Dead Rabbits Riot
|Dead Rabbits Riot|
|Part of History of New York City (1855-1897)|
View of fight between two gangs, the "Dead Rabbits" and the "Bowery Boys" in the Sixth Ward, New York City.
|Casualties and losses|
|8 killed, 30–100 injured|
The Dead Rabbits Riot was a two-day civil disturbance in New York City resulting from what was originally a small-scale street fight between members of the Dead Rabbits and the Bowery Boys into a citywide gang war which lasted from July 4–5, 1857. Taking advantage of the disorganized state of the city's police force, brought about by the conflict between the Municipal and Metropolitan police, the fighting would spiral into widespread looting and damage of property by gangsters and other criminals from all parts of the city. It is estimated that between 800 and 1,000 gang members took part in the riots, along with several hundred others who used the disturbance to loot the Bowery area. It was the largest disturbance since the Astor Place Riot in 1849, and the biggest scene of gang violence, unsurpassed until the New York Draft Riots of 1863. Order was restored only by the New York State Militia, supported by detachments of city police, under Major-General Charles W. Sandford.
The riot was a culmination of the gang violence between the Five Pointers and the Bowery gangs, fueled by the decade-long conflict between the Democratic-supported Tammany Hall and the nativist Know Nothing Party, dating as far back as the 1840s. It also caused serious and far-reaching political changes including the downfall of Captain Isaiah Rynders as a ward boss of the "Bloody Ould Sixth" in favor of John Morrissey.
During the next few years, between the time of the Dead Rabbits Riot and the New York Draft Riots, the power of the older "Paradise" and "Chatham Square" street gangs would decline and break up in the post-American Civil War era.
On the evening of July 4, 1857, while the rest of New York was celebrating Independence Day, members of the Dead Rabbits led a coalition of street gangs from the Five Points, with exception of the Roach Guards with whom they had been fighting, into The Bowery to raid a clubhouse occupied by the Bowery Boys and the Atlantic Guards. They were confronted outside the building by their rivals and were driven back after vicious street fighting, the Five Pointers retreating to Paradise Square. Some fighting continued as far away as Pearl and Chatham Streets, in the northern half of Park Row, but no police were dispatched. With the exception of a few nearby Metropolitan patrolmen, who were seriously injured, each police faction claimed the responsibility lay with the other. Police inactivity caused the situation to escalate in the next few hours.
The following morning, the Five Pointers returned to the Bowery with the Roach Guards and attacked the Green Dragon, a popular Broome Street resort and meeting place for the Bowery Boys and other local criminals. They managed to surprise the Bowery gangsters inside the building and, armed with iron bars and large paving blocks, they proceeded to wreck the bar room, rip up the floor of the dance hall and drink all the alcohol in the place. News of the incident quickly reached the Bowery Boys, who then called upon other gangs of the Bowery to join them and confronted the Five Pointers at Bayard Street where one of the largest street gang battles in the city's history occurred.
At around 10:00 a.m., in the midst of savage fighting, a lone patrolman used his club to move through the gangsters in an attempt to take the ring leaders into custody. He was knocked down and attacked by the crowd however, stripped of his uniform and beaten with his own nightstick. He managed to crawl back to the sidewalk and, wearing only his cotton drawers, he ran towards the Metropolitan headquarters on White Street, where he informed the precinct of the fighting before he collapsed. A small police squad was sent out to break up the fighting but, upon reaching Centre Street, the gangs turned against the police, who were forced to retreat after several officers were injured. They made a second attempt, this time fighting their way into the mob, and arrested two men believed to be the leaders. The gangsters responded by storming into the low houses lining Bowery and Bayard Streets, forcing out the residents, and climbed to the rooftops where they proceeded to shower the Metropolitan officers with stones and brick bats until they fled from the area.
Brick-bats, stones and clubs were flying thickly around, and from the windows in all directions, and the men ran wildly about brandishing firearms. Wounded men lay on the sidewalks and were trampled upon. Now the Rabbits would make a combined rush and force their antagonists up Bayard street to the Bowery. Then the fugitives, being reinforced, would turn on their pursuers and compel a retreat to Mulberry, Elizabeth and Baxter streets.
— New York Times, July 6, 1857
When the police left without their prisoners, the fighting stopped for a few moments. This temporary truce lasted only an hour or two as fighting resumed near The Tombs, supposedly brought about by a group of women from the Five Points who had provoked the Dead Rabbits into attacking the Bowery gangs. Bringing reinforcements with them, the participants were estimated at between 800–1,000 and armed with bludgeons, paving stones, brick bats, axes, pitchforks and other weapons. Several hundred other criminals also arrived in the area, mostly burglars and thieves, who were not affiliated with either side and simply took the opportunity for looting. Attacking homes and shops all along the Bowery as well as Bayard, Baxter, Mulberry and Elizabeth Streets, residents and store owners were forced to barricade their buildings and protect themselves with pistols and muskets.
Fighting continued until early afternoon when a larger police force arrived, sent by Police Commissioner Simeon Draper, and marched in close formation towards the mob. After hard fighting, they cleared the streets forcing both the Dead Rabbits and the Bowery Boys into the buildings and to the rooftops once again. The police followed the gangsters, using their clubs at every opportunity, and began arresting large numbers of men. Some refused to surrender to police such as one man who, while fighting police, fell off the roof of a Baxter Street tenement fracturing his skull. He was promptly killed by Bowery gangsters on the ground who stomped him to death. Two leaders of the Dead Rabbits were finally arrested by police, despite heavy resistance by gang members, who took them to a nearby police precinct followed by a group of Bowery Boys.
In spite of this, fighting resumed as soon as the police left. Barricades were set up with push carts and stones from which gangsters fired weapons, hurled bricks and used clubs against their enemies. One of these, a giant Dead Rabbit, stepped in front of his barricade used his pistol to kill two Bowery Boys and wound two others despite heavy fire. He was finally knocked unconscious by a small boy, whose brother was fighting with the Bowery Boys, crawling along the barricade and hitting him with a brick bat from behind.
The police returned to the area but were unable to re-enter, forced to retreat several times with heavy losses, and that evening called upon Captain Isaiah Rynders to use his influence to stop the battle. Rynders, then the political boss of the Sixth Ward, was long associated with the underworld and it was thought he could force them to stop. He agreed and, upon his arrival between 6:00–7:00 p.m., he addressed the gangsters from the barricades. Though he tried to reason with them by telling them the futility of fighting amongst themselves, they refused to listen, and Rynders was forced to escape in the company of his henchmen when the mob responded by throwing rocks at him. He then traveled to the Metropolitan Police Headquarters where he advised Draper to call in the military. Meanwhile, fires had been set to two or three houses while residents remained under siege by looters and thugs.
At around 9:00 p.m., the Eighth and the Seventy-First Regiments of the New York State Militia under Major-General Charles W. Sandford marched down White and Worth Streets with fixed bayonets. Accompanied by two police detachments of 75 men each, they moved ahead of the guardsmen clubbing gangsters and rioters. Although neither regiment was at full strength, their show of force was enough to panic the gangsters to flee back to their hideouts. The fighting ceased from then on, with 500 men remaining at the City Arsenal until 4:00 a.m., although police and national guardsmen continued to patrol the district for the rest of the night and into the next day.
During the two-day rioting eight men were killed and between thirty  to a hundred others injured, roughly half of these requiring to be hospitalized. It was believed that many gang members were carried off by their friends and, over the next few days, those who were killed in the fighting were buried in cellars, hidden passageways and other locations in the Five Points and Paradise Square. Indeed, many known "sluggers" from both sides were noticeably absent from the area following the riot. According to underworld legend, these sites would be used for secret burials by street gangs for the next several decades.
Afterwards, occasional violence against Bowery Boys who ventured into the Five Points was reported, although none of these attacks reached the levels seen during the riots. The most serious of these incidents occurred the day following the riot when a group of Bowery Boys fought members of the Kerryonians in Centre Street; however they were chased back to the Bowery and Chatham Square by the time police arrived. Sporadic fighting continued for another week, most being confined in German-American neighborhoods in the East Side and the East River by younger criminals emulating the Irish gangs. Many of the Five Points gangs, most notably the Dead Rabbits, resented the implications made by police and newspapers that they had been committing criminal acts. The gang went so far as to have the New York Times print a statement denying such claims.
|“||We are requested by the Dead Rabbits to state that the Dead Rabbit club members are not thieves, that they did not participate in the riot with the Bowery Boys, and that the fight on Mulberry street was between the Roach Guards of Mulberry street and the Atlantic Guards of the Bowery. The Dead Rabbits are sensitive on points of Honor, we are assured, and wouldn't allow a thief to live on their beat, much less be a member of their club. ||”|
In popular culture
- A poetry book by Richard Griffin, The Dead Rabbit Riot, A.D. 1857: And Other Poems, was published in 1915.
- The Dead Rabbit Riot was featured in the History Channel documentary television series History's Mysteries in 1998.
- The Dead Rabbits, the Five Points, and a large riot are portrayed in the movie "Gangs of New York," though the motivation for the violence was the Civil War draft.
- Nate Hendley, ed. (2009). American Gangsters, Then and Now: An Encyclopedia: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 65–66.
- Headley, J.T. The Great Riots of New York, 1712 to 1873, Including a Full and Complete Account of the Four Days' Draft Riot of 1863. New York: E.B. Treat, 1873. (pg. 131–132)
- Asbury, Herbert. The Gangs of New York: An Informal History of the New York Underworld. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1928, pp 102–106. ISBN 1-56025-275-8
- English, T.J. Paddy Whacked: The Untold Story of the Irish American Gangster. New York: HarperCollins, 2005. (pg. 27–28) ISBN 0-06-059002-5
- Anbinder, Tyler. Five Points: the 19th-century New York City neighborhood that invented tap dance, stole elections, and became the world's most notorious slum (Simon and Schuster, 2001)
- Clark, Emmons. History of the Seventh Regiment of New York, 1806–1889. Vol. I. New York: The Seventh Regiment, 1890.
- Francis, Augustus Theodore. History of the 71st Regiment, N.G., N.Y., American Guard. New York: The Veterans Association, 1919.
- Katz, Helena. Gang Wars: Blood and Guts on the Streets of Early New York (2005) 115pp