Daventry

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Coordinates: 52°16′N 1°10′W / 52.26°N 1.16°W / 52.26; -1.16

Daventry
Daventry is located in Northamptonshire
Daventry
Daventry
 Daventry shown within Northamptonshire
Population 25,026 (2011 Census)
OS grid reference SP5762
Civil parish Daventry
District Daventry district
Shire county Northamptonshire
Region East Midlands
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town DAVENTRY
Postcode district NN11
Dialling code 01327
Police Northamptonshire
Fire Northamptonshire
Ambulance East Midlands
EU Parliament East Midlands
UK Parliament Daventry
List of places
UK
England
Northamptonshire

Daventry /ˈdævəntri/ (historically /ˈdntri/) is a market town in Northamptonshire, England, with a population of 25,026 (2011 census).

The town is also the administrative centre of the larger Daventry district, which has a population of 77,843 (2011 census).

Geography[edit]

The town is 76.4 miles (123 km) north-northwest of London via the M1 motorway, 13.9 miles (22.4 km) west of Northampton, 10.2 miles (16.4 km) southeast of Rugby.[1] and 15.8 miles (25.2  km) north-north east of Banbury.

Other nearby places include: Southam, Coventry and the villages of Ashby St Ledgers, Badby, Barby, Braunston, Byfield, Charwelton, Dodford, Dunchurch, Everdon, Fawsley, Hellidon, Kilsby, Long Buckby, Newnham, Norton, Staverton, Welton, Weedon, and Woodford Halse. The town is twinned with Westerburg, Germany.

The town sits at around 440–520 ft (135–160 m) above sea level. It is surrounded to the south and east by hills topping out at 700 ft (215 m). To the north and west the land is generally lower than the town. Daventry sits on the watershed of the River Leam which flows to the west of England and the River Nene which flows east. There is no river in the town and the largest gatherings of water are two reservoirs made to supply the canal that swings from Watford Gap into the west midlands through the 2,042 yd (1.9 km) long Braunston Tunnel around the north of the town. To the north west is Drayton Reservoir[2] and to the north east is the Daventry Reservoir and country park.

Watford Gap is about 4 miles (7 km) to the north east of the town. Through this gap pass the A5 (Watling Street Roman road), the Grand Union Canal, West Coast Main Line railway, the Northampton Loop Line and most recently the M1 motorway.

Daventry is near the M1 motorway with access to two junctions: 18 to the northeast and 16 to the southeast of the town. Access to the town is from junction 16 of the M1 via the A45 which forms a ring -road to the south and west bypassing the town centre via Stefen Way, merging with the A425 along Leamington Way and continuing as the A45 through Dunchurch to Coventry. The A425 acts as a ring road to the east of the town centre. The town is also served by junction 18 of the M1 and via a short stretch of the A5 to the northern end of the very long A361. From the south west there is access from junction 11 of the M40 along the A361.

Local and regional bus services are provided by Stagecoach[3] from their bases in Northampton, Rugby, Banbury and Leamington Spa. Villages without a regular connection to Daventry have a bookable County Connect[4] bus service run by Centrebus under a County Council contract. A daily coach service connects the town[5] with destinations between Liverpool and Southend.

The nearest railway station is at Long Buckby where access is gained to London Midland services to Birmingham New Street, Northampton and London Euston via the Northampton loop of the West Coast Main Line. Inter-city services (Virgin Trains and London Midland) can be accessed from Rugby railway station and Banbury railway station (Chiltern Railways, CrossCountry and First Great Western).

The nearest major international airport is Birmingham Airport.

Daventry now has several housing estates, which include: Drayton, Middlemore Farm, Lang Farm, Ashby Fields, Royal Oak, Timken, Stefen Hill, The Grange, the Headlands and the Southbrook and Borough Hill. Work is expected to start during 2013 on the first 200 houses of the planned 1,000 for the new site of Monksmoor by developers Crest Nicholson.

Characteristics[edit]

Daventry's Burton Memorial

The town comprises a historic market centre surrounded by much modern housing and light industrial development. On the edge of the town centre is the popular Daventry Country Park and reservoir, just east of the A425.

There are 74 buildings or groups of buildings[6] in the centre of Daventry that are on the List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest led by the Church of Holy Cross at grade I. Grade II* buildings include the Saracen’s Head (now Wetherspoons [7]), the Moot Hall (see below), the Wheatsheaf (now a residential home), 27, 29, 36, 57, 59 High Street and 2, 20, and 22 Sheaf Street. Grade II listed buildings include several in Market Place, Church Walk, New Street, High Street, Sheaf Street and the United Reformed Church, the Burton Memorial (commemorating Edmund Charles Burton, Town Clerk of Daventry;[8] see photo at left), Danetre Hospital Offices (former workhouse) and Middlemore Farmhouse (now a pub), also in Drayton – School Street and Orchard Street.

A street market is held every Tuesday and Friday in High Street, although its original site was on the aptly named Market Square. On the first Saturday of each month a farmers' market is held in High Street.

The town once had a railway station on the former LNWR branch-line from Weedon to Leamington Spa, but it was closed on 15 September 1958 and is now demolished. The local weekly newspaper, the Daventry Express, is nicknamed 'The Gusher', after the steam engine that used to serve the town.

An alternative pronunciation for Daventry used by locals is 'Daintree,' but this has become less common.[9][10]

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

On the 653-foot-high (199 m) Borough Hill that overlooks the town, remains have been found of an Iron Age hill fort – one of the largest found in Britain. Remains have also been found on the hill of a Roman villa. Danetre was a Viking Settlement made by the Danish Vikings invading England, which is how its name derived. These Vikings were led by Ivar the Boneless; all of Eastern Anglia was eventually taken over. Danetre, as it was known then, was a Viking stronghold. People in Daventry still claim Viking descent.

Saxons[edit]

Daventry began as a small Anglo-Saxon village in around 920 and by the 12th century had become home to a priory. In 1255 Daventry was granted a charter to become a market town. In 1576 Queen Elizabeth I granted Daventry borough status.

The town was mentioned by William Shakespeare in Henry VI, Part I, which refers to "the red-nosed innkeeper of Daintree".

The earliest form of the name of Daventry, the Celtic dwy-afon-tre, "the town of two avons,"(i.e. "the town of two rivers"), describes its geographical situation between the nearby sources of the River Leam, which flows west, and the River Nene which flows east.[11] The "Daintree" Shakespeare wrote about, the name persisting to this day, spelt Danetre, grew from a tradition that Danish settlers planted an oak tree on the summit of Borough Hill to mark the centre of England. This part of the town's history is reflected in the town's seal of a Viking/Saxon axeman and an oak tree. The town appears as Dauentre on the Christopher Saxton map of 1637.

English Civil War[edit]

During the English Civil War, the army of King Charles I stayed at Daventry in 1645 after storming the Parliamentary garrison at Leicester and on its way to relieve the siege of Oxford. The Royalist army, made up of 5,000 foot and as many horse, camped on Borough Hill (then spelt Burrow Hill) while Charles went hunting in the nearby forests.

According to local legend, it was during his stay at the Wheatsheaf Inn in Daventry that Charles was twice visited by the ghost of his former adviser and friend, Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford, who advised him to keep heading north and warned him that he would not win through force of arms.

However, Parliament's newly formed New Model Army, led by Sir Thomas Fairfax, was marching north from besieging Oxford after being instructed to engage the king's main army. Fairfax's leading detachments of horse clashed with Royalist outposts near Daventry on the 12th of June, alerting the king to the presence of the Parliamentary army. The Royalists made for their reinforcements at Newark-on-Trent but after reaching Market Harborough turned to fight, which resulted in the decisive Battle of Naseby. The village of Naseby is approximately 14 miles (23 km) northeast of Daventry.

Stagnation and decline 1840–1960[edit]

The main roads from London to Holyhead passed through Daventry and the town for centuries flourished as a coaching town. There were many coaching inns in the town of which only the Dun Cow, Saracens Head and the Coach and Horses remain as inns.

The Dun Cow, an old coaching inn, a grade II listed building

But when the London and Birmingham Railway was opened in 1838 the coaching trade slumped and the town entered a long period of stagnation and decline which lasted for over a century. The Industrial Revolution largely passed Daventry by owing to its poor transport links. The canals passed around Daventry, although the Grand Junction Canal (now Grand Union) passed a few miles north. A branch from the Grand Union Canal to Daventry was proposed but was never built.[12]

The railways did not connect Daventry until quite late in the 19th century. Although the town was only a few miles from the main London to Birmingham line it took until 1888 before a branch line was built from Weedon to Daventry railway station. In 1895 the line was extended to Leamington Spa, although being only a branch line this failed to spur much growth. Daventry's economy remained largely rural, with shoemaking as the main industry.

The parish church[edit]

Holy Cross Church, a grade I listed building

Holy Cross is the parish church of Daventry. It has been the only Church of England church in the town, except for a period between 1843 and 1960 when there was a daughter church of St James. It is the only 18th-century town church in Northamptonshire.[13] It was built between 1752 and 1758 by David Hiorne and is constructed of the local ironstone. The western elevation is broad with large pilasters at the angles and the angles of the centre bay. The entrance porch was added in 1951. The tower rises from the centre bay and is square ending with an obelisk spire rising above. Inside, the church has three wooden galleried aisles, to the north, south and west elevations. The pulpit is decorated with marquetry and fretwork and has a staircase with twisted balusters. Above the altar at the eastern elevation is a three-bayed Venetian stained glass window. There is heraldic glass in the two upper west windows. There are C18 and C19 grey and white marble wall monuments in the chancel, finely carved gallery monument of 1707, 1800 gallery monument by Cox, and 1741 by B Palmer.[14]

The Heritage at Risk Register for 2012[15] states that "Holy Cross is clearly well cared for and well maintained. However, some high level ironstone blocks and limestone balusters have weathered badly. Parapet and balustrade masonry is of particular concern. Some masonry fragments have already fallen. A grant was offered in December 2011" .. and, with locally raised funds and a large anonymous donation, work was carried out between May and October 2013.

The bells[edit]

Some time after 1550 a new Gothic church was erected, and in 1700 Bridges[16] records the inscriptions of the five bells then hanging in the tower, some of which bore the name of the Watts foundry of Leicester. In 1738, these five, together with three other bells formerly hanging in the tower of Catesby Priory, were recast by Thomas Eayre, of Kettering, into a fine ring of eight with a 16+ cwt. tenor. They were rehung in the new tower in 1754, and with the exception of the 6th, which was recast by Joseph Eayre at St. Neots in 1764, they survived intact until 1908, when the tenor, having become badly cracked, was recast with added metal by John Taylor & Co. In 1915 the 7th fell in two pieces during service ringing one Sunday and this, too, was recast at Loughborough. By 1938 the bells were badly in need of rehanging, and the old oak frame was strengthened and the bells hung on cast iron headstocks and ball-bearings. Another bell, the 3rd, became cracked in 1951 and was recast. Inspection by Frederick Sharpe in 1960 and later by Taylors revealed that the frame was once again moving considerably, and the bells were consequently not always easy to ring—particularly the tenor. The cause was found to be the ends of the massive supporting beams which had rotted in the walls. The enthusiasm of the local ringers led to the decision to install a frame for ten and to add two new trebles; at the same time it was thought advisable to recast the old treble, 2nd and 4th—the ringers undertaking to pay for two of them. The dedication of the newly restored bells coincided with the visit of the Central Council of Church Bell Ringers to Northampton in 1965, and it is not merely local pride to say that they are among the very finest light rings of ten bells to be found anywhere.[17] Practice night is Tuesdays 7.30pm to 9pm and the bells are rung from 8.50am for the 9.30am service every Sunday. Further details can be found here. The single bell removed from St James' Church when it was demolished is kept in the ringing room of Holy Cross. It has the inscription 'Thomas Mears Founder London 1839', diameter 22 7/16 in. and weighs 2cwt 2qrs.

The Moot Hall[edit]

The Moot Hall, Daventry

The Moot Hall stands on the north side of the market square next to the Plume of Feathers inn. It was built in 1769[13] from ironstone and has had various uses over the years, including town council building, a women’s prison, the mayor's parlour, town museum and tourist information office, an Indian restaurant and an antiques centre, is of two and a half storeys, and has three bays of windows. The main entrance and its porch is on the western elevation where the building is connected to a house built in 1806. The original staircase from the Moot Hall is now installed at Welton Manor House.[13]

Broadcasting station[edit]

BBC transmitter seen from the town

In 1925 the newly created BBC constructed a broadcasting station on Borough Hill[18] just outside the town. Daventry was chosen because it was the point of maximum contact with the land mass of England and Wales. From 1932 the BBC Empire Service (now the BBC World Service) was broadcast from there. The radio announcement of "Daventry calling" made Daventry well-known across the world. It was the BBC's use of the literal pronunciation in this call-sign that resulted in the widespread displacement of the historical pronunciation "Daintree" (ˈdeɪntri), though the latter is still used in some circumstances locally, as in the name of Danetre Hospital.

On the early morning of Tuesday 26 February 1935 the radio station at Daventry (Borough Hill) was used for the first-ever practical demonstration of radar, by its inventor Robert Watson-Watt and Arnold Frederic Wilkins, who used a radio receiver installed in a trailer at Stowe Nine Churches (just off the A5 about three miles (5 km) south of Weedon Bec and in the Daventry district) to receive signals bounced off a metal-clad Handley Page Heyford bomber flying across the radio transmissions. The interference picked up from the aircraft allowed its approximate navigational position to be estimated.

Birth of Radar memorial

The station closed in 1992 and only one of the radio masts now remains. A busy directional radio beacon (VOR), identifier "DTY", for aircraft is situated approximately 4 miles (6.4 km) south of the town. The town also gives its name to the busy Daventry air traffic control sector.

75 Years to the day (26 February 2010) Teams from the Coventry Amateur Radio Society & The Northhampton Radio Club re-enacted the 'Daventry Experiment'. Signals from GB75RDF at Borough Hill, reflected from aircraft all of which were flown by radio hams, were detected in a receiving set housed in a replica Morris van. The receiving station set up in the field that is the home to The Birth of RADAR memorial at Litchborough. The report of this to be found at http://www.andrewphotographic.co.uk/g8gmu9c.htm The team was led by Brian Leathley - Andrew G8GMU

See also Borough Hill Roman villa.

Modern times[edit]

High Street, Daventry

The modern growth of Daventry occurred from the 1960s onwards as part of a planned expansion of the town.

Daventry remained a small rural town until the 1950s; in 1950 it had a population of around 4,000. Real growth started in 1955 when the tapered roller bearing manufacturer Timken located a large factory in the town (the factory closed in 1993 although the distribution Centre stayed open until 2000).[19]

In the early 1960s, Daventry was designated as an 'overspill' to house people and industry moved from Birmingham; a planned expansion was carried out as part of an agreement with Birmingham City Council. The plan did not, however, live up to expectations. The target population was 36,000 by 1981, but actual growth was much slower than this; nevertheless, by 1981 the population had climbed to 16,178; by 2001 it was 22,367 and by 2011 it was 25,026. More recently, a new wave of development has been proposed which could take the town's population to about 40,000 by 2021.[20]

In 1974, the old borough of Daventry was abolished and merged into the new Daventry district, which also included a large rural area and had a population of 71,838 in 2001, rising to 77,843 in 2011. In 2003, Daventry gained its own Town Council[21] when it became a civil parish. The mayor of Daventry is elected annually.

Warehouse of J. D. Wetherspoon

In 2006, the outdoor pool – which had been built and funded by Daventry residents in the 1950s following the drowning of three children in the local reservoir – was closed due funding difficulties.[22] In 2007, Daventry began plans to modernise the town with a futuristic personal rapid transit system that would link outer estates to the town centre, and a canal arm with marina next to the former site of the outdoor pool.

In November 2012 it was announced by ITV studios that a series of the popular Channel 4 show "Come Dine With Me" will be filmed in Daventry and surrounding villages[23]

Local economy[edit]

Cummins engine plant

Cummins have their largest UK plant at the town where they manufacture their largest diesel engines that are suitable for marine, railcar and generator set uses.

Owing to its good transport links, Daventry is now a warehousing and distribution centre. North of the town Daventry International Rail Freight Terminal (DIRFT) is a major terminal for freight interchange between road and rail. This is much closer to Rugby than Daventry, being situated just off junction 18 of the M1 (its original northern terminus in 1959 until 1964).

Due to the proximity to the M1, Ford opened up a large national spare parts distribution warehouse on the Royal Oak Industrial Estate. The 130-acre (0.53 km2) building, took Taylor Woodrow a year to build at a cost of £2.25 m and was for many years considered the largest building in the United Kingdom.

A new national distribution centre was opened in 2004, run by DHL, for J D Wetherspoon on the Drayton Fields Industrial Estate, north west of the town.

In 2011 a landmark building was opened in Eastern Way - the iCon. It provides conferencing and 55 supported units for businesses involved in low carbon construction and environmental technologies. It also includes a café, exhibition space and an auditorium for 300 people. Funding for the project came from the European Regional Development Fund, the East Midlands Development Agency and the West Northamptonshire Development Corporation. Daventry District Council and Northamptonshire County Council have donated the land for the project. It is now operated by the University of Northampton.

Education[edit]

Sixth form provision in the town has been confounded by successive Government policies. From September 1989, the County Council decided to close the newest of the three comprehensive schools (The Grange) and strip the William Parker School and the Southbrook School of their sixth forms. The Grange site was converted to become Daventry Tertiary College, providing education and training for 16 – 18 year olds. When Government moved control of Further Education colleges and their assets in 2001 from county councils to the Learning and Skills Council, the Tertiary College was included. To provide greater financial and professional support, it became part of Northampton College in August 2004. Due to the strong and popular attractions of the sixth forms of nearby Rugby schools, the Daventry Learning Partnership was set up by the two secondary schools and the college (and later included Moulton College) to jointly provide a more competitive offering. After the county councils had failed in efforts to reduce the attraction of the Rugby schools, it was decided in 2010 to reintroduce sixth forms to the two Daventry secondary schools, both of which have now transformed into academies.

Today, Daventry has two secondary schools: The Parker E-ACT Academy to the north of the town and Danetre and Southbrook Learning Village[24] to the east, near the BBC transmitter, both with thriving sixth-forms and the Daventry campus of Northampton College. In September 2013 Daventry University Technical College opened. It is a part of the university technical college programme, and offers 14–19 years old students technical as well as academic courses of education.

Primary education facilities include St James' Junior School, Falconer's Hill Junior School, Abbey Junior School, Ashby Fields Primary School - which is a values-based school,The Grange School and the primary part of the Danetre and Southbrook Learning Village.

Sport and leisure[edit]

Daventry has two Non-League football teams Daventry United F.C. who play at Royal Oak Way and Daventry Town F.C. who play at Communications Park.

King's Quest[edit]

From the 1980s to 1990s, the popular King's Quest series of adventure games was set in a fictional kingdom of Daventry, entirely unrelated to the real Daventry other than the name.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ Ordnance Survey Explorer Map, Rugby & Daventry 222, ISBN 978-0-319-23734-2
  2. ^ Drayton Reservoir
  3. ^ Stagecoach
  4. ^ County Connect
  5. ^ National Express
  6. ^ British Listed Buildings
  7. ^ Wetherspoons
  8. ^ http://www.waymarking.com/waymarks/WM8FK7_The_Burton_Memorial_Market_Square_Daventry_Northamptonshireref
  9. ^ Vision of Britain
  10. ^ House of Names
  11. ^ Datchworth - Dean, West | A Topographical Dictionary of England (pp. 15-23). British-history.ac.uk (2003-06-22). Retrieved on 2013-07-17.
  12. ^ "Daventry Canal Association". History. Daventry. 2011. Retrieved 29 June 2011. 
  13. ^ a b c The Buildings of England, Northamptonshire, by Nikolaus Pevsner, 2nd Edition revised by Bridget Cherry, p. 173. ISBN 0-14-071022-1
  14. ^ British Listed Buildings citation
  15. ^ [1], Heritage at Risk 2012 - see page 61.
  16. ^ The History and Antiquities of Northamptonshire (published in 1790 although the material was gathered earlier)
  17. ^ The Ringing World p710 September 11, 1970
  18. ^ http://www.bbceng.info/Books/dx-world/dx-calling-the-world-2008a.pdf
  19. ^ BBC news article
  20. ^ West Northamptonshire Development Corporation Vision for Daventry
  21. ^ Daventry Town Council
  22. ^ "Outdoor pool shuts after 40 years". BBC News. 4 September 2006. "An outdoor swimming pool, built following the deaths of five children in a reservoir, is shut down." 
  23. ^ Come Dine With Me casting in Daventry - Local. Daventry Express (2012-10-25). Retrieved on 2013-07-17.
  24. ^ Danetre and Southbrook Learning Village
Bibliography
  • Greenall, R.L. (1999). Daventry Past. Chichester, West Sussex: Phillimore & Co. ISBN 1-86077-108-4.

External links[edit]

Media related to Daventry at Wikimedia Commons