Dassault Mystère

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For the corporate jet/liaison aircraft named Dassault Mystère, see Dassault Falcon 10.
MD.452 Mystère
Dassault Mystere II.jpg
Role Fighter-bomber
Manufacturer Dassault Aviation
First flight 23 February 1951
Introduction 1954
Retired 1963 (France)
Primary user French Air Force
Produced 1951–57
Number built 171
Variants Dassault Mystère IV
Dassault Super Mystère

The Dassault MD.452 Mystère is a 1950s French fighter-bomber.

Development[edit]

After the success of the Ouragan, Dassault was working on a more advanced machine based on it, which would take to the air in early 1951 as the MD.452 Mystère I.

The first prototype Mystère I was essentially an Ouragan with a 30-degree swept wing and modified tail surfaces. Two further prototypes followed, powered by the Rolls-Royce Tay 250 centrifugal-flow turbojet, an improved version of the Rolls-Royce Nene, built under license by Hispano-Suiza, and rated at 28.0 kN (6,300 lbf) thrust.

These three Mystère I prototypes led to two Mystère IIA prototypes, powered by the Tay and armed with four 20 mm (0.787 in) Hispano cannon; and then four Mystère IIB prototypes, which traded the four 20 mm (0.787 in) cannon for two 30 mm (1.181 in) DEFA revolver-type cannon. A Mystère IIA was the first French aircraft to break Mach 1 in controlled flight (in a dive), on 28 October 1951.

The eleven pre-production machines that followed were designated Mystère IIC, nine of which were fitted with the SNECMA Atar 101C axial-flow turbojet, rated at 24.5 kN (5,500 lbf) thrust, while two were experimentally fitted with the afterburning Atar 101F, with afterburning thrust of 37.3 kN (8,400 lbf).

Operational history[edit]

The French Air Force ordered 150 Mystère IICs, with the first production machine flying in June 1954, and delivered in October of that year. The production aircraft featured the twin 30 mm (1.181 in) DEFA cannon, an Atar 101D turbojet with 29.4 kN (6,600 lbf) thrust, increased tail sweep, and revised intake trunking and internal fuel tank arrangement. Top speed was 1,030 km/h (560 kn; 640 mph) at low level. Details of external stores are unclear, but a reasonable assumption would be that they were similar to those of Ouragan.

The last Mystère IIC was delivered in 1957, by which time the type was already being relegated to advanced training duties. Aircraft design was moving at a breakneck pace in the 1950s and even as the Mystère IIC was becoming operational, the better Dassault Mystère IVA was flying. The Mystère IIC was very much an interim type, though it did persist in the training role until 1963.

There were no foreign buyers for the Mystère II. As noted, the Israelis wanted to buy 24 but changed their minds and bought Mystère IVAs instead. It appears that the Mystère II was never used in combat.

Variants[edit]

MD 452 Mystère I
The first of three prototypes was essentially an Ouragan with a 30-degree swept wing and modified tail surfaces. Two further prototypes followed, powered by the 28.0 kN (6,300 lbf) Rolls-Royce Tay 250 centrifugal-flow turbojet.
MD 452 Mystère IIA
Two prototypes powered by the Tay and armed with four Hispano 20 mm cannon.
MD 452 Mystère IIB
Four IIB prototypes traded the four 20 mm (0.787 in) cannon for two 30 mm (1.181 in) DEFA cannon
MD 452 Mystère IIC
The standard production aircraft for the Armée de l'Air (ALA), with 150 delivered from June 1954. Eleven pre-production IICs were used for operational evaluation and trials with SNECMA Atar 101C axial-flow turbojet and the afterburning Atar 101F.
MD 453 Mystère IIIN
A single Mystère prototype built with lateral intakes and a two-seat cockpit, to continue development of the MD 451 Aladin initiated with the MD 350-30-L modified Ouragan. First flown on 18 July 1952 the sole IIIN was never fitted with a radar and was used for ejection seat trials once development of the MD 451 was abandoned. The second and third prototypes were cancelled before completion.

Operators[edit]

Dassault Mystère II 1956-1957
 France
Dassault Mystère II 1956-1957
 Israel

Specifications (Mystère IIC)[edit]

Data from The Complete Book of FightersGreen, William; Gordon Swanborough (1997). The Complete Book of Fighters. London: Salamander Books Limited. p. 148. ISBN 1 85833 777 1. 

General characteristics

  • Crew: 1
  • Length: 11.7 m (38 ft 5 in)
  • Wingspan: 13.1 m (43 ft 0 in)
  • Height: 4.26 m (14 ft 0 in)
  • Wing area: 30.3 m2 (326 sq ft)
  • Empty weight: 5,225 kg (11,519 lb)
  • Max takeoff weight: 7,475 kg (16,480 lb)
  • Powerplant: 1 × SNECMA Atar 101D axial flow turbojet, 29.4 kN (6,600 lbf) thrust

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 1,060 km/h (659 mph; 572 kn)
  • Range: 885 km (550 mi; 478 nmi)
  • Service ceiling: 15,250 m (50,033 ft)
  • Rate of climb: 23 m/s (4,500 ft/min)

Armament

  • Guns: 2× 30 mm (1.181 in) DEFA cannon with 150 rounds per gun
  • Rockets: 2× Matra rocket pods with 18× 68 mm (2.68 in) SNEB rockets each
  • Bombs: 900 kg (2,000 lb) of payload on four external hardpoints, including a variety of bombs or Drop tanks

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

References[edit]

  • Green, Gordon; Swanborough (1997). The Complete Book of Fighters. London: Salamander Books. p. 148. ISBN 1 85833 777 1. 
  • Donald, David; Lake, Jon, eds. (1996). Encyclopedia of world military aircraft. AIRtime Publishing. ISBN 1-880588-24-2. 
  • Kopenhagen, Wilfried, ed. (1987). Das große Flugzeug-Typenbuch [The large airplane type book] (in German). Transpress. ISBN 3-344-00162-0. 

The initial version of this article was based on a public domain article from Greg Goebel's Vectorsite.