David Hockney

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"Hockney" redirects here. For the British politician see Damian Hockney. See also Hockney-Falco thesis.
David Hockney
Hockney, We Two Boys Together Clinging.jpg
We Two Boys Together Clinging (1961)
Born (1937-07-09) 9 July 1937 (age 77)
Bradford, West Riding of Yorkshire, England
Nationality British
Education Bradford School of Art (1953–1957)
Royal College of Art (1959–1962)
Known for Painting, Printmaking, Photography, Set design
Movement Pop art
Awards John Moores Painting Prize (1967)
Companion of Honour (1997)
Royal Academician
Order of Merit (2012)

David Hockney, OM CH RA (born 9 July 1937) is an English painter, draughtsman, printmaker, stage designer and photographer. He lives in Bridlington, East Riding of Yorkshire, and Kensington, London.[1] Hockney maintains two residences in California, where he lived on and off for over 30 years: one in Nichols Canyon, Los Angeles, and an office and archives on Santa Monica Boulevard[2] in West Hollywood.[3][4]

An important contributor to the Pop art movement of the 1960s, he is considered one of the most influential British artists of the 20th century.[5][6]

Life[edit]

Hockney depicted in The Threads That Bind Us, embroidered hanging, by Morwenna Catt and Lucas Stephens, Bradford City Hall

Hockney was born in Bradford, England, on 9 July 1937 to Laura and Kenneth Hockney (a conscientious objector in the Second World War), the fourth of five children.[7][8] He was educated at Wellington Primary School, Bradford Grammar School, Bradford College of Art and the Royal College of Art in London, where he met R. B. Kitaj.[7] While there, Hockney said he felt at home and took pride in his work. At the Royal College of Art, Hockney featured in the exhibition Young Contemporaries—alongside Peter Blake—that announced the arrival of British Pop art. He was associated with the movement, but his early works display expressionist elements, not dissimilar to some works by Francis Bacon. When the RCA said it would not let him graduate in 1962, Hockney drew the sketch The Diploma in protest. He had refused to write an essay required for the final examination, saying he should be assessed solely on his artworks. Recognising his talent and growing reputation, the RCA changed its regulations and awarded the diploma.

A Bigger Splash (1967), Tate Collection, London.

A visit to California, where he subsequently lived for many years, inspired him to make a series of paintings of swimming pools in the comparatively new acrylic medium rendered in a highly realistic style using vibrant colours. The artist moved to Los Angeles in 1964, returned to London in 1968, and from 1973 to 1975 lived in Paris. He moved to Los Angeles in 1978, at first renting the canyon house he lived in and later bought the property and expanded it to include his studio.[9] He also owned a 1,643-square-foot beach house at 21039 Pacific Coast Highway in Malibu, which he sold in 1999 for around $1.5 million.

Hockney is openly gay,[10] and unlike Andy Warhol, whom he befriended, he openly explored the nature of gay love in his portraiture. Sometimes, as in We Two Boys Together Clinging (1961), named after a poem by Walt Whitman, the works refer to his love for men. Already in 1963, he painted two men together in the painting Domestic Scene, Los Angeles, one showering while the other washes his back.[11] In summer 1966, while teaching at UCLA he met Peter Schlesinger, an art student who posed for paintings and drawings.[12]

On the morning of 18 March 2013, Hockney's 23-year-old assistant, Dominic Elliott, died as a result of drugs, drinking acid and alcohol at Hockney's Bridlington studio. Elliott was a first- and second-team player for Bridlington rugby club. It was reported that Hockney's partner drove Elliott to Scarborough General Hospital where he later died.[13][14]

Work[edit]

Hockney made prints, portraits of friends, and stage designs for the Royal Court Theatre, Glyndebourne, La Scala and the Metropolitan Opera in New York City. Born with synesthesia, he sees synesthetic colours in response to musical stimuli. This does not show up in his painting or photography artwork, but is a common underlying principle in his designs for stage sets for ballet and opera—where he bases background colours and lighting on the colours he sees while listening to the piece's music.

Portraits[edit]

Hockney painted portraits at different periods in his career. From 1968, and for the next few years he painted friends, lovers, and relatives just under lifesize and in pictures that depicted good likenesses of his subjects. Hockney's own presence is often implied, since the lines of perspective converge to suggest the artist's point of view.[11] Hockney has repeatedly returned to the same subjects - his parents, artist Mo McDermott (Mo McDermott, 1976), various writers he has known, fashion designers Celia Birtwell and Ossie Clark (Mr and Mrs Clark and Percy, 1970–71), curator Henry Geldzahler, art dealer Nicholas Wilder,[15] George Lawson and his ballet dancer lover, Wayne Sleep.[11]

On arrival in California, Hockney changed from oil to acrylic paint, applying it as smooth flat and brilliant colour. In 1965, the print workshop Gemini G.E.L. approached him to create a series of lithographs with a Los Angeles theme. Hockney responded by creating a ready-made art collection.[16]

The "joiners"[edit]

In the early 1980s, Hockney began to produce photo collages, which he called "joiners",[17] first using Polaroid prints and subsequently 35mm, commercially-processed color prints. Using Polaroid snaps or photolab-prints of a single subject, Hockney arranged a patchwork to make a composite image.[18] An early photomontage was of his mother. Because the photographs are taken from different perspectives and at slightly different times, the result is work that has an affinity with Cubism, one of Hockney's major aims—discussing the way human vision works. Some pieces are landscapes, such as Pearblossom Highway #2,[5][19] others portraits, such as Kasmin 1982,[20] and My Mother, Bolton Abbey, 1982.[21]

Creation of the "joiners" occurred accidentally. He noticed in the late sixties that photographers were using cameras with wide-angle lenses. He did not like these photographs because they looked somewhat distorted. While working on a painting of a living room and terrace in Los Angeles, he took Polaroid shots of the living room and glued them together, not intending for them to be a composition on their own. On looking at the final composition, he realized it created a narrative, as if the viewer moved through the room. He began to work more with photography after this discovery and stopped painting for a while to exclusively pursue this new technique. Frustrated with the limitations of photography and its 'one eyed' approach, however,[22] he returned to painting.

Later work[edit]

In 1976, at Atelier Crommelynck, Hockney created a portfolio of 20 etchings, The Blue Guitar: Etchings By David Hockney Who Was Inspired By Wallace Stevens Who Was Inspired By Pablo Picasso.[23] The etchings refer to themes in a poem by Wallace Stevens, "The Man With The Blue Guitar". It was published by Petersburg Press in October 1977. That year, Petersburg also published a book, in which the images were accompanied by the poem's text.[24]

Hockney was commissioned to design the cover and pages for the December 1985 issue of the French edition of Vogue. Consistent with his interest in cubism and admiration for Pablo Picasso, Hockney chose to paint Celia Birtwell (who appears in several of his works) from different views, as if the eye had scanned her face diagonally.

In December 1985, Hockney used the Quantel Paintbox, a computer program that allowed the artist to sketch directly onto the screen. Using the program was similar to drawing on the PET film for prints, with which he had much experience. The resulting work was featured in a BBC series that profiled a number of artists.

His artwork was used on the cover of the 1989 British Telecom telephone directory for Bradford.

Hockney returned more frequently to Yorkshire in the 1990s, usually every three months, to visit his mother[25] who died in 1999. He rarely stayed for more than two weeks until 1997,[25] when his friend Jonathan Silver who was terminally ill encouraged him to capture the local surroundings. He did this at first with paintings based on memory, some from his boyhood. Hockney returned to Yorkshire for longer and longer stays, and by 2005 was painting the countryside en plein air.[25] He set up residence and an immense redbrick seaside studio, a converted industrial workspace, in the seaside town of Bridlington, about 75 miles from where he was born.[26] The oil paintings he produced after 2005 were influenced by his intensive studies in watercolour (for over a year in 2003–2004).[27] He created paintings made of multiple smaller canvases—nine, 15 or more—placed together. To help him visualize work at that scale, he used digital photographic reproductions; each day's work was photographed, and Hockney generally took a photographic print home.[25]

In June 2007, Hockney's largest painting, Bigger Trees Near Warter, which measures 15 feet by 40 feet, was hung in the Royal Academy's largest gallery in its annual Summer Exhibition.[28] This work "is a monumental-scale view of a coppice in Hockney's native Yorkshire, between Bridlington and York. It was painted on 50 individual canvases, mostly working in situ, over five weeks last winter."[29] In 2008, he donated it to the Tate Gallery in London, saying: "I thought if I'm going to give something to the Tate I want to give them something really good. It's going to be here for a while. I don't want to give things I'm not too proud of ... I thought this was a good painting because it's of England ... it seems like a good thing to do."[30]

Since 2009, Hockney has painted hundreds of portraits, still lifes and landscapes using the Brushes iPhone[31] and iPad[32] application, often sending them to his friends.[32] His show Fleurs fraîches (Fresh flowers) was held at La Fondation Pierre Bergé in Paris. A Fresh-Flowers exhibit opened in 2011 at the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto, featuring more than 100 of his drawings on 25 iPads and 20 iPods.[33] In late 2011, Hockney revisited California to paint Yosemite National Park on his iPad.[34] For the season 2012–2013 in the Vienna State Opera he designed, on his iPad, a large scale picture (176 sqm) as part of the exhibition series Safety Curtain, conceived by museum in progress.

Set designs[edit]

Hockney's first opera designs, for Stravinsky's The Rake's Progress at the Glyndebourne Festival Opera in England in 1975 and The Magic Flute (1978) were painted drops.[35] In 1981, he agreed to design sets and costumes for three 20th-century French works at the Metropolitan Opera House with the title Parade. The works were Parade, a ballet with music by Erik Satie; Les mamelles de Tirésias, an opera with libretto by Guillaume Apollinaire and music by Francis Poulenc, and L'enfant et les sortilèges, an opera with libretto by Colette and music by Maurice Ravel.[36] The set for L'enfant et les sortilèges is a permanent installation at the Spalding House branch of the Honolulu Museum of Art. He designed sets for Puccini's Turandot in 1991 at the Chicago Lyric Opera and a Richard Strauss Die Frau ohne Schatten in 1992 at the Royal Opera House in London.[35] In 1994, he designed costumes and scenery for twelve opera arias for the TV broadcast of Plácido Domingo's Operalia in Mexico City. Technical advances allowed him to become increasingly complex in model-making. At his studio he had a proscenium opening 6 feet (1.8 m) by 4 feet (1.2 m) in which he built sets in 1:8 scale. He also used a computerized setup that let him punch in and program lighting cues at will and synchronize them to a soundtrack of the music.[35]

Exhibitions[edit]

Hockney had his first one-man show when he was 26 in 1963, and by 1970 the Whitechapel Gallery in London had organized the first of several major retrospectives, which subsequently travelled to three European institutions.[37] In 2004, he was included in the cross-generational Whitney Biennial, where his portraits appeared in a gallery with those of a younger artist he had inspired, Elizabeth Peyton.[3]

In October 2006, the National Portrait Gallery in London organized one of the largest ever displays of Hockney's portraiture work, including 150 paintings, drawings, prints, sketchbooks, and photocollages from over five decades. The collection ranged from his earliest self-portraits to work he completed in 2005. Hockney assisted in displaying the works and the exhibition, which ran until January 2007, was one of the gallery's most successful. In 2009, "David Hockney: Just Nature" attracted some 100,000 visitors at the Kunsthalle Würth in Schwäbisch Hall, Germany.[25]

From 21 January 2012 to 9 April 2012, the Royal Academy presented A Bigger Picture,[38] which included more than 150 works, many of which take entire walls in the gallery's brightly lit rooms. The exhibition is dedicated to landscapes, especially trees and tree tunnels.[39] Works include oil paintings and watercolours inspired by his native Yorkshire. Around 50 drawings were created on an iPad[40] and printed on paper. Hockney said, in a 2012 interview, "It's about big things. You can make paintings bigger. We're also making photographs bigger, videos bigger, all to do with drawing."[41] The exhibition moved to the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Spain from 15 May to 30 September, and from there to the Ludwig Museum in Cologne, Germany, between 27 October 2012 and 3 February 2013.[42]

From 26 October 2013 to 30 January 20 David Hockney: A Bigger Exhibition was presented at the de Young Museum, one of the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, showing work since 2002 and including Photoshop portraits, multi-canvas oils, iPad landscapes and digital movies shot with multiple cameras.[43]

'Hockney, Printmaker', curated by Richard Lloyd, International Head of Prints at Christie's, was the first major exhibition to focus on Hockney's prolific career as a printmaker.[44] The exhibition ran from 5 February 2014 to 11 May 2014 at Dulwich Picture Gallery before going on tour to The Bowes Museum, Barnard Castle.[45][46]

Collections[edit]

Many of Hockney's works are housed in Salts Mill, in Saltaire, near his home town of Bradford. Writer Christopher Isherwood's collection is considered the most important private collection of his work. In the 1990s, Isherwood's long-time partner Don Bachardy donated the collection to a foundation. His work is in numerous public and private collections worldwide, including:

Recognition[edit]

In 1967, Hockney's painting, Peter Getting Out Of Nick's Pool, won the John Moores Painting Prize at the Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool. Hockney was offered a knighthood in 1990 but declined, before accepting an Order of Merit in January 2012.[47][48] He was awarded The Royal Photographic Society's Progress medal in 1988[49] and the Special 150th Anniversary Medal and Honorary Fellowship (HonFRPS) in recognition of a sustained, significant contribution to the art of photography in 2003.[50][51] He was made a Companion of Honour in 1997[52] and is a Royal Academician.[53] In 2012, Queen Elizabeth II appointed him to the Order of Merit, an honor restricted to 24 members at any one time for their contributions to the arts and sciences.[26]

He was a Distinguished Honoree of the National Arts Association, Los Angeles, in 1991 and received the First Annual Award of Achievement from the Archives of American Art, Los Angeles, in 1993. He was appointed to the Board of Trustees of the American Associates of the Royal Academy Trust, New York in 1992 and was given a Foreign Honorary Membership to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1997. In 2003, Hockney was awarded the Lorenzo de' Medici Lifetime Career Award of the Florence Biennale, Italy.[54]

Commissioned by The Other Art Fair, a November 2011 poll of 1,000 British painters and sculptors declared him Britain's most influential artist of all time.[55]

Art market[edit]

A Bigger Grand Canyon, 1998, National Gallery of Australia.

From 1963, Hockney has been represented by art dealer John Kasmin, as well as by Annely Juda Fine Art, London. On 21 June 2006, Hockney's painting, The Splash sold for £2.6 million.[56] His A Bigger Grand Canyon, a series of 60 paintings that combined to produce one enormous picture, was bought by the National Gallery of Australia for $4.6 million. Beverly Hills Housewife (1966–67), a 12-foot-long acrylic that depicts the collector Betty Freeman standing by her pool in a long hot-pink dress, sold for $7.9 million at Christie's in New York in 2008, the top lot of the sale and a record price for a Hockney.[3]

The Hockney-Falco thesis[edit]

In the 2001 television programme and book, Secret Knowledge, Hockney posited that the Old Masters used camera obscura techniques that projected the image of the subject onto the surface of the painting. Hockney argues that this technique migrated gradually to Italy and most of Europe, and is the reason for the photographic style of painting we see in the Renaissance and later periods of art. He published his conclusions in the 2001 book "Secret Knowledge: Rediscovering the Lost Techniques of the Old Masters," which was revised in 2006.[3]

Public life[edit]

Like his father, Hockney was a conscientious objector, and worked as a medical orderly in hospitals during his National Service, 1957–59.[57]

Hockney was a founder of the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles in 1979.[9] He serves on the advisory board of the political magazine Standpoint,[58] and contributed original sketches for its launch edition, in June 2008.[59]

He is a staunch pro-tobacco campaigner and was invited to guest-edit the Today programme on 29 December 2009 to air his views on the subject.[60]

In October 2010, he and a hundred other artists signed an open letter to the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport, Jeremy Hunt protesting against cutbacks in the arts.[61]

In popular culture[edit]

Fashion[edit]

In 2005, Burberry creative director Christopher Bailey centered his entire spring/summer menswear collection around the artist and in 2012 fashion designer Vivienne Westwood, a close friend, named a checked jacket after Hockney[62] In 2011 British GQ named him one of the 50 Most Stylish Men in Britain and in March 2013 he was listed as one of the Fifty Best-dressed Over-50s by The Guardian.[63]

Film[edit]

Hockney was the subject of Jack Hazan's film, A Bigger Splash (1974), named after one of Hockney's most famous swimming pool paintings from 1967.

Hockney was also the inspiration of artist Billy Pappas in the documentary film Waiting for Hockney (2008), which debuted at the Tribeca Film Festival in 2008.[64]

Hockney appears as an artistic consultant in the documentary film Tim's Vermeer.

Print[edit]

David Hockney: A Rake's Progress (2012) is a biography of Hockney covering the years 1937–75, by writer/photographer Christopher Simon Sykes.[65]

Radio[edit]

On 14 August 2012, Hockney was the subject of BBC Radio Four's The New Elizabethans, presented by James Naughtie.[66] In December 2012, The Sunday Times published for the first time works that it had commissioned Hockney to produce on a 1963 trip to Egypt and which had been shelved because of the Assassination of John F. Kennedy. Hockney had been paid in full but the works had never been previously published.[67]

Television[edit]

In The Sopranos (S1/E3), Tony Soprano and his comare Irina Peltsin discuss her painting (of a swimming pool) that reminds her of David Hockey.

David Hockney Foundation[edit]

In 2012, Hockney, worth an estimated $55.2 million (approx. £36.1 m) transferred paintings valued at $124.2 million (approx. £81.5 m) to the David Hockney Foundation, and gave an additional $1.2 million (approx. £0.79 m) in cash to help fund the foundation's operations. The artist plans to give away the paintings, through the foundation, to galleries including the Los Angeles County Museum of Art and the Tate in London.[68]

Books by Hockney[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wright, Karen (Summer 2010). "Brushes with Hockney". Intelligent Life. Retrieved 19 August 2011. 
  2. ^ David Hockney, Mulholland Drive (1980) LACMA. Retrieved 1 May 2013
  3. ^ a b c d Kino, Carol (15 October 2009). "David Hockney's Long Road Home". New York Times. Retrieved 13 October 2012. 
  4. ^ Vogel, Carol (11 October 2012). "Hockney's Wide Vistas". New York Times. Retrieved 12 April 2014. 
  5. ^ a b J. Paul Getty Museum. David Hockney. Retrieved 13 September 2008.
  6. ^ "David Hockney A Bigger Picture". Royal Academy of Arts. Retrieved 18 January 2012. 
  7. ^ a b Gayford, Martin (2011). A Bigger Message: Conversations with David Hockney. p. 236. ISBN 9780500238875. 
  8. ^ Sykes, Christopher Simon (2011). Hockney: The Biography, Volume 1. London: Century. p. 13. 
  9. ^ a b Weinraub, Bernard (15 August 2001). "Enticed by Bright Light; From David Hockney, a Show of Photocollages in Los Angeles". New York Times. Retrieved 12 April 2014. 
  10. ^ Reynolds, Emma (27 March 2009). "Your chance to own an 'exceptional' Hockney". Islington Tribune. Retrieved 16 July 2014. 
  11. ^ a b c White, Edmund (8 September 2006). "Sunlight, beaches and boys". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 12 April 2014. 
  12. ^ Solomon, Deborah (17 August 2012). "California Dreams". New York Times. Retrieved 12 April 2014. 
  13. ^ "Artist David Hockney's assistant dies". Reuters via ABC News Online. 19 March 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2014. 
  14. ^ "Dominic Elliott died from drinking acid". BBC News. 29 August 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2014. 
  15. ^ Nicholas Wilder, 51, Artist and Art Dealer New York Times, 16 May 1989.
  16. ^ David Hockney, A Hollywood Collection (S.A.C. 41-46; Tokyo 41-46) (1965) Christie's, Hockney on Paper, 17 February 2012, London.
  17. ^ Hockney on Photography: Conversations with Paul Joyce (1988) ISBN 0-224-02484-1
  18. ^ Walker, John. (1992) "Joiners". Glossary of Art, Architecture & Design since 1945, 3rd. ed.
  19. ^ Image of Pearblossom Highway
  20. ^ Image of Kasmin 1982
  21. ^ Image of photocollage My Mother, Bolton Abbey, 1982
  22. ^ Hockney on Art – Paul Joyce ISBN 1-4087-0157-X
  23. ^ Hockney, Davis (1976–1977). "The Old Guitarist' From The Blue Guitar". British Council; Visual Arts. Petersburg Press. Retrieved 20 June 2012. 
  24. ^ Hockney, David; Stevens, Wallace (1 January 1977). The Blue Guitar: Etchings By David Hockney Who Was Inspired By Wallace Stevens Who Was Inspired By Pablo Picasso. Petersburg Ltd. ISBN 978-0-902825-03-1. Retrieved 20 June 2012. 
  25. ^ a b c d e Isenberg, Barbara (6 December 2009). "The worlds of David Hockney". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 14 April 2014. 
  26. ^ a b Chu, Henry (12 February 2012). "David Hockney brings color back home". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 14 April 2014. 
  27. ^ a b David Hockney: Paintings 2006–2009, 29 October – 24 December 2009 Pace Gallery, New York.
  28. ^ Bigger Trees near Warter as seen in the Royal Academy, June 2007
  29. ^ Higgins, Charlotte (8 April 2008). "Hockney's big gift to the Tate: a 40ft landscape of Yorkshire's winter trees". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 July 2014. 
  30. ^ Simon Crerar "David Hockney donates Bigger Trees Near Warter to Tate", The Times, 7 April 2008.
  31. ^ Lawrence Weschler,"David Hockney's iPhone Passion, The New York Review of Books, 22 October 2009
  32. ^ a b Gayford, Martin. "David Hockney's IPad Doodles Resemble High-Tech Stained Glass" Bloomberg, 26 April 2010.
  33. ^ Katz, Brigit (21 November 2011). "Freshly pressed". The Varsity. Retrieved 21 November 2011. 
  34. ^ Jackie Wullschlager (13 January 2012), Blue-sky painting Financial Times.
  35. ^ a b c John Rockwell (10 January 1991), David Hockney Is Back in Opera, With a Few Ifs, Ands and Buts New York Times.
  36. ^ John Russell (20 February 1981), David Hockney's Designes For Met Opera's 'Parade' New York Times.
  37. ^ David Hockney Pace Gallery, New York.
  38. ^ Royal Academy
  39. ^ Nairn, Olivia (29 February 2012). "David Hockney RA: A Bigger Picture". Creatures of Culture. Retrieved 4 March 2012. 
  40. ^ Stuff-Review, "Why we love tech: David Hockney's 'A Bigger Picture' is contemporary art done on an iPad"
  41. ^ Brooklyn Rail, interview between David Hockney and Will Corwin
  42. ^ "David Hockney. A Bigger Picture". Museum Ludiwg. 2013. Retrieved 13 January 2013. 
  43. ^ David Hockney Big vs Small Screen
  44. ^ Kennedy, Maev. "David Hockney prints exhibition opens spanning 60 years of artist's work | Art and design". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 July 2014. 
  45. ^ "2014: Hockney, Printmaker". Dulwich Picture Gallery. Retrieved 16 July 2014. 
  46. ^ "> Visit Us > What's On > Hockney, Printmaker". The Bowes Museum. Retrieved 16 July 2014. 
  47. ^ "David Hockney appointed to Order of Merit". BBC Magazine (BBC News). 1 January 2012. Retrieved 1 January 2012. 
  48. ^ Appointments to the Order of Merit, 1 January 2012 – the official website of The British Monarchy
  49. ^ "Progress Medal - The Royal Photographic Society". Rps.org. Retrieved 14 August 2012. 
  50. ^ Royal Photographic Society's Centenary Award/ Retrieved 13 August 2012
  51. ^ "Centenary Medal - The Royal Photographic Society". Rps.org. Retrieved 14 August 2012. 
  52. ^ http://www.royal.gov.uk/MonarchUK/Honours/CompanionsofHonour.aspx
  53. ^ "David Hockney RA - Painters - Royal Academicians - Royal Academy of Arts". royalacademy.org.uk. Retrieved 14 August 2012. 
  54. ^ David Hockney: Paintings 2006–2009, 2 October – 24 December 2009 Pace Gallery, New York.
  55. ^ Dalya Alberge (23 November 2011), Hockney named Britain's most influential artist The Independent.
  56. ^ Hockney painting sells for £2.6m
  57. ^ "Search". The Globe and Mail (Toronto). 24 October 2011. 
  58. ^ Standpoint staff (2009). "Standpoint Advisory Board". Social Affairs Unit Magazines. 
  59. ^ Standpoint staff (2008). "David Hockney – Exclusive sketches for his new Tate masterpiece". Social Affairs Unit Magazines Ltd. 
  60. ^ BBC press office (2009). "Radio 4's Today announces this year's guest editors". BBC. 
  61. ^ Peter Walker, "Turner prize winners lead protest against arts cutbacks," The Guardian, 1 October 2010.
  62. ^ Ellie Pithers (25 January 2012), David Hockney: back on the fashion map Daily Telegraph
  63. ^ Cartner-Morley, Jess; Mirren, Helen; Huffington, Arianna; Amos, Valerie (28 March 2013). "The 50 best-dressed over 50s". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 24 April 2013. 
  64. ^ IMDB, "Waiting for Hockney (2008)"
  65. ^ Simon, Christopher (17 April 2012). "David Hockney: A Rake's Progress | New York Journal of Books". Nyjournalofbooks.com. Retrieved 14 August 2012. 
  66. ^ Naughtie, James. "David Hockney". The New Elizabethans (BBC Radio Four). 
  67. ^ "First time publication of works TST commissioned Hockney to produce on a 1963 trip to Egypt". The Sunday Times. 30 December 2012. 
  68. ^ Mike Boehm (1 May 2012), David Hockney art gifts win him top rank in British philanthropy Los Angeles Times.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

from the BBC programme Front Row, 7 September 2011.[1]

Problems playing this file? See media help.
  1. ^ "David Hockney". Front Row. 7 September 2011. BBC Radio 4. http://bbc.co.uk/programmes/b01460l8. Retrieved 18 January 2014.