transmitter) transmitter
57°52′24.22″N 93°6′28.09″E / 57.8733944°N 93.1078028°E / 57.8733944; 93.1078028 (Yeniseysk Daryal radar receiver) receiver
40° (estimated) Daryal-U 1983-1987 Halted in 1991 and dismantled [23][24]
Daryal radar in Pechora

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Радиолокационная станция "Дарьял"" [Radar Daryal] (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Defence. undated. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-02-08. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Nikolai Spassky, ed. (2002). Encyclopedia "Russia’s Arms and Technologies. The XXI Century Encyclopedia": Volume 5 — "Space weapons" (in English/Russian). Moscow: Publishing House "Arms and Technologies". ISBN 5-93799-010-2. 
  3. ^ "Pechora LPAR - Daryal". GlobalSecurity.org. undated. Retrieved 2011-12-22. 
  4. ^ "Мощные РЛС дальнего обнаружения РЛС СПРН и СККП" [Powerful radar early warning radar early warning system and space surveillance] (in Russian). RTI Mints. undated. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-01-30. 
  5. ^ "История РТИ" [History of RTI] (in Russian). RTI Mints. undated. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-01-07. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f Podvig, Pavel (2002). "History and the Current Status of the Russian Early-Warning System" (pdf). Science and Global Security 10: 21–60. doi:10.1080/08929880212328. ISSN 0892-9882. 
  7. ^ Bukharin, Oleg; Kadyshev, Timur; Miasnikov, Eugene; Podvig, Pavel; Sutyagin, Igor; Tarashenko, Maxim; Zhelezov, Boris (2001). Podvig, Pavel, ed. Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-16202-4. 
  8. ^ a b Karpenko, A (1999). "ABM AND SPACE DEFENSE". Nevsky Bastion 4: 2–47. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. 
  9. ^ "Mishelevka". GlobalSecurity.org. undated. Retrieved 2011-12-22. 
  10. ^ a b "LPAR facility". Controlled Demolition, Inc. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2011-12-23. 
  11. ^ "Yeniseysk (Krasnoyarsk)". GlobalSecurity.org. undated. Retrieved 2011-12-22. 
  12. ^ "TREATY BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS ON THE LIMITATION OF ANTI-BALLISTIC MISSILE SYSTEMS". 1972. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-01-21. 
  13. ^ a b Ilyin, A (June 2012). ""Воронеж" в сердце Азии" [Voronezh at the heart of Asia] (in Russian). Novosti Kosmonavtiki. Archived from the original on 2012-12-03. Retrieved 2012-10-13. 
  14. ^ O'Connor, Sean (2009). "Russian/Soviet Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems". Air Power Australia. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-01-07. 
  15. ^ Holm, Michael (2011). "1st Missile Attack Early Warning Division". Soviet Armed Forces 1945-1991. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-01-07. 
  16. ^ Shko (2008). "СПРН" [SPRN (early warning)] (photograph) (in Russian). Retrieved 2012-01-08. 
  17. ^ SityShooter (2011). "РЛС "Днестр" - "Днепр-М" (actually is Daugava left)" [Radar Dnestr-Dnepr-M] (photograph) (in Russian). Retrieved 2012-01-29. 
  18. ^ "Око "Габалы" заглянуло за экватор [Eye of Gabala peered over the equator]" (in Russian). transcript. 2011-03-02. Russia24. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. http://www.vesti.ru/only_video.html?vid=322355. Retrieved 2012-02-08.
  19. ^ "Габалинская РЛС оказалась на иранской волне" (in Russian). Независимая (The Independent). 2011-12-22. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-02-08. 
  20. ^ Стоит в Печоре монолит [It is a monolith in Pechora] (Video) (in Russian). Волна-плюс [Volna-Plus]. 2005. 
  21. ^ Podvig, Pavel (2011-06-21). "Daryal-U radar in Mishelevka demolished". Russian strategic nuclear forces. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-01-30. 
  22. ^ Safiullin, Rakhim (2005-09-08). "Пожар на сооружении №2, 17 сентября 2004 года" [Fire in building number 2, September 17, 2004] (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2011-12-22. 
  23. ^ Presenter: Игорь Воеводин [Igor Voevodin] (2011-03-21). "Разрушение Красноярской РЛС [The destruction of the Krasnoyarsk radar"] (in Russian). Ностальгия [Nostalgia]. Pravda. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EZjjD5Hymw0. Retrieved 2011-12-23.
  24. ^ josef s (2007). "jenisseisk 15" (photograph). Retrieved 2012-05-01.