Dasa

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For other uses, see Dasa (disambiguation).

Dasa (Sanskrit दास dāsa) is the name of a group of people that appears in ancient Sanskrit texts. It potentially designated a distinct group within the Vedic Aryan fold or may refer to the non-Aryans living in the Indian subcontinent. The term later may have acquired the connotation of "enemy" due to warfare between the original inhabitants of the Indian subcontinent and the foreign Indo-Aryan tribes.

The Dasa are often identified as the wealthy cattle-raising non-Indo-European populations subdued by the people practicing Vedic rituals in the course of the Indo-Aryan migration. Asko Parpola proposed that the original Dasas were fellow Indo-Iranians of the Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex who initially rejected Aryan religious practices, but were later merged with them. A similar term for enemy people, Dasyu, is also used in the Rigveda.

The term Dasa in religious context is used in the sense of a "devotee".

Dāsa, Dasyu and Ārya[edit]

The Dāsa appear as a hostile ("savage, barbarian, infidel") population in the Rigveda. In the later Vedic texts, the meaning shifts to "devotee". The Rigvedic Dasa and Dasyu are characterized by their not following the religion of the Aryas; hence, the term implied "impiety", and Aryan kings could also become "Dasyu" if their behaviour was considered irreligious; thus, in the battle of the Ten Kings, the king Sudas calls his enemies (which included Vedic peoples like the Anus, Druhyus, Turvashas, and even Purus) "Dasyu" (RV 7.6, 12-14, 18). There is also a Dasa Balbutha Taruksa in RV 6.45.31 who is a patron of a seer and who is distinguished by his generosity (RV 8.46.32). There are several hymns in the Rigveda that refer to Dasa and Aryan enemies [1] and to related (jami) and unrelated (ajami) enemies (e.g. 1.111.3, 4.4.5); still, in the battle of the ten kings, there are Dasas and Aryas on both sides of the battlefield and in some Rigvedic verses, the Aryas and Dasas stood united against their enemies.[2] The word "dasa" is contained in the name of a famous Vedic king, Divodāsa.[3] The concept of the Dasa as a hostile, autonomous tribe with a different religion is absent from the later Vedas.

The meaning of the word dāsa, which has been long preserved in the Saka language, is "man".[citation needed]

The term Dasyu is not necessarily from the same root as Dāsa (Monier-William considers it a derivation from das "to be exhausted"). The Rigveda and Atharvaveda apply it to individual enemies of the gods, defeated by Indra or Agni, to impious men or to "barbarians" described as anā́s "ugly-faced", ádhara "inferior" or á-mānuṣa' " inhuman". In Epic Sanskrit, dasyu may be any outcast, or any former Hindu who has become an outcast by neglect of the essential rites.

The Buddha explains to Asvalayana, that "in Yona, Kamboja and other (adjacent) frontier regions, there are only two castes : Arya and Dasa. One having been an Arya may become a Dasa, one having been a Dasa may become an Arya."[4]

In modern-day Indo-Aryan languages, the term has a meaning of "devotee", and in some cases of "thief"; "Dasyu" has become "Daku" or "Dacoit" in the English language.[5]

Rigvedic Dasas/Dasyus[edit]

In the Rig Veda, Dasa, Dasyu and similar terms (e.g. Pani) occur sometimes in conjunction with the terms krsna ("black") or asikni ("black"). This was often the basis for a "racial" interpretation of the Vedic texts. But Sanskrit is a language that uses many metaphors. The word cow for example can mean Mother Earth, sunshine, wealth, language, Aum etc. Words like "black" have similarly many different meanings in Sanskrit, as it is in fact the case in most languages. Thus "black" has many symbolical, mythological, psychological and other uses that are simply unrelated to human appearance. Bhagavan Shri Shanmukha Anantha Natha is the first scholar to define that the 'blackness' of Krishna is not a racial interpretation but refers to the Absolute in its phase of manifestation as denoted by Samkhya philosophy.[citation needed] The Rig Veda does not refer to ethnic terms but philosophical realities. Krishna too is described as an Asura and this does not mean that he is a 'black Indigene' waiting on the banks of the Amshumati river to fight with Indra (RVIII. 85. 13-15) but that the Absolute is in a stage of manifestation allegorically depicted by the 'black drop' in the Rig Veda.

Also Iyengar (1914) commented on such interpretations: "The only other trace of racial reference in the Vedic hymns is the occurrence of two words, one krishna in seven passages and the other asikini in two passages. In all the passages, the words have been interpreted as referring to black clouds, a demon whose name was Krishna, or the powers of darkness." (6-7, Iyengar, Srinivas. 1914.)

The term krsnavonih in RV 2.20.7 has been interpreted by Asko Parpola as meaning "which in their wombs hid the black people". Sethna (1992) writes, referring to a comment by Richard Hartz, that "there is no need to follow Parpola in assuming a further unexpressed word meaning "people" in the middle of the compound krsnayonih", and the better known translation by Griffith, i.e. "who dwelt in darkness" can be considered as essentially correct.[6] Another scholar, Hans Hock (1999), finds Karl Friedrich Geldner's translation of krsnayonih (RV 2.20.7) as "Blacks in their wombs" and of krsnagarbha (RV 1.101.1) as "pregnant with the Blacks" "quite recherché" and thinks that it could refer to the "dark world" of the Dasas.

In RV 4.16.13, Geldner has assumed that "krsna" refers to "sahasra" (thousands). But this would be grammatically incorrect. If krsna would refer to "sahasra", it should be written as krsnan (acc. pl. masc.). Hans Hock (1999) suggests that "krsna" refers to "puro" (forts) in this verse.

For sure the Vedic writers wrote of the Dasa-Dasyus as people who lived in evil or darkness. The RV 2.2.7[7] says, "Indra the Vrtra-slayer, Fort-destroyer, scattered the Dasa hosts who dwelt in darkness."

Hymn XXIV reads of Brahmanaspati defeating the Dasyu demon Vala, "He drave the kine forth and cleft Vala through by prayer, dispelled the darkness and displayed the light of heaven."

The Vedic seers pray evil or darkness stay away from them: "May I obtain the broad light free from peril: O Indra, let not during darkness seize us."

Hymn XL, speaking of Devas Soma and Pusan reads, "At birth of these two Gods all Gods are joyful: they have caused darkness, which we hate, to vanish."

Hymn 3.1.3 reads of Agni, "Bull, who beholdest men, through many mornings, among the dark ones shine forth red, O Agni."[8]

Hymn 3.2.17 reads that dark (metaphor for evil) people are purified through Deva Surya: "To thee proceed the dark, the treasure-holders, both of them sanctified by Surya's bounty."

Hymn 3.3.3 writes of Indra and his twin brother Agni killing darkness with light: "Killing the darkness at the light's foundation, the Couple newly born attain their beauty."[9]

Tvac[edit]

There are three instances in the Rigveda where the phrase krsna (or ashikni) tvac occurs, literally translating to "black (or swarthy) skin":

1.130.8de mánave śâsad avratân tvácaṃ kṛṣṇâm arandhayat
— "Plaguing the lawless he [Indra] gave up to Manu's seed the dusky skin" (trans. Griffith)
9.41.1 prá yé gâvo ná bhûrṇayas / tveṣâ ayâso ákramuḥ / ghnántaḥ kṛṣṇâm ápa tvácam[10]
— "(Praising the Soma-juices) which descend like streams of water, swift, brilliant, rapid driving off the black covered (Rakshasa who are darkness)"[11]
9.73.5cd índradviṣṭām ápa dhamanti māyáyā tvácam ásiknīm bhûmano divás pári[12]
— "Blowing away with supernatural might from earth and from the heavens the swarthy skin which Indra hates." (trans. Griffith)

Tvac "skin" does, however, also take a secondary, more general meaning of "surface, cover" in the Rigveda, in particular referring to the Earth's surface. For this reason, there can be debate on whether instances of krsna tvac should be taken to refer literally to a "black skinned people". Maria Schetelich (1990) considers it a symbolic expression for darkness. Similarly, Michael Witzel (1995b) writes about terms like krsna tvac that "while it would be easy to assume reference to skin colour, this would go against the spirit of the hymns: for Vedic poets, black always signifies evil, and any other meaning would be secondary in these contexts". Hans Hock argues along similar lines [13]

The Rigvedic commentator Sayana explains the word tvacam krsna (RV 1.130.8) as referring to an asura (demon) called Krsna whose skin was torn apart by Indra.

Anasa[edit]

In RV 5.29.10, the word anasa is in connection with the Dasyus. Some scholars have translated anasa as "noseless". But the classical commentator Sayana translated anasa as "without mouth or face" (anas = an "negative" + as "mouth"). Sayana's translation is supported by the occurrence of the word mrdhravacah in the same verse. Sayana explains the word mrdhravacah as "having defective organs of speech" (Rg Veda 1854-57:3.276 n.). The description of Dasas as "nose-less" and "mouth-less" is method of associating the demonic Dasa as disfigured beings, who are covered by ignorance (black).

The religion of the Dasas/Dasyus[edit]

The main difference between the Aryas and the Dasas in the Rig Veda is a difference of religion.[14] Already A. A. Macdonell and A. B. Keith (1912) remarked that: "The great difference between the Dasyus and the Aryans was their religion... It is significant that constant reference is made to difference in religion between Aryans and Dasa and Dasyu." The Dasas and Dasyus are also described as brahma-dvisah in the Rig Veda,[15] which Ralph T.H. Griffith translates as "those who hate devotion" or "prayer haters". Thus Dasa has also been interpreted as meaning the people that don't follow the same religion as the Aryans. Rig Veda 10.22.8 describes the Dasa-Dasyus as a-karman (non-performers of Aryan sacrifices), anya-vrata (observers of other rites) and in Rig Veda 10.105.8 they are described as anrc (non-singer of laudatory hymns). In RV 8.70.11 they are described as a-deva-yu (not regarding Deva ).[16]

Post-Vedic use[edit]

Use of religious "devotees"[edit]

A guru or sat guru in various traditions of Hinduism is given the name Das or devotee of God in order to designate the guru as a pure teacher. The guru may also be called uda ka das, meaning the devotee of the one God.[17] The other Sanskrit meaning of devotee is retained in all Indian languages in which devotion to personal God is practiced. In Tamil tontai or dasa is commonly used to refer to devotees of Vishnu or Krishna.[18] According to Gaudiya Vaishnava theology Smriti statement dāsa-bhūto harer eva nānyasvaiva kadācana, living entities (bhuto) are eternally in the service (dasa) of the Supreme Lord (Hari).[19] Thus designation for Vaishnava followers of svayam bhagavan Krishna was the status title dasa as part of their names as in Hari Dasa.[20]

The present day usage of Dasa or Das in Hinduism has a respectful connotation and means "votary" or "devotee of God." For example, Mohandas Gandhi's first name, Mohandas, means devotee of Mohan or Krishna. Also, the name Surdas means devotee of Sur or Deva. In the past, many saints of all castes added it in their names signifying their total devotion or surrender to God. Das is one of the common surnames of Brahmins, both in Northern and Northeastern India.

Furthermore in the bhakti yoga tradition, a person can be in a relationship with God in any of the 5 principal ways. One of the relationships is called Dasya-bhakti, meaning being a "devotee of God." All initiated male members of ISKCON have the word "Das" or "Dasa" at the end of their initiated names, meaning devotee of Krsna. All initiated female members of ISKCON have the words "Devi Dasi," which means devotee of the goddess or Radha. Dasi is the feminine form of Das. Example: Urmila Devi Dasi. The first part of their names is a name for something connected with divinity; often a name of Radha Krishna or Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.

In Hindu revivalism[edit]

Hindu revivalist authors like Sri Aurobindo believe that words like Dasa are used in the Rig Veda symbolically and should be interpreted spiritually, and that Dasa does not refer to human beings, but rather to demons who hinder the spiritual attainment of the mystic. Many Dasas are purely mythical and can only refer to demons. There is for example a Dasa called Urana with 99 arms (RV II.14.4), and a Dasa with six eyes and three heads in the Rig Veda.[21]

Sri Aurobindo [22] commented that in the RV III.34 hymn, where the word Arya varna occurs, Indra is described as the increaser of the thoughts of his followers: "the shining hue of these thoughts, sukram varnam asam, is evidently the same as that sukra or sveta Aryan hue which is mentioned in verse 9. Indra carries forward or increases the "colour" of these thoughts beyond the opposition of the Panis, pra varnam atiracchukram; in doing so he slays the Dasyus and protects or fosters and increases the Aryan "colour", hatvi dasyun pra aryam varnam avat."[23] Thus, Aurobindo sees the Arya varna or lustre of the thoughts that Indra increases as psychological. In several Lord Indra is also said to be a white bull with and his friends are the Maruts, who are horses so when the Rig Veda speaks of a certain color they mean the color of god as an animal. For example, the twin deities Nastya and Dasra are said to be "horse princes."[citation needed] In some Rig Vedic verses, even Lord Agni is said to be the red bull that stands out from the dark bulls.[24]

According to Aurobindo (The Secret of the Veda), RV 5.14.4 is a key for understanding the character of the Dasyus:

Agni born shone out slaying the Dasyus, the darkness by the light, he found the Cows, the Waters, Swar. (transl. Aurobindo)[25][26]

Aurobindo explains that in this verse the struggle between light and darkness, truth and falsehood, divine and undivine is described.[25] It is through the shining light created by Agni, god of fire, that the Dasyus, who are identified with the darkness, are slain. The Dasyus are also described in the Rig Veda as intercepting and withholding the Cows, the Waters and Swar ("heavenly world"; RV 5.34.9; 8.68.9). It is not difficult, of course, to find very similar metaphors, equating political or military opponents with evil and darkness, even in contemporary propaganda.

K.D. Sethna (1992) writes: "According to Aurobindo,(...) there are passages in which the spiritual interpretation of the Dasas, Dasyus and Panis is the sole one possible and all others are completely excluded. There are no passages in which we lack a choice either between this interpretation and a nature-poetry or between this interpretation and the reading of human enemies." And according to Koenraad Elst: "When it is said that Agni, the fire, “puts the dark demons to flight”, one should keep in mind that the darkness was thought to be filled with ghosts or ghouls, so that making light frees the atmosphere of their presence. And when Usha, the dawn, is said to chase the "dark skin" or "the black monster" away, it obviously refers to the cover of nightly darkness over the surface of the earth." [27]

Dasa and related terms have been examined by several scholars.[28] While the terms Dasa and Dasyu have a negative meaning in Sanskrit, their Iranian counterparts Daha and Dahyu have preserved their positive (or neutral) meaning. This is similar to the Sanskrit terms Deva (a "positive" term) and Asura (a "negative" term). The Iranian counterparts of these terms (Daeva and Ahura) have opposite meanings. The terms Dasyus and Asuras as negativity personified in the Rg Veda (RVIII. 85.9) (RV. VIII. 66.3), and especially personified by Vrtra, the slayer of Indra, positivity personified, was first put forward by Bhagavan Shri Shanmukha Anantha Natha in his work Divine Initiation (Singapore, Shri Kali Publications, 2001), 19. This concept, as he outlines it, is similar to the Yin-Yang concept of the East Asians. The Aryans are also personifications and this idea is also put forward by Anantha Natha in the above work.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ (e.g. 6.22.10, 6.33.3, 6.60.6), Ambedkar 1946, Who were the Shudras
  2. ^ RV 6.33.3, 7.83.1, 8.51.9, 10.102.3; Ambedkar, 1946, Who were the Shudras
  3. ^ "Sanskrit, Tamil and Pahlavi Dictionaries" (in German). Webapps.uni-koeln.de. Retrieved 2013-10-14. 
  4. ^ P. 169 An Introduction To The Study Of Indian History By Damodar Dharmanand Kosambi
  5. ^ P. 47 The Getes by Sundeep S. Jhutti
  6. ^ Sethna 1992:337-338
  7. ^ "Holy Rig Veda : Book 02 Part 02". Ishwar.com. Retrieved 2013-10-14. 
  8. ^ "Holy Rig Veda : Book 03 Part 01". Ishwar.com. Retrieved 2013-10-14. 
  9. ^ "Holy Rig Veda : Book 03 Part 03". Ishwar.com. Retrieved 2013-10-14. 
  10. ^ note the sāhvâṃso dásyum avratám "vanquishing the rite less Dasyu" in the following verse.
  11. ^ Sri Vaishnava
  12. ^ again note the context of saṃdáhantaḥ avratân "burning up riteless men" in pada b.
  13. ^ Hock (1999). Hock also remarked that in RV 1.65.8, a similar metaphor is used. In this verse, "roma prthivyah" refers to the "body-hair of the earth", i.e. to the plants.
  14. ^ R. C. Majumdar and A. D. Pusalker (editors): The history and culture of the Indian people. Volume I, The Vedic age. Bombay : Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan 1951, p.253. Keith and Macdonell 1922.
  15. ^ (e.g. RV 5.42.9; 8.45.23; 10.36.9; 10.160.4; 10.182.3)
  16. ^ e.g. Sethna 1992, Elst 1999, Ambedkar 1946 Who were the Shudras
  17. ^ Essays And Lectures On The Religions Of The Hindus: Religious Sects of the Hindus V1. Kessinger Publishing, LLC. 2006. p. 353. ISBN 1-4286-1308-0. 
  18. ^ Steven P. Hopkins (2007). An ornament for jewels: love poems for the Lord of Gods. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. p. 160. ISBN 0-19-532639-3. 
  19. ^ Bhaktivedanta Swami, A. C. (1972). The Bhagavad-gita As It Is, second edition. New York: Macmillan.
  20. ^ Talbot, Cynthia (2001). Precolonial India in practice: society, region, and identity in medieval Andhra. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. p. 81. ISBN 0-19-513661-6. 
  21. ^ Parpola 1988, Sethna 1992:329
  22. ^ Sethna 1992:114 and 340, Aurobindo, The Secret of the Veda, p. 220-21
  23. ^ Sethna 1992:114 and 340
  24. ^ V.Jayaram. "The Rig Veda Book 3 - Verses 10 to 20". Hinduwebsite.com. Retrieved 2013-10-14. 
  25. ^ a b Sethna 1992:114-115 and 348-349
  26. ^ Which is translated by Griffith thus: Agni shone bright when born, with light killing the Dasyus and the dark He found the Kine, the Floods, the Sun. (trans. Griffith)
  27. ^ Elst 1999; Cf. Sir Monier-Williams: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, entry tvac, Reference is to Rgveda 1:92:5 and 4:51:9.
  28. ^ e.g., Asko Parpola (1988), Mayrhofer (1986-1996), Benveniste (1973), Lecoq (1990), Windfuhr (1999)

Further reading[edit]

  • Bhagavan Shri Shanmukha Anantha Natha and Shri Ma Kristina Baird for the correct, nonracial meaning of the terms Dasyus and Asuras in their work "Divine Initiation" (ISBN 0-9582324-0-7) by Shri Kali Publications
  • Ambedkar, B.R. (1946) Who were the Shudras?
  • Aurobindo, Sri. 1971. The Secret of the Veda. Pondicherry: Shri Aurobindo Ashram.
  • Bryant, Edwin: The Quest for the Origins of Vedic Culture. 2001. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-513777-9
  • J. Bronkhorst and M.M. Deshpande. 1999. Aryan and Non-Aryan in South Asia. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
  • Elst, Koenraad Update on the Aryan Invasion Debate. 1999. ISBN 81-86471-77-4
  • Frawley, David The Myth of the Aryan Invasion of India, 1995. New Delhi: Voice of India; In Search of the Cradle of Civilization, Chapter 6
  • Hock, Hans. 1999b, Through a Glass Darkly: Modern "Racial" Interpretations vs. Textual and General Prehistoric Evidence on Arya and Dasa/Dasyu in Vedic Indo-Aryan Society." in Aryan and Non-Aryan in South Asia.
  • Iyengar, Srinivas. 1914. "Did the Dravidians of India Obtain Their Culture from Aran Immigrant [sic]." Anthropos 1-15.
  • Macdonell, A.A. and Keith, A.B. 1912. The Vedic Index of Names and Subjects.
  • Parpola, Asko: 1988, The Coming of the Aryans to Iran and India and the Cultural and Ethnic Identity of the Dasas; The problem of the Aryans and the Soma.
  • Rg Veda 1854-57. Rig-Veda Samhita. tr. H.H. Wilson. London: H.Allen and Co.
  • Schetelich, Maria. 1990, "The problem ot the "Dark Skin" (Krsna Tvac) in the Rgveda." Visva Bharati Annals 3:244-249.
  • Sethna, K.D. 1992. The Problem of Aryan Origins. New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan.
  • Talageri, Shrikant G. 2000. The Rig Veda - A historical analysis.
  • Trautmann, Thomas R. 1997, Aryans and British India. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Witzel, Michael. 1995b, 325, fn, "Rgvedic History" in The Indo-Aryans of South Asia.