Dates of establishment of diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China

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Since its founding in 1949, the People's Republic of China (PRC) has had a diplomatic tug-of-war with its rival in Taiwan, the Republic of China (ROC). Throughout the Cold War, both governments claimed to be the sole legitimate government of all China and allowed countries to recognize either one or the other. Until the 1970s, most Western countries recognized the ROC while the communist bloc and third world countries generally recognized the PRC. This gradually shifted and today only 22 states recognize the ROC while the PRC is recognized by the United Nations and the majority (171) of sovereign states around the world and Palestine. Both the ROC and the PRC maintain the requirement of recognizing its view of the One-China policy to establish or maintain diplomatic relations.

Countries of the world indicating decade diplomatic relations commenced with the PRC: 1949/1950s (dark red), 1960s (red), 1970s (orange), 1980s (beige) and 1990s/2000s (yellow). Countries not recognised by or not recognising the PRC are in grey. The PRC itself (excluding South Tibet and Taiwan) is in black.

Recognition of the PRC before it was seated at the UN[edit]

1949[edit]

The PRC was established on October 1, 1949, when the Chinese Civil War was still underway, and the seat of Government of the ROC was not relocated to Taipei until December, 1949. All the countries that recognized the new PRC government were Communist states.

Country Date
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (now Russian Federation)[1] October 3, 1949
People's Republic of Bulgaria (now Republic of Bulgaria) October 4, 1949
People's Republic of Romania (now Romania) October 5, 1949
People's Republic of Hungary (now Hungary) October 6, 1949
Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) October 6, 1949
Czechoslovak Republic (now Czech Republic)[2] October 6, 1949
Peoples Republic of Poland (now Republic of Poland) October 7, 1949
Mongolian People's Republic (now Mongolia) October 16, 1949
German Democratic Republic (East Germany)[3] October 27, 1949
Peoples Republic of Albania (now Republic of Albania) November 23, 1949

1950s[edit]

Country Date
Republic of India January 1, 1950
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland [4] January 6, 1950[5]
Democratic Republic of Vietnam (now Socialist Republic of Vietnam) January 18, 1950
Republic of Indonesia April 13, 1950
Kingdom of Sweden May 9, 1950
Kingdom of Denmark May 11, 1950
Union of Burma (now Republic of the Union of Myanmar) June 8, 1950
Swiss Confederation September 14, 1950
Principality of Liechtenstein September 14, 1950
Republic of Finland October 28, 1950
Dominion of Pakistan (now Islamic Republic of Pakistan) May 21, 1951
Kingdom of Norway October 5, 1954
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia [6] January 2, 1955
Kingdom of Afghanistan January 20, 1955
Kingdom of Nepal August 1, 1955
Republic of Egypt May 30, 1956
Syrian Republic August 1, 1956
Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen[7] (North Yemen) September 24, 1956
Dominion of Ceylon (now the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka) February 7, 1957
Kingdom of Cambodia July 19, 1958
Republic of Iraq August 25, 1958
Kingdom of Morocco November 1, 1958
Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic (now People's Democratic Republic of Algeria) December 20, 1958
Republic of Sudan February 4, 1959
Republic of Guinea October 4, 1959

1960s[edit]

Country Date
Republic of Ghana July 5, 1960
Republic of Cuba September 28, 1960
Republic of Mali October 25, 1960
Somali Republic December 14, 1960
Republic of Congo (Leopoldville) [8] February 20, 1961
Kingdom of Laos April 25, 1961
Republic of Uganda October 18, 1962
Republic of Kenya December 14, 1963
Kingdom of Burundi [9] December 21, 1963
Republic of Tunisia January 10, 1964
French Republic January 27, 1964
Republic of Congo (Brazzaville) February 22, 1964
United Republic of Tanzania [10] April 26, 1964
Central African Republic [11] September 29, 1964
Republic of Zambia October 29, 1964
Republic of Dahomey (now Republic of Benin) [12] November 12, 1964
Islamic Republic of Mauritania July 19, 1965
People's Democratic Republic of Yemen [7] (South Yemen) January 31, 1968

1970s[edit]

Country Date
Canada October 13, 1970
Republic of Equatorial Guinea October 15, 1970
Italian Republic November 6, 1970
Empire of Ethiopia (now Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia) November 24, 1970
Republic of Chile December 15, 1970
Federal Republic of Nigeria February 10, 1971
State of Kuwait March 22, 1971
United Republic of Cameroon March 26, 1971
Most Serene Republic of San Marino [13] May 6, 1971
Republic of Austria May 28, 1971
Republic of Sierra Leone July 29, 1971
Republic of Turkey August 4, 1971
Empire of Iran (now Islamic Republic of Iran) August 16, 1971

Recognition of the PRC after it was seated at the UN[edit]

The Republic of China, which had occupied China's seat at the United Nations since 1945, was effectively expelled on October 25, 1971. Its seat was taken over by the People's Republic of China, and the migration of relations to the PRC soon followed among members of the Western Bloc, except for the United Kingdom, France, Canada, and Italy, which had previously established diplomatic relations.

1970s[edit]

Country Date
Kingdom of Belgium October 25, 1971
Republic of Peru November 2, 1971
Republic of Lebanon November 9, 1971
Republic of Rwanda November 12, 1971
Republic of Senegal [14] December 7, 1971
Republic of Iceland December 8, 1971
Republic of Cyprus December 14, 1971
State of Malta (now Republic of Malta) January 31, 1972
United Mexican States February 14, 1972
Argentine Republic February 19, 1972
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland[4] March 13, 1972
Mauritius (Commonwealth realm) April 15, 1972
Kingdom of the Netherlands[4] May 18, 1972
Kingdom of Greece June 5, 1972
Cooperative Republic of Guyana June 27, 1972
Togolese Republic September 19, 1972
Japan September 29, 1972
Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) October 11, 1972
Republic of Maldives October 14, 1972
Democratic Republic of Madagascar (now Republic of Madagascar) November 6, 1972
Grand Duchy of Luxembourg November 16, 1972
Jamaica November 21, 1972
Republic of Chad [15] November 28, 1972
Commonwealth of Australia December 21, 1972
New Zealand December 22, 1972
Francoist Spain (now Kingdom of Spain) March 9, 1973
Republic of Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso) [16] September 15, 1973
Republic of Guinea Bissau [17] March 15, 1974
Republic of Gabon April 20, 1974
Malaysia May 31, 1974
Republic of Trinidad and Tobago June 20, 1974
Republic of Venezuela June 28, 1974
Republic of Niger [18] July 20, 1974
Federative Republic of Brazil August 15, 1974
Republic of the Gambia [19] December 14, 1974
Republic of Botswana January 6, 1975
Republic of the Philippines June 9, 1975
People's Republic of Mozambique June 25, 1975
Kingdom of Thailand July 1, 1975
Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe [20] July 12, 1975
Peoples Republic of Bangladesh October 4, 1975
Dominion of Fiji November 5, 1975
Independent State of Western Samoa November 6, 1975
Comorian State (now Union of the Comoros) November 13, 1975
Republic of Cape Verde April 25, 1976
Republic of Suriname May 28, 1976
Republic of Seychelles June 30, 1976
Independent State of Papua New Guinea October 12, 1976
Republic of Liberia [21] February 17, 1977
Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan April 7, 1977
Barbados May 30, 1977
Sultanate of Oman May 25, 1978
Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (now State of Libya) August 9, 1978
United States of America January 1, 1979
Republic of Djibouti January 8, 1979
Portuguese Republic February 8, 1979
Republic of Ireland June 22, 1979

1980s[edit]

Country Date
Republic of Ecuador January 2, 1980
Republic of Colombia February 7, 1980
Republic of Zimbabwe April 18, 1980
Republic of Kiribati [22] June 25, 1980
Republic of Vanuatu March 26, 1982
Antigua and Barbuda January 1, 1983
People's Republic of Angola (now Republic of Angola) January 12, 1983
Republic of Ivory Coast March 2, 1983
Kingdom of Lesotho [23] April 30, 1983
United Arab Emirates November 1, 1984
Republic of Bolivia July 9, 1985
Grenada [24] October 1, 1985
Republic of Nicaragua [25] December 7, 1985
Belize [26] February 6, 1987
Oriental Republic of Uruguay February 3, 1988
State of Qatar July 9, 1988
State of Palestine November 20, 1988
State of Bahrain April 18, 1989
Federated States of Micronesia September 11, 1989

1990s[edit]

Country Date
Republic of Namibia March 22, 1990
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia July 21, 1990
Republic of Singapore October 3, 1990
Republic of the Marshall Islands[27] November 16, 1990
Republic of Estonia September 11, 1991
Republic of Latvia September 12, 1991
Republic of Lithuania September 14, 1991
State of Brunei Darussalam September 30, 1991
Republic of Uzbekistan January 2, 1992
Republic of Kazakhstan January 3, 1992
Republic of Tajikistan January 4, 1992
Ukraine January 4, 1992
Kyrgyz Republic January 5, 1992
Turkmenistan January 6, 1992
Republic of Belarus January 20, 1992
State of Israel January 24, 1992
Republic of Moldova January 30, 1992
Republic of Azerbaijan April 2, 1992
Republic of Armenia April 6, 1992
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (now the Republic of Serbia)[6] April 28, 1992
Republic of Georgia June 9, 1992
Republic of Slovenia May 12, 1992
Republic of Croatia May 13, 1992
Republic of Korea (South Korea) August 24, 1992
State of Eritrea May 24, 1993
Republic of Macedonia October 12, 1993
Principality of Andorra June 29, 1994
Principality of Monaco[28] January 16, 1995
Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina April 3, 1995
Commonwealth of the Bahamas May 23, 1997
Cook Islands July 25, 1997
Saint Lucia[29] September 1, 1997
Republic of South Africa January 1, 1998
Kingdom of Tonga November 2, 1998

2000s[edit]

Country Date
Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste May 20, 2002
Republic of Nauru [30] July 21, 2002
Commonwealth of Dominica March 31, 2004
Republic of Montenegro July 6, 2006
Republic of Costa Rica June 1, 2007
Niue December 12, 2007
Republic of Malawi December 28, 2007

2010s[edit]

Country Date
The Republic of South Sudan July 9, 2011

See also[edit]

PRC
ROC

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Succeeded by Russia
  2. ^ Succeeded by the Czech Republic. Diplomatic relations with the |Slovak Republic were established on January 1, 1993, mutually agreed to trace the date of establishment of diplomatic relations back to October 6, 1949.</
  3. ^ Succeeded by the Federal Republic of Germany on October 3, 1990.
  4. ^ a b c On January 6, 1950, the United Kingdom recognized the PRC and requested the exchange of ambassadors, but this was refused. The UK and The Netherlands established diplomatic relations at chargé d'affaires level with the PRC on June 17, 1954 and November 19, 1954 respectively. The PRC government does not regard the semi-diplomatic relations at chargé d'affaires level as formal diplomatic ties. The UK does. The PRC consented to the exchange of ambassadors with the UK on March 13, 1972 and with The Netherlands on May 18, 1972. See Sino-British relations for further details.
  5. ^ "Britain Recognizes Chinese Communists: Note delivered in Peking". The Times (London). January 7, 1950. p. 6. ISSN 0140-0460. 
  6. ^ a b Serbia attempted to succeed but all other former Yugoslav Republics deferred the attempt, and no consensus was reached in the first period. The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia est. 1992-02-28 was not granted successorship and was placed under international sanctions. In 2001 an Agreement on Succession Issues was signed and reached validity in 2004, by the provisions of that Agreement FRY is not the successor of SFRY. Serbia and Montenegro succeeded the United Nations seat of the FRY (joined the UN as a new member on 2000-11-01) "Succession" of recognition by Serbia, successor state of Serbia and Montenegro is due to international law inadmissible. Arbitration Commission of the Peace Conference on the former Yugoslavia Opinion No. 10 (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia - Serbia and Montenegro). In this decision, the Commission ruled that the FRY (Serbia and Montenegro) could not legally be considered a continuation of the former SFRY, but was rather a new state. Thus the European Community (and the UN) should not automatically recognize the FRY, but apply to it the same criteria applied to the recognition of the other post-SFRY states.
  7. ^ a b Succeeded by the Republic of Yemen. Date of establishment of diplomatic relations was set back to September 24, 1956.
  8. ^ "Bilateral Relations between the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Congo (Kin)". Note also that the Kinshasa-side's state was officially named "Republic of Congo" at the time.
  9. ^ Diplomatic relations were restored on October 13, 1971 after Burundi unilaterally severed relations on January 29, 1965.
  10. ^ PRC had established diplomatic relations with the predecessors of Tanzania, Tanganyika and Zanzibar on December 9, 1961 and December 11, 1963, respectively.
  11. ^ Diplomatic relations were restored on January 29, 1998. CAR resumed diplomatic ties with the ROC on July 8, 1991.
  12. ^ Diplomatic relations were restored on December 29, 1972. Benin resumed diplomatic ties with the ROC in April 1966.
  13. ^ Diplomatic relations were raised to ambassadorial level on July 15, 1991.
  14. ^ Senegal resumed diplomatic relations with the ROC on January 6, 1996. Ties with the PRC were severed from January 9, 1996, until October 25, 2005, when ties were resumed.
  15. ^ Diplomatic relations were restored on August 6, 2006. Diplomatic relations were severed on August 15, 1997 after Chad resumed diplomatic ties with the ROC on August 12, 1997.
  16. ^ Diplomatic relations were severed on February 4, 1994. Burkina Faso resumed diplomatic ties with the ROC on February 2, 1994.
  17. ^ Diplomatic relations were restored on April 13, 1998. Guinea Bissau recognized the ROC on May 26, 1990.
  18. ^ Diplomatic relations were restored on August 19, 1996. PRC suspended diplomatic relations on July 19, 1992 after Niger resumed ties with the ROC on June 30, 1992.
  19. ^ Diplomatic relations were severed on July 25, 1995. Gambia resumed diplomatic ties with the ROC on July 13, 1995.
  20. ^ São Tomé and Príncipe established diplomatic relations with the ROC on May 6, 1997. The PRC suspended diplomatic relations on the same day.
  21. ^ Diplomatic relations were restored on August 10, 1993. Liberia resumed diplomatic ties with the ROC on October 9, 1989. Diplomatic relations with the PRC has been severed since September 9, 1997 because the Liberian Government's recognition of a "Two Chinas" Policy. However, the PRC and Liberia normalized their relations on October 11, 2003.
  22. ^ Diplomatic relations were severed on November 29, 2003. Kiribati recognized the ROC on November 7, 2003.
  23. ^ Diplomatic relations were restored on January 12, 1994. Lesotho resumed diplomatic ties with the ROC on April 5, 1990.
  24. ^ Diplomatic relations were restored on January 20, 2005. Grenada recognized the ROC on July 19, 1989.
  25. ^ Diplomatic relations were severed on November 9, 1990. Nicaragua resumed diplomatic ties with the ROC on November 6, 1990.
  26. ^ Diplomatic relations were severed on October 23, 1989. Belize recognized the ROC on October 11, 1989.
  27. ^ Diplomatic relations were severed on December 11, 1998. Marshall Islands recognized the ROC on November 20, 1998.
  28. ^ Diplomatic relations were raised to ambassadorial level on February 6, 2006.
  29. ^ Diplomatic relations were severed on May 5, 2007. St. Lucia resumed diplomatic ties with the ROC on April 30, 2007.
  30. ^ Diplomatic relations were severed on May 31, 2005. Nauru resumed diplomatic ties with the ROC on May 14, 2005.

External links[edit]