Day care

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Child care or day care is the care of a child during the day by a person other than the child's legal guardians, typically performed by someone outside the child's immediate family. Day care is typically an ongoing service during specific periods, such as the parents' time at work.

The service is known as child care in the United Kingdom and Australia, crèche in Ireland and New Zealand, and child care or day care in North America (although child care also has a broader meaning).

Child care is provided in nurseries or crèches or by a nanny or family child care provider caring for children in their own homes. It can also take on a more formal structure, with education, child development, discipline and even preschool education falling into the fold of services.

Some childminders care for children from several families at the same time, either in their own home (commonly known as "family day care" in Australia) or in a specialized child care facility. Some employers provide nursery provisions for their employees at or near the place of employment.

Child care in the child's own home is traditionally provided by a nanny or au pair, or by extended family members including grandparents, aunts and uncles.

History[edit]

A worker drops off her child at a California day care center, 1943.

Day care appeared in France about 1840, and the Société des Crèches was recognized by the French government in 1869. Originating in Europe in the late 18th and early 19th century, day cares were established in the United States by private charities in the 1850s, the first being the New York Day Nursery in 1854.

Business[edit]

The day care industry is a continuum from personal parental care to large, regulated institutions.

The vast majority of childcare is still performed by the parents, in-house nanny or through informal arrangements with relatives, neighbors or friends. For example, in Canada, among two parent families with at least one working parent, 62% of parents handle the childcare themselves, 32% have other in-home care (nannies, relatives, neighbours or friends) and only 6.5% use a formal day care center.[1]

However for-profit day care corporations often exist where the market is sufficiently large or there are government subsidies. For instance, in North America, KinderCare Learning Centers, one of the largest of such companies, has approximately 1,600 centers located in 39 states and the District of Columbia.[2] Bright Horizons Family Solutions another of the largest has over 600 daycare centers.[3] Similarly the Australian government's childcare subsidy has allowed the creation of a large private-sector industry in that country.[4]

Another factor favoring large corporate daycares is the existence of childcare facilities in the workplace. Large corporations will not handle this employee benefit directly themselves and will seek out large corporate providers to manage their corporate daycares. Most smaller, for-profit daycares operate out of a single location.

In general, the geographic limitations and the diversity in type of daycare providers make child daycare a highly fragmented industry. The largest providers own only a very small share of the market. This leads to frustration for parents who are attempting to find quality child daycare, with 87% of them describing the traditional search for child daycare as "difficult and frustrating".[citation needed]

Non-profit daycare[edit]

"Considerable research has accumulated showing that not-for-profits are much more likely to produce the high quality environments in which children thrive."[5]

  • Non-profit day cares have some structural advantages over for-profit operations:
    • They may receive preferential treatment in rents especially if they are affiliated with a church that is otherwise unoccupied during the week, or with a school that has surplus space.
    • Location within a school may have the advantage of coordinated programs with the school and the advantage of a single location for parents who have older school-age children as well.
    • Parents are typically the legal owners of the non-profit day care and will routinely provide consulting services (for example accounting, legal, human resource) for free. (There are some non-profits not operated by parents, but by a board of directors made up of community representatives who just want what is good for children.)
    • Non-profits have an advantage in fund-raising as most people will not donate to a for-profit organization.
    • Non-profits, however, are typically limited in size to a single location as the parent-owners have no motivation to manage other locations where their children are not present.
    • They may suffer from succession issues as children grow and parents leave the management of the day care to others.

Local governments, often municipalities, may operate non-profit day care centers. In non-profits, the title of the most senior supervisor is typically "executive director", following the convention of most non-profit organizations.

For-profit daycare[edit]

Family daycares can be operated by a single individual out of their home. There may be occasions when more than one individual cares for children in a family childcare home. This can be a stay-at-home parent who seeks supplemental income while caring for their own child. There are also many family childcare providers who have chosen this field as a profession. Local legislation will regulate the number and ages of children allowed per family child care home. Some localities have very stringent quality standards that require licensing for family child care homes while others require little or no regulations for childcare in individuals' homes. Some home daycares operate illegally with respect to tax legislation where the care provider does not report fees as income and the parent does not receive a receipt to qualify for childcare tax deductions. However, it is beneficial for daycare providers to be licensed so that they can have access to financial benefits from their state government, or the federal government. Examples of such benefits are: Free Training and Professional Development Courses, Child And Adult Care Food Program (which allows eligible daycare providers to claim a portion of costs relating to nutritious meals served to children),and more;.[6]

Family childcare may be less expensive than center-based care because of the lower overhead in family childcare. Many family childcare providers may be certified with the same credentials as center based staff.

Franchising of home daycare facilities attempts to bring economies of scale to home daycare. A central operator handles marketing, administration and perhaps some central purchasing while the actual care occurs in individual homes. The central operator may provide training to the individual care providers. Some providers even offer enrichment programs to take the daycare experience to a more educational level.

Staff[edit]

For all providers, the largest expense is labour. In a 1999 Canadian survey of formal child care centers, labour accounted for 63% of costs and the industry had an average profit of 5.3%.[7] Given the labour-intensive nature of the industry, it is not surprising that the same survey showed little economies of scale between larger and smaller operators.

Local legislation may regulate the operation of daycare centers, affecting staffing requirements. Laws may mandate staffing ratios (for example 6 weeks to 12 months, 1:4; 12 months to 18 months, 1:5; 18 months to 24 months, 1:9; et and even higher ratios for older children). Legislation may mandate qualifications of supervisors. Staff typically do not require any qualifications but staff under the age of eighteen may require supervision. Typically, once the child reaches the age of twelve, they are no longer covered by daycare legislation and programs for older children may not be regulated.

In Canada, the workforce is predominantly female (95%) and low paid, averaging only 60% of average workforce wage. Many employees are at local minimum wage and are typically paid by the hour rather than salaried. In the United States, "child care worker" is the fifth most female-dominated occupation (95.5% female in 1999).[8] In the US, staffing requirements vary from state to state.

Standards and requirements[edit]

Some jurisdictions require licensing or certification. Parents may also turn to independent rating services, or rely on recommendations and referrals. Some places develop voluntary quality networks, for example in Australia most childcare services are part of a national Quality Assurance system.

Most countries have laws relating to childcare, which seek to prevent and punish child abuse. Such laws may add cost and complexity to childcare provision and may provide tools to help ensure quality childcare.

Additionally, legislation typically defines what constitutes daycare (e.g., so as to not regulate individual babysitters). It may specify details of the physical facilities (washroom, eating, sleeping, lighting levels, etc.). The minimum window space may be such that it precludes day cares from being in a basement. It may specify the minimum floor space per child (for example 2.8 square metres) and the maximum number of children per room (for example 24). It may mandate minimum outdoor time (for example 2 hours for programs 6 hours or longer). Legislation may mandate qualifications of supervisors. Staff typically do not require any qualifications but staff under the age of eighteen may require supervision. Some legislation also establishes rating systems, the number and condition of various toys, and documents to be maintained.[9] Typically[citation needed], once children reach the age of twelve, they are no longer covered by daycare legislation and programs for older children may not be regulated.

Legislation may mandate staffing ratios (for example, 6 weeks to 12 months, 1:4; 12 months to 18 months, 1:5; 18 months to 24 months, 1:9; etc.). The caregiver-to-child ratio is one factor indicative of quality of care. Ratios vary greatly by location and by daycare center. Potential consequences of a caregiver:child ratio which is too high could be very serious[citation needed]. However, many states allow a higher numbers of toddlers to caregivers and some centers do not comply consistently. For example, within the US: Pennsylvania, ages 1–3, 1 teacher to 5 children;[10] Missouri: age 2, 1 teacher to 8 children;[11] North Carolina: 1 teacher to 10 children.[9]

Many organizations in the developed world campaign for free or subsidized childcare for all. Others campaign for tax breaks or allowances to provide parents a non-finance driven choice. Many of the free or subsidized childcare programs in the United States are also Child Development programs, or afterschool programs which hire certified teachers to teach the children while they are in their care. There are often local industry associations that lobby governments on childcare policy, promote the industry to the public[12] or help parents choose the right daycare provider.[13]

In the United States, childcare in regulated commercial or family childcare home setting is administered or led by teachers who may have a Child Development Associate or higher credentials. These higher credentials include Associate, Bachelor, and even Master degrees in the field of Early Childhood Education (ECE). Although childcare professionals may obtain a degree, many states require that they attend workshops yearly to upgrade their knowledge and skill levels. Many day cares require a teacher to obtain a certain amount of training. For example, Texas requires a minimum of 25 hours a year, and the first year as a teacher, you are required to have 50 hours.

Childcare infection[edit]

Main article: Childcare infection

Childcare infection is the spread of infection during childcare, typically because of contact among children in daycare or school.[14] This happens when groups of children meet in a childcare environment, and there any individual with an infectious disease may spread it to the entire group. Commonly spread diseases include influenza-like illness and enteric illnesses, such as diarrhea among babies using diapers. It is uncertain how these diseases spread, but hand washing reduces some risk of transmission and increasing hygiene in other ways also reduces risk of infection.[15]

Due to social pressure, parents of sick children in childcare may be willing to give unnecessary medical care to their children when advised to do so by childcare workers and even if it is against the advice of health care providers.[16] In particular, children in childcare are more likely to take antibiotics than children outside of childcare.[16]

Worldwide[edit]

Australia[edit]

Australia has a large child care industry,[17] however in many locations (especially in inner-city suburbs of large cities and in rural areas) the availability is limited and the waiting periods can be up to several years.[18] The Australian government's Child Care benefit[19] scheme provides very limited assistance with the comparatively high child care costs - the median weekly cost of centre-based long day care in 2008 was approximately A$265[20] which puts it out of the reach of lower income earners.[21]

Regulation is under the auspices of the ACECQA.[22]

Ratios are:

  • 1:4 for infants,
  • 1:8 until 31/12/2015 then 1:5 for 2 – 3 years old and
  • 1:10 for preschoolers.

All childcare workers must have, or be undertaking, the minimum "Certificate III in Children's Services" in order to work in a center. (Common more advanced qualifications are "Diploma of Children's Services" and an Early Childhood Education degree)

Canada[edit]

Canada offers both private and subsidized daycare centers. Some shortages of subsidized openings can lengthen the time needed to find a suitable childcare provider. To counter this, government or private enterprise sometimes enable parents to look for available spaces online.[23][24] Canadian home daycare regulations with child ratios can be found at http://www.canadianchildcare.com/regulations/

Germany[edit]

A group of East Berlin children, with their caretakers, 1984.

In Germany, preschool education is the domain of the Kindertagesstätte (literally "children's day site", often shortened to Kita or KITA), which is usually divided into the Kinderkrippe (crèche) for toddlers (age up to 3 years), and the Kindergarten for children who are older than three years and before school. Children in their last Kindergarten year may be grouped into a Vorschule ("preschool") and given special pedagogic attention; special preschool institutions comparable to the US-American kindergarten are the exception.

Kitas are typically run by public (i. e. communal) and "free" carriers (such as the churches, other religious organizations, social organizations with a background in the trade unions and profit-orientated corporations), and subsidized by the states (Länder). In this case, the care is open to the general public—e. g. a Protestant or Muslim child may claim a place in a Kita run by the catholic church.

Preschool education, unlike school and university, is not in the exclusive domain of the states. The federal government regulates daycare through the Kinder- und Jugendhilfegesetz (KJHG), which stipulates a legal claim to daycare:

  • for children over the age of three and before school (i. e. Kindergarten; this law became effective in 1996);
  • for children under the age of three and before Kindergarten (i. e. Kinderkrippe; this law becomes effective August 1, 2013).

Alternative daycare can be provided through Tagespflegepersonen (usually Tagesmütter, "day mothers"), i. e. stay-at-home parents which provide commercial day care to other children. This form of daycare is also federally regulated through the KJHG.

Preschool education (Frühpädagogik) is increasingly seen as an integral part of education as a whole; several states such as Bavaria have released detailed educational plans for daycare carriers who claim state subsidies. "Early pedagogics" has increasingly moved into the academic domain, with an increasing number of staff being trained at universities of applied science (Fachhochschulen) and regular universities. Non-academic personnel in daycare facilities have usually attended specialized schools for several years. In the state of Bavaria for example, daycare assistants (Kinderpfleger) will have attended school for two years, daycare teachers (Erzieher) for three years with an additional two-year internship.

Japan[edit]

In Japan, the child care industry is worth trillions of yen, and is expanding due to rising work force participation by mothers. In 2004 nearly 2 million children were in some form of day care. (Jetro)

Mexico[edit]

In Mexico, President Felipe Calderon Hinojosa created a Social Program named "Programa de Estancias Infantiles" that included more than 8,000 daycare spaces for children between 1 and 3.11 years old. This program subsidizes mothers that work and study and also single fathers in a vulnerable situation. It has a great success having more than 125,000 children over the country. This is regulated by the Social Development Minister (Secretaría de Desarrollo Social).[2]

Norway[edit]

Most children in Norway start daycare between 10 months and 3 years old. Funded parental leave for working parents is either 44 weeks with full pay, or 54 weeks with 80% pay (both up to a certain level only). The government guarantees daycare for all children that are at least 1 year old by 1 August.[25] Coverage is still not 100%, but most regions are getting close (2011). There's a maximum price to enable all families to afford it.

Spain[edit]

Spain provides paid maternity leave of 16 weeks with 30-50% of mothers returning to work (most full-time) after this[citation needed], thus babies 4 months of age tend to be placed in daycare centers. Adult-infant ratios are about 1:7-8 first year and 1:16-18 second year.[citation needed] Public preschool education is provided for most children aged 3–5 years in "Infantil" schools which also provide primary school education.[citation needed]

United Kingdom[edit]

The UK has a wide range of childcare options, including childminders, day nurseries, playgroups and pre-school education at school. It is regulated by OFSTED (CSSIW in Wales), which operates the application and inspection process for the sector.

Childcare is primarily funded by parents, however the Single Funding Formula (pre-school funding) can be used at some day nurseries, playgroups and schools for a maximum of 5 sessions per week, after a child reaches 3 years. The government introduced a childcare allowance (vouchers) by which employers could make payments for childcare, prior to tax, on employees' wages.

Median rates (2011) are approximately £4.50 per hour for childminders, £7:5-£10 net per hour for nannies, £60-100 per week for au pairs and £35-£50 per day for day nurseries.

United States[edit]

State legislation may regulate the number and ages of children allowed before the home is considered an official daycare program and subject to more stringent safety regulations. Often the nationally recognized Child Development Associate credential is the minimum standard for the individual leading this home care program.[citation needed] Each state has different regulations for teacher requirements. In some states, teachers must have an Associates Degree in child development. States with quality standards built into their licensing programs may have higher requirements for support staff such as teacher assistants. And in Head Start programs, by 2012, all lead teachers must have a Bachelors Degree in Early Childhood Education. States vary in the standards set for daycare providers, such as teacher to child ratios.

Family childcare can also be nationally accredited by the National Association of Family Childcare if the provider chooses to go through the process. National accreditation is only awarded to those programs who demonstrate the quality standards set forth by the NAFCC.

According to the 1995 U.S. Census Bureau Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), over thirty-six percent of families of preschoolers with working mothers primarily relied on childcare in the home of a relative, family daycare provider or other non-relative. Almost twenty-six percent of families used organized childcare facilities as their primary arrangement.[26]

Child care can cost up to $15,000 for one year in the United States. The average annual cost of full-time care for an infant in center-based care ranges from $4,863 in Mississippi to $16,430 in Massachusetts.[27]

Child development[edit]

Main article: Child development

Independent studies suggest that good daycare for non-infants is not harmful.[28] In some cases, good daycare can provide different experiences than parental care does, especially when children reach two and are ready to interact with other children. Bad daycare puts the child at physical, emotional and attachment risk. Higher quality care was associated with better outcomes. Children in higher quality childcare had somewhat better language and cognitive development during the first 4½ years of life than those in lower quality care. They were also somewhat more cooperative than those who experienced lower quality care during the first 3 years of life.

The National Institute of Health released a study in March, 2007 after following a group of children through early childhood to the 6th grade.[29] The study found that the children who received a higher quality of childcare scored higher on 5th grade vocabulary tests than the children who had attended childcare of a lower quality. The study also reported that teachers found children from childcare to be "disobedient", fight more frequently, and more argumentative. The study reported the increases in both aggression and vocabulary were small. "The researchers emphasized that the children’s behavior was within the normal range and were not considered clinically disordered."

As a matter of social policy, consistent, good daycare, may ensure adequate early childhood education for children of less skilled parents. From a parental perspective, good daycare can complement good parenting.

A 2001 report showed that children in high-quality care scored higher on tests of language, memory and other skills than did children of stay-at-home mothers or children in lower-quality day care.[30]

A study appearing in Child Development in July/August 2003 found that the amount of time spent in daycare before four-and-a-half tended to correspond with the child's tendency to be less likely to get along with others, to be disobedient, and to be aggressive, although still within the normal range.[31][32]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Fraser Institute". Fraserinstitute.ca. Retrieved 2013-12-02. 
  2. ^ "KinderCare Learning Centers". Book Room Reviews. Retrieved 2013-12-02. 
  3. ^ "Bright Horizons for Bright Horizons". Fool.com. 2003-09-18. Retrieved 2013-12-02. 
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ Friendly, Martha; McCain, Margaret (March 7, 2008). "Child care must serve kids not corporate shareholders". The Star (Toronto). Retrieved May 1, 2010. 
  6. ^ "State By State Daycare Search, City By City Daycare Search, Search Daycare Centers and Daycare Homes, Daycare Listings, Child Care Directory, Daycare Locations". Daycareunitedstates.com. Retrieved 2013-12-02. 
  7. ^ "Doorways To Care". doorwaystocare.ca. 2012-01-22. Retrieved 2013-12-02. 
  8. ^ "Evidence From Census 2000 About Earnings by Detailed Occupation for Men and Women. Census 2000 Special Reports, May 2004." (PDF). Retrieved 2006-09-02. 
  9. ^ a b "Star Rated License: Program Standards". Ncchildcare.dhhs.state.nc.us. Retrieved 2013-12-02. 
  10. ^ "055 Pa. Code § 3270.51. Similar age level". Pacode.com. Retrieved 2013-12-02. 
  11. ^ "Missouri Licensing Standards for Day Care Centers Homes". Daycare.com. Retrieved 2013-12-02. 
  12. ^ "About ADCO - ADCO :: The Association of Day Care Operators of Ontario :: Childcare Today". Childcaretoday.ca. Retrieved 2013-12-02. 
  13. ^ http://www.daycarematch.com/associations.asp"
  14. ^ Nesti, MM; Goldbaum, M (Jul–Aug 2007). "Infectious diseases and daycare and preschool education.". Jornal de pediatria 83 (4): 299–312. PMID 17632670. 
  15. ^
    • Warren-Gash, C; Fragaszy, E; Hayward, AC (Sep 2013). "Hand hygiene to reduce community transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infection: a systematic review.". Influenza and other respiratory viruses 7 (5): 738–49. PMID 23043518. 
    • Lee, MB; Greig, JD (Oct 2008). "A review of enteric outbreaks in child care centers: effective infection control recommendations.". Journal of environmental health 71 (3): 24–32, 46. PMID 18990930. 
  16. ^ a b Rooshenas, L; Wood, F; Brookes-Howell, L; Evans, MR; Butler, CC (May 2014). "The influence of children's day care on antibiotic seeking: a mixed methods study.". The British journal of general practice : the journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners 64 (622): e302–12. PMID 24771845. 
  17. ^ "About This Site | The Australian Childcare Index". Echildcare.com.au. Retrieved 2013-12-02. 
  18. ^ "Govt 'misleading parents on childcare'". The Sydney Morning Herald. January 4, 2007. 
  19. ^ "Centrelink website". Centrelink.gov.au. 2013-08-09. Retrieved 2013-12-02. 
  20. ^ "F a c t s h e e t Children’s services (Chapter 3)". Australian Productivity Commission. Retrieved 2014-02-11. 
  21. ^ https://senate.aph.gov.au/submissions/comittees/viewdocument.aspx?id=71739615-6bef-4110-bb86-37d28909847a
  22. ^ "Australian Children's Education and Care Quality Authority". acecqa.gov.au. 2013-12-07. Retrieved 2013-12-02. 
  23. ^ Childcare establishment locator > MFA
  24. ^ "City of Toronto: Child Care Finder". Toronto.ca. Retrieved 2013-12-02. 
  25. ^ "Kindergarten". regjeringen.no. 2007-01-22. Retrieved 2013-12-02. 
  26. ^ "Child care". Almanac of Policy Issues:. Retrieved 2012-06-17. 
  27. ^ "The Cost of Child Care". Single Mother Guide. Retrieved 18 June 2014. 
  28. ^ Erel O, Oberman Y, Yirmiya N (2000). "Maternal versus nonmaternal care and seven domains of children's development". Psychol Bull 126 (5): 727–47. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.126.5.727. PMID 10989621. 
  29. ^ "Early Child Care Linked to Increases in Vocabulary, Some Problem Behaviors in Fifth and Sixth Grades, March 26, 2007 - National Institutes of Health (NIH)". Nih.gov. 2007-03-26. Retrieved 2013-12-02. 
  30. ^ How the Media Perpetuate Women's Fears of Being a Bad Mother in AlterNet May 12, 2007.
  31. ^ Child Care Linked To Assertive, Noncompliant, and Aggressive Behaviors Vast Majority of Children Within Normal Range
  32. ^ "Child Development, Volume 74 Issue 4 Page 976-1005, July 2003 (Article Abstract)". Blackwell Synergy. 2003-07-08. Retrieved 2013-12-02. 

External links[edit]

Resources for childcare in the United States[edit]