|Born||David John Snowden
1 April 1954
Ongar, Essex, England
|Residence||Lockeridge, Wiltshire, England|
MBA (Financial Management)
|Alma mater||University of Lancaster
|Occupation||Academia, researcher, consultant|
David John Snowden (born 1 April 1954) is a Welsh academic, consultant and researcher in the field of knowledge management. He is the founder and chief scientific officer of Cognitive Edge, a research network focusing on complexity theory in sensemaking.
Snowden, an authority on the application of complexity theory to organisations, tacit knowledge and an observer of the way knowledge is used in organisations; has written scholarly articles and contributed to books on leadership, knowledge management, strategic thinking, strategic planning, conflict resolution, weak signal detection, decision support and organisational development.
He holds an MBA from Middlesex University, and a BA in Philosophy from Lancaster University; and started his working career with Data Sciences Ltd (formerly Thorn EMI software), acquired by IBM in 1996. He was the Director of IBM's Institute for Knowledge Management, and the founder of the Cynefin Center for Organizational Complexity. Snowden developed the Cynefin framework, a practical application of complexity theory to management science.
Early life and education
Snowden was born in Ongar, Essex, England to Welsh parents. When he was three, his parents returned to Wales; and Snowden grew up in Mold, Flintshire, where he attended the Alun School. In 1975, he was awarded a degree in Philosophy from the University of Lancaster, where he was a member of County College. He then worked for the Student Christian Movement for three years. He obtained an MBA degree in Financial Management, studying part-time, from Middlesex University.
In 1984, Snowden joined Thorn EMI Software - the consulting, systems integration, and outsourcing service division of Thorn EMI plc, a former UK defence electronics company. He joined Data Sciences Ltd; when Thorn EMI Software division became a subject of management buyout, (MBO) and demerged to Data Sciences in 1991. He held several positions while at Thorn EMI Software/Data Sciences.
In 1996, Data Sciences was acquired by IBM; and he became a director in the IBM Institute for Knowledge Management, and then founded their Cynefin Centre for Organisational Complexity. The framework helps managers determine the prevailing operative context, enabling appropriate choices and decisions. Snowden explains the choice of the term Cynefin //: [it is] a Welsh word that signifies the "multiple factors in our environment and our experience that influence us in ways we can never understand". Cynefin has a meaning similar to 'habitat' and is also used "as an adjective used to convey 'acquainted' or 'familiar'."
He is the founder, and currently the Chief Scientific Officer, of Cognitive Edge, a research network focusing on the development of the theory and practice of sensemaking. He is an advisor on sensemaking to the Ministry of Defence, Singapore.
Snowden joined as a visiting professor at the University of Pretoria in 2007. He is currently an adjunct at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University; and a visiting fellow at Warwick University, Nanyang University, the Università Cattolica and the Singapore Management College.
Snowden is the author of several articles and book chapters including the development of narrative as a research method, role of complexity theory in sensemaking, application of complex adaptive systems theory to a range of social issues and knowledge management. He has written a column on the trends in technology, social issues and the scientific use of narrative; called Everything is fragmented. In 2008, he won the Academy of Management award for an "Outstanding Practitioner-Oriented Publication in OB" for a Harvard Business Review article co-authored with Mary E. Boone on Leadership. In 2011 the same paper was a Citations of Excellence winner as one of the 50 best papers published in 2007, based on research impact.
He is an editor-in-chief of the journal, Emergence: Complexity and Organisation and a director of funding allocation for the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council on the subject of emergence. A selection of his scholarly works and articles, are the following;
- Snowden, David J. (1996). "Story telling: an old skill in a new context". Business Information Review 16 (4): 30–37. doi:10.1177/0266382994237045.
- Snowden, David J. (July 2000). "Cynefin, A Sense of Time and Place: an Ecological Approach to Sense Making and Learning in Formal and Informal Communities". Conference proceedings of KMAC at the University of Aston. CiteSeerX: 10.1.1.196.3058.
- Snowden, David J. Cynefin: a sense of time and space, the social ecology of knowledge management in Despres, Charles; Chauvel, Daniele (October 2000). Knowledge Horizons: The Present and the Promise of Knowledge Management. Butterworth-Heinemann.
- Snowden, David J. (December 2000). "The art and science of Story or ‘Are you sitting uncomfortably?’". Business Information Review 17 (4): 215–226. doi:10.1177/0266382004237782.
- Snowden, David J. (2002). "Complex acts of knowing: paradox and descriptive self-awareness". Journal of Knowledge Management 6 (2): 100–111. doi:10.1108/13673270210424639.
- Snowden, David J.; Kurtz, C. F. (2003). "The new dynamics of strategy: Sense-making in a complex and complicated world". IBM Systems Journal 42 (3): 462–483. doi:10.1147/sj.423.0462. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
- Snowden, David J.; Boone, Mary E (1 November 2007). "A Leader’s Framework for Decision Making of the circumstances they face". Harvard Business Review Journal (November 2007).
- Lock Pin, Chew; Klein, Gary; Snowden, David (June 2007). "Anticipatory Thinking". Asilomar Conference Grounds, Pacific Grove, CA.: NDM8 - the Eighth International Conference on Naturalistic Decision Making.
- "Biography of Professor Dave Snowden". University of Pretoria. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- "Interview with David J Snowden on Decision Making". IBS Case Development Centre (IBSCDC). May 2008. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- "Outstanding Publication in OB". Organizational Behavior Division of the Academy of Management. OBWeb. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
- Bio from the book "Knowledge Horizons: The Present and the Promise of Knowledge Management". Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- Stewart, Thomas A (7 September 1998). "The Cunning Plots of Leadership". Fortune Magazine. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
- White, Martin (20 October 2004). "Knowledge Management Involves neither Knowledge nor Management". EContent Magazine (Information Today) (October 2004). Retrieved 21 February 2010.
- "LinkedIn profile - Dave Snowden". LinkedIn. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- "Biography: Dave Snowden". Copenhagen - International Software Development Conference 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- Snowden, David J. (July 2000). "Cynefin, A Sense of Time and Place: an Ecological Approach to Sense Making and Learning in Formal and Informal Communities". Conference proceedings of KMAC at the University of Aston.
- Snowden, David J. (2000). "Cynefin: a sense of time and space, the social ecology of knowledge management".
- Despres, Charles; Chauvel, Daniele (October 2000). Knowledge Horizons: The Present and the Promise of Knowledge Management. Butterworth-Heinemann.
- "Biography of David Snowden" (PDF). Retrieved 23 February 2010.
- "THORN,EMI plc". Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- "Data Sciences (Company Profile)". Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- "IBM to acquire Data Sciences". Strait Times. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- Snowden, David J.; Boone, Mary E (1). "A Leader’s Framework for Decision Making of the circumstances they face". Harvard Business Review Journal (November 2007).
- Williams, Kyffin (2001). The Land & the Sea. Llandysul: Gomer. ISBN 9781859025536. Retrieved 31 March 2010.
- Tennis, Joseph T. "Three Spheres of Classification Research: Emergence, Encyclopedism, and Ecology". Information School. University of Washington, Seattle. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
- Vinson, Jack (31 October 2007). "Dave Snowden interviewed by Jon Husband". Knowledge Jolt. Retrieved 3 February 2010.
- A Sensemaking Experiment Techniques towards achieving Cognitive Precision
- A Sensemaking Experiment – Enhanced Reasoning Techniques to Achieve Cognitive Precision (Abstract Acceptance I-070)
- Papers & Presentations, Ministry of Defence (Singapore)
- Thinking about the Future— Strategic Anticipation and RAHS
- "Biography: Dave Snowden". The actKM Forum 9th annual Conference 2008. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- Snowden, Dave (2009). "Everything is fragmented". KMWorld Magazine (Information Today). Retrieved 21 February 2010.
- "E:CO - Editorial Board". Institute for the Study of Coherence and Emergence (ISCE). ISCE. 22 December 2008. Retrieved 21 February 2010.
- List of articles by Dave Snowden