De Natura Deorum (On the Nature of the Gods) is a philosophical dialogue by Roman orator Cicero written in 45 BC. It is laid out in three "books", each of which discuss the theology of different Roman and Greek philosophers. The dialogue uses a discussion of Stoic, Epicurean, and skeptical theories to examine fundamental questions of theology.
The dialogue is on the whole narrated by Cicero himself, though he does not play an active part in the discussion. Gaius Velleius represents the Epicurean school, Quintus Lucilius Balbus argues for the Stoics, and Gaius Cotta speaks for Cicero's own Academic skepticism. The first book of the dialogue contains Cicero's introduction, Velleius' case for the Epicurean theology and Cotta's criticism of Epicureanism. Book II focuses on Balbus' explanation and defense of Stoic theology. Book III lays out Cotta's criticism of Balbus' claims. Cicero's conclusions are ambivalent and muted, "a strategy of civilized openness."
This work, alongside De Officiis and De Divinatione was highly influential on the philosophes of the 18th century; Voltaire called it "(...) perhaps the best book of all antiquity".
- There is in fact no subject upon which so much difference of opinion exists, not only among the unlearned but also among educated men; and the views entertained are so various and so discrepant, that, while it is no doubt a possible alternative that none of them is true, it is certainly impossible that more than one should be so. (Latin: Res enim nulla est, de qua tantopere non solum indocti, sed etiam docti dissentiant; quorum opiniones cum tam variae sint tamque inter se dissidentes, alterum fieri profecto potest, ut earum nulla, alterum certe non potest, ut plus una vera sit) (I, 5)
- We, on the contrary, make blessedness of life depend upon an untroubled mind, and exemption from all duties. (We think a happy life consists in tranquility of mind). (Latin: Nos autem beatam vitam in animi securitate et in omnium vacatione munerum ponimus) (I, 53)
- Because all the sick do not recover, therefore medicine is not an art. (Latin: Ne aegri quidem quia non omnes convalescunt, idcirco ars nulla medicina est) (II, 12)
- Things perfected by nature are better than those finished by art. (Latin: Meliora sunt ea quae natura quam illa quae arte perfecta sunt) (II, 87)
- There never was a great man unless through divine inspiration. (Latin: Nemo igitur vir magnus sine aliquo adflatu divino umquam fuit) (II, 167)
Latin text 
- ^ Stephen Greenblatt, The Swerve: How the World Became Modern, 2011:69ff.
- ^ Peter Gay, The Enlightenment - The Rise of Modern Paganism, W.W. Norton & Company, 1995, p. 109.
- ^ Ballou, Maturin Murray (1871). Treasury of thought. Forming an encyclopædia of quotations from ancient and modern authors.. Boston: J.R. Osgood and Co. p. 216.