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|Part of a series on Shī‘ah Islam|
|The Qur'ān · The Ginans
Reincarnation · Panentheism
Imām · Pir · Dā‘ī l-Muṭlaq
‘Aql · Numerology · Taqiyya
Żāhir · Bāṭin
|Shahada of faith · Prayer · Charity
Fasting · Pilgrimage
|Shoaib · Nabi Shu'ayb
Seveners · Qarmatians
Fatimids · Baghdad Manifesto
Hafizi · Taiyabi
Hassan-i Sabbah · Alamut
Sinan · Assassins
Pir Sadardin · Satpanth
Aga Khan · Jama'at Khana
Huraat-ul-Malika · Böszörmény
|Ali · Ḥassan · Ḥusain
as-Sajjad · al-Baqir · aṣ-Ṣādiq
Ismā‘īl · Muḥammad
Husain(az-Zakī/Rabi) · al-Mahdī
al-Qā'im · al-Manṣūr
al-Mu‘izz · al-‘Azīz · al-Ḥākim
az-Zāhir · al-Mustansir ·
al-Musta′lī/ Nizār ·
al-Amīr · Taiyab
|Groups and Present leaders|
|Nizārī · · Aga Khan IV
Taiyabi · ·
Dawūdī · Syedna Burhanuddin
Sulaimanī · Al-Fakhri Abdullah
Alavī · Ṭayyib Ziyā'u d-Dīn
Dawoodi Bohra ( Arabic/Urdu: داؤدی بوہرہ) is a subsect of Ismāʿīlī Shīʿa Islam. The Dawoodi Bohra trace their belief system back to Yemen, where it evolved from the Fatimid Caliphate and where they were persecuted due to their differences from mainstream Sunni Islam and Zaydi Shia Islam. This prompted the shift of Dawoodi Bohras to India. The word Bohra itself comes from the Gujarati word vehru ("trade") in reference to their traditional profession, while the term Dawoodi refers to their support for Dawood Bin Qutubshah in the 1592 leadership dispute which divided the Tayyibi sect, creating the Dawoodi Bohra. It was purely a political to gain power rather than spiritual.
The spiritual leader of the Dawoodi Bohra community is the Dāʿī l-Muṭlaq (Arabic: داعي المطلق "Unrestricted Missionary"), currently Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin. The Dai serves as the earthly representative of the Imam.
Dawoodi Bohras have a blend of cultures, including Yemeni, Egyptian, African, and Indian. In addition to the local languages, the Dawoodi Bohras have their own language called Lisānud-Dā‘wat ("language of the Dā‘wat") which is written in Perso-Arabic script and is derived from Urdu, Gujarati and Persian. The Dawoodi Bohra community is known worldwide for their various projects, including philanthropic efforts, hospitals, schools, and renovations and restorations of Islamic and Shi'a Islamic landmarks. They have a very small, tight-knit community made up of approximately one million adherents worldwide, with the majority of adherents residing in India. There is also a large community in Karachi, as well as a significant diaspora population in the Europe, North America, the Far East and East Africa.
As Shi'as, Bohras believe that their Imāms are descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad by way of his daughter Fatema and her husband Ali. They believe that Muhammad chose Ali as his successor while he was returning from his first and last Haj in 632 CE. Dawoodi Bohra as Shi'a believe that after Muhammad, Ali had been the rightful wasi, Imam and caliph, but the actual zahiri ("literalist") caliphate was usurped by other successors. It was However, during 656 to 661 CE, Ali did serve as the Caliph; the Imamate and Caliphate were united in this period. After Ali, his son Hasan ibn Ali, the first Imam, struggled for the Caliphate, which resulted in a pact with the Umayyad caliph, Muawiyah I to recognise Muawiyah as Caliph in order to avoid bloodshed, while Hasan retained the Imamate. After Hasan, Husayn and his family and companion were killed at the Battle of Karbala and Husayn's body was buried near the site of his death. Dawoodi Bohra believe that Husain's head was buried first, in the courtyard of Yazid (the Umayyad Mosque), then transferred from Damascus to Ashkelon, and then to Cairo.
Shia schisms and the Fatimid Dynasty 
The first through the fifth Imam, who was Ja'far al-Sadiq, are commonly accepted by all the Shi'a. Bohras count Hasan as the first Imam, whereas Nizari Ismailis and Twelvers number Ali as the first. The followers of Ja'far's son, Isma'il ibn Jafar, became Ismailis, from whom the Bohra descend. Some Shi'a sects such as the Twelvers believe that Musa al-Kadhim was heir to Ja'far instead and that their line diverged at that point.
During the period of the Ja'far, the Abbasid Caliphate replaced the Ummayad Caliphate, and began to aggressively oppose the belief in the Imamate. Due to strong suppression by the Abbasids, the 7th Ismaili Imam, Muhammad ibn Ismail, went into a period of Occultation. During this period his representative, the Dai, maintained the community.
The names of the 8th, 9th, and 10th Imams are considered by some traditions to be "hidden", and known only by their nicknames due to threats from the Abbasid caliphate. However the Dawoodi Bohra in their religious text, Taqqarub, claim to have the true names of all 21 imams in sequence including those "hidden" imams: 8th Imam Abadullah (Ahmad al-Wafi), 9th Imam Ahmed ibn Abadullah (Muhammad at-Taqi), and the 10th Imam, Husain ibn Ahmed (Rabi Abdullah).
The 11th Imam, Abdullah al-Mahdi Billah founded the Fatimid Caliphate in 909 CE in Ifriqiya (present Tunisia), ending the Occultation. In Ismaili eyes this act again united the Imamate and the Caliphate in one person. The Fatimids then extended up to the central Maghreb (now Morocco, Algeria, Libya). They entered and conquered Egypt in 969 CE during the reign of the 14th Imam Al-Muizz Lideenillah, and made Cairo their capital. After the 18th Imam, Ma'ad al-Mustansir Billah, the Nizari sect believed that his son Nizar was his successor, while another branch, to be known as the Mustaali (from whom the Dawoodi Bohra would eventually descend), supported his other son, al-Musta'li. The Fatimid dynasty continued with al-Musta'li as both Imam and Caliph, and that joint position held until the 20th Imam, al-Amir bi-Ahkami l-Lah (1132 CE).
Tayyibi-Hafizi schism 
At the death of Imam Amir, one branch of the Mustaali faith claimed that he had transferred the imamate to his son at-Tayyib Abi l-Qasim, who was then two years old. Another faction claimed Amir died without producing an heir, and supported Amir's cousin al-Hafiz as both the rightful Caliph and Imam. The al-Hafiz faction became the Hafizi Ismailis, who were later eliminated during the rule of Saladin. The supporters of Tayyeb became the Tayyibi Ismailis.
Tayyeb's claim to the imamate was endorsed by the Hurrat ul Maleka('the Noble Queen') Arwa al-Sulayhi, the Queen of Yemen. Arwa was designated a hujja(a holy pious lady) the highest rank in the Yemeni Dawat, by Al-Mustansir in 1084 CE, and was the first woman to hold that position. Under Queen Arwa, the Dai al-Balagh (intermediary between the Imam in Cairo and local(Yemeni and associate)headquarters) Lamak ibn Malik and then Dai Yahya ibn Lamak worked for the cause of the Fatimid Imam.
Tayyibis (which include the modern Dawoodi Bohra) believe the second and current period of satr began after Imam Tayyeb went into occultation, and Queen Arwa created the office of the Dai-ul-Mutlaque to administer the community in the Imam's absence. Zoeb bin Moosa (d.546 AH/1151 AD) was the first Dai-ul-Mutlaq, and lived and died in Haus, Yemen. His ma'dhūn (assistant) was Khattab bin Hasan. The 3rd Dai Sayedna Hatim (d. 1191 AD) was prominent among the Du'at of Yemen and wrote many books, both exoteric and esoteric in philosophy on the Ismaili faith.
Mausoleum Syedna Hatim,Yemen, Dai era 1130 AD onward start with 1st Dai Zoeb
Establishment in India 
Representatives of the Du'at like Moulai Abadullah (460 AH/1067 AD), the first Wali-ul-Hind ("representative in India") and Moulai Ahmed were sent to Khambhat, Gujarat, western India, and the Tayyibi community was established in Gujarat in the second half of the 11th century. Moulai Nooruddin (467 AH) was sent to Deccan. As per legend, while he was there two travellers from India went to the court of Imam Mustansir. They were so impressed that they converted and went back to preach. One of them was Rupnath, whose new name was Maulai Nooruddin; his dargah (tomb) is at Don Gaon, Maharashtra.The another was Moulai Abadullah (formerly known as Baalam Nath).
Upon arriving in Khambhat, Abadullah came across a married couple named Kaka Akela and Kaki Akela. ''They became his first converts. A new religion was about to begin.
After the death of Moulai Abadullah, Dai Zoeb appointed Maulai Yaqoob as the second wali in India of the Fatimid dawat, the first such wali of Indian descent. He was son of Moulai Bharmal, minister of Rajput king Siddhraja Jaya Singha (Anhalwara, Patan) (487-527 AH/1094-1133 AD). The king sent his soldiers to get Abadullah, but they could not reach him as they saw a wall of fire created around him. The king himself went to Abadullah and was so impressed with his thoughts that he, along with his ministers Moulai Bharmal and Tarmal and their fellow citizens freely accepted Islam and the Imam. Moulai Fakhruddin Shaheed, son of Tarmal was sent to western Rajasthan, India for proselytizing.Moula Fakhruddin was killed in Galiyakot, Rajasthan by aboriginal highwaymen (bhil) while returning from Muharram lectures on the martyrdom of Imam Husein.
In the generation of Moulai Yaqoob, Moulais Ishaq, Ali, and Hasan Fir continued one after another as Wali-ul-Hind. Moulai Hasan Fir Shaeed was the fifth wali in the era of 16th Dai Abadullah (d. 809AH/1406 AD) of Yemen.
Transfer of Dawat to India 
One Dai succeeded another until the 24th Dai in Yemen. In India also Wali-ul-Hind were appointed by them one after another until Wali-ul-Hind Moulai Jafer, Moulai Abdul Wahab, Moulai Qasim Khan bin Hasan (d.950AH, Ahmedabad) and last Jalal Shamshuddin 1567 AD (12th wali-ul Hind and also became 25th Dai). The last three wali were of great help in the era of the 21st to 24th Dai. It was during this time when the Dawat was transferred to India from Yemen, that the 23rd Dai-al-Mutlaq Mohammed Ezzuddin performed nass (transfer of authority) on Yusuf Najmuddin ibn Sulaiman of Sidhpur, Gujrat, India.
Due to persecution by the local Zaydi Shi'a ruler in Yemen, the 24th Dai, Yusuf Najmuddin bin Sulayman (d.1567 AD), shifted the whole administration of the Dawat (mission) to India but continued to live in Yemen and died there. The 25th Dai Jalal Shamshuddin (d.1567 AD) was first dai to die in India; his mausoleum is in Ahmedabad, India. Dai Jalal's tenure as Dai was very short, only a few months, but before that he was Wali-ul Hind (after Moulai Qasim) for about 20 years under 24th Dai Yusuf while the Dai was in Yemen.
Inter-Bohra schisms 
Following the death of the 26th Dai in 1591 CE, there was a dispute as to who was to succeed him. Suleman bin Hasan, the grandson of 24th Dai, was wali in Yemen and claimed the succession, supported by the other Yemeni Bohra. However, the Indian Bohra denied his claim of nass, declaring supporting documentation to be forged. The two factions separated, with the followers of Sulayman Bin Hassan becoming the Sulaymanis, and the followers of Dawood Bin Qutubshah becoming the Dawoodi Bohra.
Again in the period of the 29th Dai Abduttayyeb Zakiuddin, a small group of Aliya Bohra separated under Ali bin Ibrahim (1034 AH/1634 AD), the grandson of 28th Dai Sheikh Adam Safiyuddin. A further branch broke from the Dawoodi in 1754, with the Hebtiahs Bohra splicing in a dispute following the death of the 39th Dai.
In the mid-20th century (1970–80), there was another, political fragmentation, as a group of Dawoodi Bohras who stated that the 52nd Dai had overstepped his authority severed from the hierarchy to form the Progressive Dawoodi Bohra, led by Asghar Ali Engineer.
Persecution in India, and movement of the Dawat 
In India the Bohras were persecuted by the Mughal rulers. The 32nd Dai Syedna Qutubuddin Shaheed (A.Q) was prosecuted and beheaded in 1648 AD under Aurangzeb. The 34th Dai Syedna Ismail Badruddin (A.Q)(son of Moulai Raj, 1657 AD onward) was the first Dai of Indian Gujrati origin. He shifted the Dawat from Ahmedabad to Jamnagar. During this period Dai also moved to Mandvi and later to Burhanpur. In the era of 42nd Dai Syedna Yusuf Najmuddin (A.Q) (1787 AD onward) the Dawat office shifted to Surat. The educational institute Al-Daarus-Saifee (later renamed Al Jamea tus Saifiyah) was built in that era by the 43rd Dai Syedna Abdeali Saifuddin (A.Q), who has done extensive work in the literary field also. During the period of 51st Dai Syedna Taher Saifuddin (A.Q) (1915-1965 AD), the Dawoodi Bohra Dawat shifted to Mumbai and continues there to the present day, currently headed by 52nd Dai al Mutlaq Syedna Mohammad Burhanuddin (T.U.S).
Expansion and recognition 
The first Dawoodi Bohra mosque in the West was built in Farmington Hills, Michigan in 1988. Immediately thereafter, the first Canadian masjid was inaugurated by Dr.Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin in Toronto. Mohammed Burhanuddin inaugurated the Houston masjid in 1996, which is now being reconstructed into a larger masjid that is four times the size of the original.
In June 2001 Masjid-ul-Badri in Chicago was inaugurated. In July 2004 new mosques in New Jersey (Masjiduz-Zainy), Washington DC and Boston were inaugurated.
The following year, August 2005, the Dā‘ī l-Mutlaq inaugurated another new masjid in Fremont, California (metropolitan San Francisco) and was congratulated by various officials and dignitaries from local, state and federal US governments. President George W. Bush also sent a letter from the White House. On 8 July 2007, Mohammad Burhanuddin inaugurated a new masjid in Paris, France.
The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall visited the Dawoodi Bohra Mosque in London in 2009, and their web page recognizes the Dawoodi Bohra community as a "community that has made a major contribution to British business and has patriotism at the heart of its faith".
Present activities 
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While most Dawoodi Bohras have traditionally been traders, currently many are professionals. Within South Asia many are doctors, and in the Far East and the West, a large number now work as consultants or analysts, as well as medical professionals. Dawoodi Bohras are encouraged to educate themselves in both religious and secular knowledge, and as a result, the number of professionals in the community is rapidly increasing.
Dawoodi Bohra believe that the education of women is equally important to that of men, per a hadith from Muhammad: "seeking of knowledge is obligatory for all Muslims, both male and female." Many Dawoodi Bohra women choose to enter the workforce. The founding of Al Jamea tus Saifiyah, an Arabic Academy for Dawoodi Bohras in Surat, Karachi, and Nairobi is a sign of the importance of education in the Dawoodi Bohra community. The Academy's curriculum encompasses religious and secular education for both men and women.
As it is for other Shia Muslims, remembrance of the martyrdom of the Imam Husayn, in Karbala, Iraq, is an essential part of every Dawoodi Bohra community activity. Every year, the head of the Dawoodi Bohra community delivers religious discourses for ten days during the month of Muharram, culminating in the 10th day of Muharram, ‘Āshūrā. These discourses are attended by a large number of community members. The martyrdom of Imam Hussain is remembered with every prayer every day during ‘Āshūrā and all the attendees perform matam. Matam is practiced especially in the month of Moharram, and, also throughout the year. One key difference to be noted is that Dawoodi Bohras practice matam using only their hands and their religious practice forbids the use of any implements in matam. This is in stark contrast to other Shia sects that often use knives, blades, and metal chains in their matam.
Dawoodi Bohras have initiated development projects worldwide to help improve members’ way of life. Aside from an international tree planting campaign, in which over 500,000 trees were planted in Dawoodi Bohra masjid complexes, community centers and other public spaces under the supervision and permission from local authorities, medical camps are also set up to treat 250,000 Dawoodi Bohras worldwide. Low-cost housing schemes, trade fairs, business seminars, and mass marriages have also been done for the community.
Education and renovation projects 
The Dawoodi Bohras originated from Fatimid Egypt, and their cultural mores are based on the practices of the Fatimid Imāms of North Africa - 10th to 12th Century CE - from Tunisia to Cairo. Al-Quaed Johar, commander of the Fatimid army under the guidance of Imam Moiz, founded the city of Cairo and built Al-Azhar Mosque. Imam Al-Aziz established the first al-Azhar University in the world, dedicated to religious studies and other faculties including science, mathematics, astronomy, chemistry, and Islamic jurisprudence of time. The Fatimid influence is also found in buildings and architecture created by Dawoodi Bohras around the world today, all of which mirror the architectural features of the mosques and buildings of Cairo.
Al Jamea tus Saifiyah is an Islamic Arabic Academy in the heart of Surat, India and is a leading theological university for Dawoodi Bohras. It was founded in 1814 by the 43rd Dai Abdeali Saifuddin. In 1920, Taher Saifuddin transformed this institution into a university that also promoted education for Bohra women. Under the present Dai, the university has seen a significant expansion and now has an International Baccalaureate Office (IBO). Students from all over the world are admitted here post-VII standard and are taught economics, politics, cultural tradition, philosophy and other subjects in English as well as Arabic.
52nd Dai His Holiness Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin (T.U.S) undertook the complete renovation and restoration of Masjid al Anwar the Mosque of Imām Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah in Cairo. The site was destroyed by Napoleon, who used it as a horse stable, and was a project UNESCO had considered and initiated but abandoned, calling it "an impossible task". Some of the most important Fatimid-era mosques were also renovated by the Dai in Cairo as a tribute to the legacy of the Fatimid Imams, including, Masjid Luluwa, Jāmiʻ al-Aqmar (built in 1125) and Jāmiʻ al-Juyūshī in Cairo.
Mohammad Burhanuddin renovated the Masjid al-‘Azam in Kūfa, Iraq, a place of historical significance in the history of Islam. The mosque is also particularly significant to the Shi'a as the place of martyrdom of Ali. Another significant contribution in Iraq is the renovation of the shrines of Husayn in Karbala and that of ‘Alī in Najaf.
In 1884, Sir Adamji Peerbhoy, a well known bohra philanthropist from Mumbai, India, originally built several properties (a burial ground, a Senatorium (on Charni Road), and a Community Hospital) for the benefit of the poor and the needy. A trust was formed for undertaking the properties' use for the benefit, service and well being of the Kaum (community). The trustees handed over the properties to the father of Dr. Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin (T.U.S), Dr. Syedna Taher Saifuddin (RA), the Dai at the time. The hospital was later renamed Saifee Hospital. In June 2005, the Dawoodi Bohra community renovated Saifee Hospital in Mumbai, India. Today, the hospital is one of the most technologically advanced hospitals in the entire country, and was inaugurated by the Prime Minister of India, Dr. Manmohan Singh on 4 June 2005. At the inauguration, the Dawoodi Bohra community was commended by the Prime Minister during a speech delivered by him.
Dawoodi Bohra 52nd Dai Mohammad Burhanuddin has also been involved with several other notable projects(photos in Gallery down below) of Shi'a Islam including:
- The gold plating of Maulana Ali's Zaree in Najaf.
- The gold plating of Maulana Abbas e Alamdaar's Zaree in Karbala.
- The construction of Rasul Husain(Cairo)Zarih in Egypt.
- The Makhallifat-al-Rasool next to Rasul Hussain, Cairo, where some of the Fatimid Imams are buried.
- The construction of Maulatena Zainab's Zaree in Egypt.
- The renovation of the masqurah (mausoleum) of Hussain
Syedna Mohammad Burhanuddin, who is known as Manṣūrul-Yaman, has turned his particular attention to his followers in Yemen. Under his reign, his followers in Yemen constructed the mausoleum of Sayedna Hatim and a mosque in Hutaib Mubarak. He also undertook projects for providing water and electricity to the faiz(boarding and lodging facility for pilgrims) and town, and to make the roads to ziyarats in Yemen more accessible.
The Dawoodi Bohra maintain a distinct form of attire, with Dawoodi Bohra men wear a traditional white three piece outfit, plus a white and gold cap (called a topi), and women wear the rida, a distinctive form of the commonly known burqa which is distinguished from other forms of the veil due to it often being in color and decorated with patterns and lace. The rida additionally differs from the burqa in that the rida does not call for covering of women's faces like the traditional veil. It has a flap called the pardi that is usually folded to one side to facilitate visibility, but can also be worn over the face if so desired.
The Dawoodi Bohras follow the Seven pillars of Ismaili Islam in the tradition of Fatimid Dawat: Walayah (guardianship of the faith), Taharah (purity), Salah (prayer), Zakat (tithing), Sawm (fasting), Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca), and Jihad (struggle).
- Dawoodi Bohras believe Walayah to be the most important of the seven pillars of Islam. It is the love and devotion for God, through their Dai, Imam, Wasi (Wali) Ali and Nabi Muhammad.There is an incident famous amongst Bohra which confirm how they mean and weigh ‘walayat’ principle. There was order from 19th Dai Syedna Idris to Wali-ul-Hind (6th) Moulai Adam that he has to follow a person named by "Sakka" (a water carrier by profession). Moulai Adam along with his associate willingly performed prayer under "Sakka" (Actually there was a second order cancelling the first one and appointing back, Moulai Adam as Wali).
- Their interpretations of the pillars Sawm, Hajj, and Jihad are akin to those in other forms of Islam, but the Dawoodi forms of Salah and Zakat differ from other groups:
- Salat (prayer) as per tradition to be performed five time intervals specified as Fazr, Zohr, Ashr, Magrib and Ishah. Zohr and Ashr are having overlapping period, same is Magrib and Ishah. Hence they are combined together and Bohra perform these five Salat in three intervals. Fazr in morning, Zohr & Ashr in afternoon, and Maghrib and Ishah in the evening, making convenient to perform.
- Zakah is done during Month of Ramzaan (Ramadan). This is organized and collected by central authority Dawat–e-Hadiyah from every member of the community.
As is the case with the majority of Shi'a Muslims, the Bohra append Aliyun waliallah to their profession of faith (kalema‐tut‐ sahadat). The Dawoodi Bohra utilise the versions of the azaan (call to prayer) and shahada common to other Mustaali, which incorporate mention of Ali.
Caliphate and Imamate 
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On the view of Caliphate, Dawoodi Bohras believe in the Imamate principle (as do other Shi'a groups) of nass as done by earlier Imams mentioned above, and think that the Imam need not be ruler, and he serves only to safeguard divine authority of God the religion from the politics of the world (duniya, the "external World"). As evidence of the continuity of the Imamate, the Dawoodi cite the example of the 3rd Imam, Ali ibn Husayn, who was not killed by the army of Yezid in the Battle of Karbala, claiming that even Yezid could not kill the only surviving male of the Imamate line. Similarly, the Dawoodi cite the miraculous survival of their 33rd Dai, Syedna Feerkhan Shujauddin, who was arrested by a Mughul ruler Shah Jahan taken to Lahore, and imprisoned in a stable. When a fire broke out in the area, the stable was miraculously spared and the Dai survived. The Moghul ruler was impressed, and believed this was testament to the Dai's holy status, and released him and sent him to Ahmedabad with full honors.There was similar case in era of Emperor Akbar who wanted to meet Syedna Dawood Bin Qutubshah in 1005 AH at Lahore . When Syedna returned to Ahmedabad, full protection was given with royal 'farman'(Order) in Syedna's honour, ordering the officials at Ahmedabad to show him every attention.
Text of Emperor Akbar's farman: "Allaho-akbar. This glorious farman is issued graciously to satisfy the wishes of sardar of Dawoodi Bohras after considering and calling him to our darbar so that the deputies of Gujarat especially authorities of Ahmedabad and Sidhpur and areas in connection to them, not obstruct them in their ways and let them come to us according to their will. And (the authorities) should not object them and his followers especially in their religious traditions, systems and taxes and about prohibited things and they should return their properties which are sealed, afer removing the seals giving them back. Not to restrict them from any business or occupation they are willing. They should give facilities to them and authorities should not be covetous for any thing. They should return all the properties which are seized because in near future their case is to be taken under consideration. Karories, Jagirdars and all responsible Mutasaddirs of Gujarat are required to extend all facilities to the mentioned pious persons while passing through their territories.If he wants any guide then provide him with it for safety against robbery and all dangers of the way so that they may reach to their safe place. To respect them must be considered a duty. 1st Rabiul-Awwal 1005 A.D. Capitol Lahore."
Dawoodi Bohra believe that the office of Dai al-Mutlaq was instituted as the Imam is in occultation, and imamate principle is to be followed in his absence to hand over the imamate to Imam Tayyab’s heir who will again reappear as Imam. They cite as precedent the case of the 11th Imam Abdillah, who appeared 150 years after the death of the 6th Imam Ismail, while the intervening imams were "hidden".
This delegation system is structured so that in the absence of their Imam, the Dai guides the community on his behalf, and further appointed his nominee right up to grass root level. An amil(local head of community, usually a graduate of the order's institution of higher learning, Al Jamea tus Saifiyah) who leads a local congregation in religious, social, and communal affairs, is sent to each town where a sizable Dawoodi population exists all over the world. Even for a village with just a few Bohra families nominees can be appointed from amongst themselves. This is to ensure that the Dai's message reaches each individual, and a direct link to God. Each town normally has a mosque complex or a smaller markaz where socio-religious functions are held. The local organizations which manage these properties and administer the social and religious activities of the local Bohras report directly to the central administration of the Da'i based in Bombay, called al-Dawah al-Hadiyah and close links are maintained for all Bohra all over the world.
Imams and Dais 
As Mustaali Ismaili Shi'a Muslims, the Dawoodi Bohra believe that the imamate continued until the 21st Imam, Tayyeb ibn Aamir. Following the imam's occultation, the Dai has served as the his temporal representatives on earth; the current (52nd) Dai is Mohammed Burhanuddin. The Bohra believe the Imam is still present on the earth guiding the Dai spiritually and will reappear one day.
Dawoodi Bohras believe that the 21st Mustaali Imam, Taiyab abi al-Qasim, is a direct descendant of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his daughter Fatima Zahra. According to this belief, Ṭayyib Abī l-Qāṣim went into occultation and established the office of the Dā‘ī l-Muṭlaq as the Imām's vicegerent, with full authority to govern the believing community in all matters spiritual and temporal, as well as those of his assistants, the Ma'dhūn (Arabic: مأذون) and Mukāsir (Arabic: مكاسر). During the Imām's seclusion, a Dā‘ī l-Muṭlaq is appointed by his predecessor. The maʾzūn and mukasir are in turn appointed by the Dā‘ī l-Muṭlaq. A fundamental belief held by the Dawoodi Bohra is that the presence of the secluded Imām is guaranteed by the presence of the Dāʿī l-Muṭlaq. Dr. Mohammed Burhanuddin is the 52nd and current Dāʿī l-Muṭlaq, and has appointed Khuzaima Qutbuddin as his ma'dhūn and Husain Husamuddin as his mukāsir.
Tabular Islamic calendar 
The Dawoodi Bohra retain the Fatimid-era Tabular Islamic calendar, which they believe matches perfectly with the lunar cycle, not requiring any correction. In this calendar, the lunar year has 354 days. Their odd-numbered months have 30 days and the even-numbered months have 29 days, except in a leap year when the 12th and final month has 30 days. This is in contrast with other Muslim communities, which base the beginnings of specific Islamic months on sightings of the moon, with the naked eye, by religious authorities, which often result in differing opinions as to the occurrence of religiously significant dates, such as the start of Ramadan.
Religious tolerance 
As per Fatimid tradition Dawoodi Bohra feel themselves inclined to be tolerant toward other religions. Under 15th Imam Aziz (5th Fatimid Egypt calipha) religious tolerance was given great importance. One of the viziers of Imam Aziz was Christian, and high offices were held by both Shia and Sunnis. Imam Aziz rebuilt the church of Mercurius near Fustat and encouraged public theological debate between the chief qazi and bishops in order that the ideas of their religions could merge. In the modern era, the Dawoodi Bohra have maintained good relations with other religions, with the Archbishop of Canterbury Rowan Williams visiting Bohra religious sites in England. gives the same message.
Photo gallery 
Other renovation work 
The tomb of the head of Husayn ibn Ali, Cairo, Egypt
The zarih of Zaynab bint Ali, Cairo
Renovated Aqmar Mosque
Renovated Juyushi Mosque, Cairo
Renovated Lulua Mosque, Cairo
Zarih of Ja'far at-Tayyar, Jordan
Family Tree of Dai 
Almost all of the Dawoodi Bohra Dai from 34th and Present Dai Syedna Mohammad Burhanuddin is from family of Moulai Fakhruddin Shaheed. Family tree from Moulai Fakhruddin to present Dai with other Dai from his family are shown below.
Further reading 
- Mullahs on the mainframe: Islam and modernity among the Daudi Bohras, by Jonah Blank. University of Chicago Press, 2001. ISBN 022605676.Excerpts
- The Dawoodi Bohras: an anthropological perspective, by Shibani Roy. Published by B.R. Publishing, 1984.
- Bin Hasan, Idris, Uyun al-akhbar (Bin Hasan was the 19th Da'i of the Dawoodi Bohra. This volume is a history of the Ismaili community from its origins up to the 12th century CE., the period of the Fatimid caliphs al-Mustansir (d. 487/1094), the time of Musta‘lian rulers including al-Musta‘li (d. 495/1101) and al-Amir (d. 524/1130), and then the Tayyibi Ismaili community in Yemen.)
- A Short History of the Ismailis, By Farhad Daftary
- The Ismaili,their history & Doctrine, By Farhad Daftary
- Medieval Islamic Civilisation,By Joseph W. Meri, Jere l.Bacharach
- Sayyida Hurra: The Isma‘ili Sulayhid Queen of Yemen,By Dr Farhad Daftary
- Cosmology and authority in medieval Ismailism,By Simonetta Calderini
- Religion, learning, and science in the ʻAbbasid period,By M. J. L. Young, John Derek Latham, Robert Bertram Serjeant
|This article relies on references to primary sources. (December 2010)|
- Kumar Suresh Singh; Rajendra Behari Lal; Anthropological Survey of India (2003). Gujarat. Popular Prakashan. pp. 248–. ISBN 978-81-7991-104-4. Retrieved 22 March 2012.
- Michel Adam (2009). L'Afrique indienne: les minorités d'origine indo-pakistanaise en Afrique orientale. KARTHALA Editions. pp. 272–. ISBN 978-2-8111-0273-9. Retrieved 22 March 2012.. Délivré dans la langue liturgique des Bohra (lisan ud dawat)
- Sacred Surprise behind Israel Hospital, Batsheva Sobelmn, special Los Angeles Times
- Qazi Dr. Shaikh Abbas Borhany PhD. Brief History of Transfer of the Sacred Head of Hussain ibn Ali, From Damascus to Ashkelon to Qahera. Daily News (Karachi), 1 March 2009.
- The dua (prayer) "Taqarrub" lists these names amongst the Imams.
- The Hidden Imams of the Ismailis. Quarterly Journal of the American University of Beirut], Vol. XXI. Nos. 1 2, Edited by Mahmud Ghul. . Sami N. Makarem. At Ismaili.net
- Historical fact and Inner history (a continuation) from DawoodiBohras.com
- The Ismaili, their history and doctrine by Farhad Daftary. Chapter -Mustalian Ismailism-p.300-310
- "Masjid History". Anjuman-E-Burhani. Retrieved 2013-03-09.
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- TRH visit the Dawoodi Bohra Mosque in London, 4 February 2009. At princeofwales.gov.uk
- "Dawoodi Bohras celebrate leader’s 102nd birthday". Khaleejtimes.com. 2013-03-02. Retrieved 2013-03-09.
- "Al Aqmar Masjid". IslamicArchitecture.org
- Saifuddin, Ja'far us Sadiq Mufaddal (2000). Al-Aqmar: A Living Testimony to the Fatemiyeen. Graphico Printing Ltd. ISBN 978-0-9539270-0-5
- Saifuddin, Ja'far us Sadiq Mufaddal (2000). Al Juyushi: A vision of the Fatemiyeen. Graphico Printing Ltd. ISBN 978-0-9539270-1-2
- "The Prime Minister'S Speech At The Inauguration Of Saifee Hospital" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-03-09.
- Himadri Banerjee (10 July 2009). Calcutta Mosaic: Essays and Interviews on the Minority Communities of Calcutta. Anthem Press. pp. 200–. ISBN 978-81-905835-5-8. Retrieved 22 March 2012.
- 'Vali-e-Hind Maulai Adam bin Suleman [a.q.] By- Mu. Saifuddin Surka NKD' http://malumaat.com/archives/articles/moulaiadam.html
- "History of Duat Mutlakin's of Ahmedabad". Bohra.net. Retrieved 2013-03-09.
- "Successor to Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin named". Dnaindia.com. 2011-06-06. Retrieved 2013-03-09.
- Ailing leader of Dawoodi Bohras names successor. Mid-Day.com, June 2011
- Ismāʻı̄lı̄s: Their History and Doctrines - Farhad Daftary - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2013-03-09.
- Mullahs on the mainframe: Islam and modernity among the Dawoodi Bohras, page-29, By Jonah Blank
- "Archbishop's visit to Dawoodi Bohra Mosque and Jain Temple". Archbishopofcanterbury.org. 2012-12-31. Retrieved 2013-03-09.
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