Kuhmareyi language

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Kuhmareyi
Southwestern Fars
Native to Iran
Native speakers
100,000  (2012)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 fay
Glottolog sout2645[2]

Kuhmareyi is one of the languages of southwestern Fars. It is a cluster of disparate dialects; the one illustrated here is the Davani dialect (Davani: devani;[3] Persian: دوانی‎, UniPers: Davâni) of the village of Davan, 12 kilometers north of Kazerun city in southern Iran. Davani had an estimated 1,000 speakers in 2004.[4]

Phonology[edit]

The transcription used here is only an approximation.[5]

Vowels[edit]

short: â, a, e, i, o, u
long: â:, ā, ē, ī, ō, ū

Consonants[edit]

Grammar[edit]

Verbs[edit]

Davani is ergative in past transitive constructions. For example (Persian transliterations are in UniPers):

English: Hasan saw Ali in the garden.
Persian: Hasan,      Ali-râ tuye bâq did.
Davani:  hasan-eš   ali-a   tu    bâγ di.

Infinitive markers include -san, -tan, -dan, -ðan.

Nouns[edit]

The suffix -aku makes nouns definite. For example:

bard "stone" → bard-aku "the stone"

The plural is marked by the suffix -gal. -u is exceptionally used for "man". For example:

sēv "apple" → sēv-gal "apples"
merd "man" → merd-u "men"

Pronouns[edit]

Personal Pronouns [4]
Person Singular Plural
1st ma mu
2nd to shumu
3rd u
oy
unā
ushu

Vocabulary[edit]

English Davani Persian (Unipers)
beautiful ju, jônek zibâ, xoščehre
blood xin xun
bread nu, nen nân
bring avâðan âvardan
brother borâk, borâ barâdar
come ameðan, aneðan âmadan
cry gerīðan geristan
dark târīk târik
daughter dōt, dōðar doxtar
day ru, rez ruz
do kētan kardan
door dar dar
die mordan mordan
donkey xar xar
egg xoy toxme morq
earth zimi zamin
eye čiš čašm
father bu, bâva, bova pedar
fear ters tars
fiancé numzâð nâmzad
fine xoš xoš
finger pinja, piling angošt
fire tiš âtaš, âzar
fish meyi mâhi
food / eat xorâk/ xâtan qazâ, xorâk / xordan
go šeðan raftan
god xoðâ xodâ
good xūv xub
great got, γoč bozorg, gonde, gat
hand das dast
English Davani Persian (Unipers)
head tek, kalla, ser sar, kalle
heart del del
horse asp asb, astar
house xuna xâne
language/tongue zavu zabân
laugh xanda kētan xandidan
man merd mard
moon mâh
mother deyi, dey mâdar, mâmân
mouth kap, kač dahân
name num nâm
night šô šab
open vâkētan bâz kardan
peace sōl âshti, ârâmeš, ârâmi
place jo
read xondan xândan
say gâ:tan goftan, gap zadan
scratch kerniðan xârândan
sister xāk, xā xâhar
small xujak, kem, xordek, rēz, vahila kucak, kam, xord, riz
son pos, keraku pesar, pur, bacce
tall boland boland, bârez, derâz
three so se
water ô âb, ow
weave vâtseriðan bâftan
when ki key
wind bâð bâd
woman zan zan
yesterday dig diruz

Example sentences[edit]

English Davani Persian Unipers
What is this? i tsi-yen? این چیست؟ In cist?
Where is Ali? ali an kâ? علی کجاست؟ Ali kojâst?
This horse is white. i asp-e espe-hâ. .این اسب سفید است In asb sefid ast.
Go (and) chain Rostam's hand (and) bring him here, so that I give you the crown and the kingdom. beða dass-e rostam huven-eš bâ injo ke-t ma tâj šâi hâðe. .برو دست رستم را ببند، اینجا بیاور تا من تاج شاهی را به تو بدهم Boro daste Rostam râ beband, injâ beyâvar, tâ man tâje šâhi râ be to bedaham.
They say he works 10 hours a day. mege-yen rez-i dā sât kâr mēku. .میگویند روزی ده ساعت کار میکند Miguyand ruzi dah sâat kâr mikonad.
I have two small brothers and sisters. dikko-m borô xey-e xord-ek he. .دو برادر و خواهر کوچک دارم Do barâdar va xâhare kucak dâram.
If you will go just once to their village, you won't forget the hospitality of its people. agar hami akeš-a šesse-bi-ya velât-ešu hargese-tu meymu dâri-šu az yâð nemēšu. .اگر تنها یکبار به ده آنها رفته باشی، مهمان‌نوازی مردم آنجا را هرگز از یاد نخواهی برد Agar tanhâ yekbâr be dehe ânhâ rafte bâši, mehmânnavâziye mardome ânjâ râ hargez az yâd naxâhid bord.
Who called me? ke-š čer-om ze? چه کسی مرا صدا زد؟ Cekasi marâ sedâ zad?

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kuhmareyi at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Southwestern Fars". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ Encyclopedia Iranica article on Davani
  4. ^ a b Salami, A., 1383 AP / 2004 AD. Ganjineye guyeššenâsiye Fârs (The treasury of the dialectology of Fars). First Volume, The academy of Persian language and literature. [1] ISBN 964-7531-32-X (in Persian)
  5. ^ Mahamedi, H., 1982. The story of Rostam and Esfandiyâr in an Iranian dialect,Journal of the American Oriental Studies, 102.3, 451-459.

Further reading[edit]

  • Morgenstierne, G., 1960. Stray notes on Persian dialects, II, Fârs Dialects-Davâni. Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap, XIX, 123–129.
  • Hasamzada-Haqiqi, C., 1970. Guyeše Davâni (Davani Dialect), in Proceedings of the First Congress of Iranian Studies. Tehran University, 77–98.
  • Mahamedi, H., 1979. On the verbal system in three Iranian dialects of Fârs, in Studia Iranica, VIII, 2, 277–297.
  • Salami, A., 1381 AP / 2002 AD. Farhange guyeše Davâni (The Dictionary of Davani dialect). The academy of Persian language and literature. [2] ISBN 964-7531-03-6 (in Persian).

External links[edit]