Dates of establishment of diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China

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Since its founding in 1949, the People's Republic of China (PRC) has had a diplomatic tug-of-war with its rival in Taiwan, the Republic of China (ROC). Throughout the Cold War, both governments claimed to be the sole legitimate government of all China and allowed countries to recognize either one or the other. Until the 1970s, most Western countries recognized the ROC while the communist bloc and third world countries generally recognized the PRC. This gradually shifted and today only 22 states recognize the ROC while the PRC is recognized by the United Nations and the majority (172) of sovereign states around the world and Palestine. Both the ROC and the PRC maintain the requirement of recognizing its view of the One-China policy to establish or maintain diplomatic relations.

Countries of the world indicating decade diplomatic relations commenced with the PRC: 1949/1950s (dark red), 1960s (red), 1970s (orange), 1980s (beige) and 1990s/2000s (yellow). Countries not recognised by or not recognising the PRC are in grey. The PRC itself (excluding South Tibet and Taiwan) is in black.

Recognition of the PRC before it was seated at the UN[edit]

1949[edit]

The PRC was established on 1 October 1949, when the Chinese Civil War was still underway, and the seat of Government of the Republic of China was not relocated to Taipei until December 1949. All the countries that recognized the new PRC government were communist states.

Country Date
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (now Russian Federation)[1] 3 October 1949
People's Republic of Bulgaria (now Republic of Bulgaria) 4 October 1949
People's Republic of Romania (now Romania) 5 October 1949
People's Republic of Hungary (now Hungary) 6 October 1949
Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) 6 October 1949
Czechoslovak Republic (now Czech Republic)[2] 6 October 1949
Peoples Republic of Poland (now Republic of Poland) 7 October 1949
Mongolian People's Republic (now Mongolia) 16 October 1949
German Democratic Republic (East Germany)[3] 27 October 1949
Peoples Republic of Albania (now Republic of Albania) 23 November 1949

1950s[edit]

Country Date
Dominion of India (now Republic of India) 1 January 1950
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (request refused by the PRC) [4] 6 January 1950[5]
Swiss Confederation 17 January 1950[6]
Democratic Republic of Vietnam (now Socialist Republic of Vietnam) 18 January 1950
Republic of Indonesia 13 April 1950
Kingdom of Sweden (first western country to establish diplomatic relations) 9 May 1950
Kingdom of Denmark 11 May 1950
Union of Burma (now Republic of the Union of Myanmar) 8 June 1950
Principality of Liechtenstein 14 September 1950
Republic of Finland 28 October 1950
Dominion of Pakistan (now Islamic Republic of Pakistan) 21 May 1951
Kingdom of Norway 5 October 1954
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia [7] 2 January 1955
Kingdom of Afghanistan 20 January 1955
Kingdom of Nepal 1 August 1955
Republic of Egypt 30 May 1956
Syrian Republic 1 August 1956
Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen[8] (North Yemen) 24 September 1956
Dominion of Ceylon (now the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka) 7 February 1957
Kingdom of Cambodia 19 July 1958
Republic of Iraq 25 August 1958
Kingdom of Morocco 1 November 1958
Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic (now People's Democratic Republic of Algeria) 20 December 1958
Republic of Sudan 4 February 1959
Republic of Guinea 4 October 1959

1960s[edit]

Country Date
Republic of Ghana 5 July 1960
Republic of Cuba 28 September 1960
Republic of Mali 25 October 1960
Somali Republic 14 December 1960
Republic of Congo (Leopoldville) [9] 20 February 1961
Kingdom of Laos 25 April 1961
Republic of Uganda 18 October 1962
Republic of Kenya 14 December 1963
Kingdom of Burundi [10] 21 December 1963
Republic of Tunisia 10 January 1964
French Republic 27 January 1964
Republic of Congo (Brazzaville) 22 February 1964
United Republic of Tanzania [11] 26 April 1964
Central African Republic [12] 29 September 1964
Republic of Zambia 29 October 1964
Republic of Dahomey (now Republic of Benin) [13] 12 November 1964
Islamic Republic of Mauritania 19 July 1965
People's Democratic Republic of Yemen [8] (South Yemen) 31 January 1968

1970s[edit]

Country Date
Canada 13 October 1970
Republic of Equatorial Guinea 15 October 1970
Italian Republic 6 November 1970
Empire of Ethiopia (now Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia) 24 November 1970
Republic of Chile 15 December 1970
Federal Republic of Nigeria 10 February 1971
State of Kuwait 22 March 1971
United Republic of Cameroon 26 March 1971
Most Serene Republic of San Marino [14] 6 May 1971
Republic of Austria 28 May 1971
Republic of Sierra Leone 29 July 1971
Republic of Turkey 4 August 1971
Empire of Iran (now Islamic Republic of Iran) 16 August 1971

Recognition of the PRC after it was seated at the UN[edit]

The Republic of China, which had occupied China's seat at the United Nations since 1945, was effectively expelled on 25 October 1971. Its seat was taken over by the People's Republic of China, and the migration of relations to the PRC soon followed among members of the Western Bloc, except for the United Kingdom, France, Canada, and Italy, which had previously established diplomatic relations.

1970s[edit]

Country Date
Kingdom of Belgium 25 October 1971
Republic of Peru 2 November 1971
Republic of Lebanon 9 November 1971
Republic of Rwanda 12 November 1971
Republic of Senegal [15] 7 December 1971
Republic of Iceland 8 December 1971
Republic of Cyprus 14 December 1971
State of Malta (now Republic of Malta) 31 January 1972
United Mexican States 14 February 1972
Argentine Republic 19 February 1972
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland[4] 13 March 1972
Mauritius (Commonwealth realm) 15 April 1972
Kingdom of the Netherlands[4] 18 May 1972
Kingdom of Greece 5 June 1972
Cooperative Republic of Guyana 27 June 1972
Togolese Republic 19 September 1972
Japan 29 September 1972
Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) 11 October 1972
Republic of Maldives 14 October 1972
Democratic Republic of Madagascar (now Republic of Madagascar) 6 November 1972
Grand Duchy of Luxembourg 16 November 1972
Jamaica 21 November 1972
Republic of Chad [16] 28 November 1972
Commonwealth of Australia 21 December 1972
New Zealand 22 December 1972
Francoist Spain (now Kingdom of Spain) 9 March 1973
Republic of Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso) [17] 15 September 1973
Republic of Guinea Bissau [18] 15 March 1974
Republic of Gabon 20 April 1974
Malaysia 31 May 1974
Republic of Trinidad and Tobago 20 June 1974
Republic of Venezuela 28 June 1974
Republic of Niger [19] 20 July 1974
Federative Republic of Brazil 15 August 1974
Republic of the Gambia [20] 14 December 1974
Republic of Botswana 6 January 1975
Republic of the Philippines 9 June 1975
People's Republic of Mozambique 25 June 1975
Kingdom of Thailand 1 July 1975
Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe [21] 12 July 1975
Peoples Republic of Bangladesh 4 October 1975
Dominion of Fiji 5 November 1975
Independent State of Western Samoa 6 November 1975
Comorian State (now Union of the Comoros) 13 November 1975
Republic of Cape Verde 25 April 1976
Republic of Suriname 28 May 1976
Republic of Seychelles 30 June 1976
Independent State of Papua New Guinea 12 October 1976
Republic of Liberia [22] 17 February 1977
Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan 7 April 1977
Barbados 30 May 1977
Sultanate of Oman 25 May 1978
Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (now State of Libya) 9 August1978
United States of America 1 January 1979
Republic of Djibouti 8 January 1979
Portuguese Republic 8 February 1979
Republic of Ireland 22 June 1979

1980s[edit]

Country Date
Republic of Ecuador 2 January 1980
Republic of Colombia 7 February 1980
Republic of Zimbabwe 18 April 1980
Republic of Kiribati [23] 25 June 1980
Republic of Vanuatu 26 March 1982
Antigua and Barbuda 1 January 1983
People's Republic of Angola (now Republic of Angola) 12 January 1983
Republic of Ivory Coast 2 March 1983
Kingdom of Lesotho [24] 30 April 1983
United Arab Emirates 1 November 1984
Republic of Bolivia 9 July 1985
Grenada [25] 1 October 985
Republic of Nicaragua [26] 7 December 19856
Belize [27] 6 February 1987
Oriental Republic of Uruguay 3 February 1988
State of Qatar 9 July 1988
State of Palestine 20 November 1988
State of Bahrain 18 April 1989
Federated States of Micronesia 11 September 1989

1990s[edit]

Country Date
Republic of Namibia 22 March 1990
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 21 July 1990
Republic of Singapore 3 October 1990
Republic of the Marshall Islands[28] 16 November 1990
Republic of Estonia 11 September 1991
Republic of Latvia 12 September 1991
Republic of Lithuania 14 September 1991
State of Brunei Darussalam 30 September 1991
Republic of Uzbekistan 2 January 1992
Republic of Kazakhstan 3 January 1992
Republic of Tajikistan 4 January 1992
Ukraine 4 January 1992
Kyrgyz Republic 5 January 1992
Turkmenistan 6 January 1992
Republic of Belarus 20 January 1992
State of Israel 24 January 1992
Republic of Moldova 30 January 1992
Republic of Azerbaijan 2 April 1992
Republic of Armenia 6 April 1992
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (now the Republic of Serbia)[7] 28 April 1992
Republic of Georgia 9 June 1992
Republic of Slovenia 12 May 1992
Republic of Croatia 13 May 1992
Republic of Korea (South Korea) 24 August 1992
State of Eritrea 24 May 1993
Republic of Macedonia 12 October 1993
Principality of Andorra 29 June 1994
Principality of Monaco[29] 16 January 1995
Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina 3 April 1995
Commonwealth of the Bahamas 23 May 1997
Cook Islands 25 July 1997
Saint Lucia[30] 1 September 1997
Republic of South Africa 1 January 1998
Kingdom of Tonga 2 November 1998

2000s[edit]

Country Date
Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste 20 May 2002
Republic of Nauru [31] 21 July 2002
Commonwealth of Dominica 31 March 2004
Republic of Montenegro 6 July 2006
Republic of Costa Rica 1 June 2007
Niue 12 December 2007
Republic of Malawi 28 December 2007

2010s[edit]

Country Date
The Republic of South Sudan 9 July 2011

See also[edit]

PRC
ROC

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Succeeded by Russia
  2. ^ Succeeded by the Czech Republic. Diplomatic relations with the |Slovak Republic were established on 1 January 1993, mutually agreed to trace the date of establishment of diplomatic relations back to 6 October 1949.</
  3. ^ Succeeded by the Federal Republic of Germany on 3 October 1990.
  4. ^ a b c On 6 January 1950, the United Kingdom recognized the PRC and requested the exchange of ambassadors, but this was refused. The UK and The Netherlands established diplomatic relations at chargé d'affaires level with the PRC on 17 June 1954 and 19 November 1954 respectively. The PRC government does not regard the semi-diplomatic relations at chargé d'affaires level as formal diplomatic ties. The UK does. The PRC consented to the exchange of ambassadors with the UK on 13 March 1972 and with The Netherlands on 18 May 1972. See Sino-British relations for further details.
  5. ^ "Britain Recognizes Chinese Communists: Note delivered in Peking". The Times (London). 7 January 1950. p. 6. ISSN 0140-0460. 
  6. ^ Bilateral relations between Switzerland and China (page visited on 19 August 2014).
  7. ^ a b Serbia attempted to succeed but all other former Yugoslav Republics deferred the attempt, and no consensus was reached in the first period. The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia est. 1992-02-28 was not granted successorship and was placed under international sanctions. In 2001 an Agreement on Succession Issues was signed and reached validity in 2004, by the provisions of that Agreement FRY is not the successor of SFRY. Serbia and Montenegro succeeded the United Nations seat of the FRY (joined the UN as a new member on 2000-11-01) "Succession" of recognition by Serbia, successor state of Serbia and Montenegro is due to international law inadmissible. Arbitration Commission of the Peace Conference on the former Yugoslavia Opinion No. 10 (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia - Serbia and Montenegro). In this decision, the Commission ruled that the FRY (Serbia and Montenegro) could not legally be considered a continuation of the former SFRY, but was rather a new state. Thus the European Community (and the UN) should not automatically recognize the FRY, but apply to it the same criteria applied to the recognition of the other post-SFRY states.
  8. ^ a b Succeeded by the Republic of Yemen. Date of establishment of diplomatic relations was set back to 24 September 1956.
  9. ^ "Bilateral Relations between the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Congo (Kin)". Note also that the Kinshasa-side's state was officially named "Republic of Congo" at the time.
  10. ^ Diplomatic relations were restored on 13 October 1971 after Burundi unilaterally severed relations on 29 January 1965.
  11. ^ PRC had established diplomatic relations with the predecessors of Tanzania, Tanganyika and Zanzibar on 9 December 1961 and 11 December 1963, respectively.
  12. ^ Diplomatic relations were restored on 29 January 1998. CAR resumed diplomatic ties with the ROC on 8 July 1991.
  13. ^ Diplomatic relations were restored on 29 December 1972. Benin resumed diplomatic ties with the ROC in April 1966.
  14. ^ Diplomatic relations were raised to ambassadorial level on 15 July 1991.
  15. ^ Senegal resumed diplomatic relations with the ROC on 6 January 1996. Ties with the PRC were severed from 9 January 1996, until 25 October 2005, when ties were resumed.
  16. ^ Diplomatic relations were restored on 6 August 2006. Diplomatic relations were severed on 15 August 1997 after Chad resumed diplomatic ties with the ROC on 12 August 1997.
  17. ^ Diplomatic relations were severed on 4 February 1994. Burkina Faso resumed diplomatic ties with the ROC on 2 February 1994.
  18. ^ Diplomatic relations were restored on 13 April 1998. Guinea Bissau recognized the ROC on 26 May 1990.
  19. ^ Diplomatic relations were restored on 19 August 1996. PRC suspended diplomatic relations on 19 July 1992 after Niger resumed ties with the ROC on 30 June 1992.
  20. ^ Diplomatic relations were severed on 25 July 1995. Gambia resumed diplomatic ties with the ROC on 13 July 1995.
  21. ^ São Tomé and Príncipe established diplomatic relations with the ROC on 6 May 1997. The PRC suspended diplomatic relations on the same day.
  22. ^ Diplomatic relations were restored on 10 August 1993. Liberia resumed diplomatic ties with the ROC on 9 October 1989. Diplomatic relations with the PRC has been severed since 9 September 1997 because the Liberian Government's recognition of a "Two Chinas" Policy. However, the PRC and Liberia normalized their relations on 11 October 2003.
  23. ^ Diplomatic relations were severed on 29 November 2003. Kiribati recognized the ROC on 7 November 2003.
  24. ^ Diplomatic relations were restored on 12 January 1994. Lesotho resumed diplomatic ties with the ROC on 5 April 1990.
  25. ^ Diplomatic relations were restored on 20 January 2005. Grenada recognized the ROC on 19 July 1989.
  26. ^ Diplomatic relations were severed on 9 November 1990. Nicaragua resumed diplomatic ties with the ROC on 6 November 1990.
  27. ^ Diplomatic relations were severed on 23 October 1989. Belize recognized the ROC on 11 October 1989.
  28. ^ Diplomatic relations were severed on 11 December 1998. Marshall Islands recognized the ROC on 20 November 1998.
  29. ^ Diplomatic relations were raised to ambassadorial level on 6 February 2006.
  30. ^ Diplomatic relations were severed on 5 May 2007. St. Lucia resumed diplomatic ties with the ROC on 30 April 2007.
  31. ^ Diplomatic relations were severed on 31 May 2005. Nauru resumed diplomatic ties with the ROC on 14 May 2005.

External links[edit]