Dawson Township is located in McLean County, Illinois. As of the 2010 census, its population was 590 and it contained 253 housing units. Dawson Township was originally named Lee Township, but changed to Padua Township on May 17, 1858, and then to Dawson on an unknown date.
Dawson Township was named for John Wells Dawson.
According to the 2010 census, the township has a total area of 37.52 square miles (97.2 km2), of which 37.26 square miles (96.5 km2) (or 99.31%) is land and 0.26 square miles (0.67 km2) (or 0.69%) is water.