De religion or Deism (Chinese: 德教 Dejiao, "religion of virtue", the concept of De) is a new religious movement of Chinese origin, rooted in the Chinese indigenous religion and Taoism. It is present both in China and amongst expatriate Chinese populations.
Originally a reaction of Chaozhou shamans to the Japanese occupation of Chaozhou, it blossomed in the wave of religious innovation after the Second World War. After the communist takeover in Mainland China in 1949 Dejiao spread to Overseas Chinese communities in Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia. In recent years, it has spread back to China and started a world wide expansion effort.
- Formoso 2010.
- Formoso 2007.
- Bernard Formoso. De Jiao - A Religious Movement in Contemporary China and Overseas: Purple Qi from the East. National University of Singapore, 2010. ISBN 978-9971-69-492-0
- Bernard Formoso. A Wishful Thinking Claim to Global Expansion? The Case of De Jiao (德教). Asia Research Institute Working Paper No. 96, Université Paris X Nanterre, Sept. 2007, 27 pp.
- Kazuo Yoshihara. Dejiao: A Chinese Religion in Southeast Asia. In Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, Vol. 15, No. 2/3, Folk Religion and Religious Organizations in Asia (Jun. - Sep., 1988), pp. 199–221. Published by: Nanzan University
- Chee Beng Tan. The Development and Distribution of Dejiao Associations in Malaysia and Singapore, A Study on a Religious Organization. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Occasional Paper n. 79. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1985. ISBN 9971-998-14-3