Dead Sea Transform
The Dead Sea Transform (DST) fault system, also sometimes referred to as the Dead Sea Rift, is a series of faults that run from the Maras Triple Junction (a junction with the East Anatolian Fault in southeastern Turkey) to the northern end of the Red Sea Rift (just offshore of the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula). The fault system forms the transform boundary between the African Plate to the west and the Arabian Plate to the east. It is a zone of left lateral displacement, signifying the relative motions of the two plates. Both plates are moving in a general north-northeast direction, but the Arabian Plate is moving faster, resulting in the observed left lateral motions along the fault of approximately 107 km. A component of extension is also present in the southern part of the transform, which has contributed to a series of depressions, or pull apart basins, forming the Gulf of Aqaba, Dead Sea, Sea of Galilee and Hula basins.
- 1 Southern section
- 2 Lebanon restraining bend
- 3 Northern section
- 4 Development
- 5 See also
- 6 References
The southern section of the DST is about 400 km long, extending from the spreading center in the Red Sea at southern end of the Gulf of Aqaba to just north of the Hula basin in southernmost Lebanon.
Gulf of Aqaba
The Gulf of Aqaba was created by movement on four en echelon left-stepping strike-slip fault segments. In the areas where these segments overlap pull-apart basin have developed forming three bathymetric lows known as the Daka Deep, the Aragonese Deep and the Elat Deep. Parts of three of these faults ruptured during the 1995 Gulf of Aqaba earthquake.
The Wadi Araba (Arava valley) segment of the DST extends for about 160 km from the Gulf of Aqaba to the southern end of the Dead Sea. Some workers have broken this segment down further, recognising separate Avrona and Arava segments. The Avrona fault extends from the northern part of the Gulf of Aqaba for about 50 km along the Arava valley. The Arava fault runs from just north of the Avrona fault segment for about 100 km. A slip rate of 4 ±2 mm per year has been estimated from the offset of gullies across the fault. Four major earthquakes are thought to have occurred due to movement on this fault in the last 1,000 years, in 1068, 1212, 1293 and 1458.
Dead Sea basin
The Dead Sea is formed in a pull-apart basin due to the left-stepping offset between the Wadi Araba and Jordan valley segments. The part of the basin with a sedimentary fill of more than 2 km is 150 km long and 15–17 km wide in its central part. In the north, the fill reaches its maximum thickness of about 10 km. The sequence comprises Miocene fluvial sandstones of the Hazeva Formation overlain by a sequence of Late Miocene to early Pliocene evaporites, mainly halite, the Sedom Formation, and a lacustrine to fluvial sequence of Pliocene to recent age.
Jordan valley fault
The Jordan valley segment of the DST runs for about 100 km from the northwestern part of the Dead Sea to the southeastern part of the Sea of Galilee along the Jordan valley. A slip rate of between 4.7 and 5.1 mm per year has been estimated over the last 47,500 years. The entire segment is thought to have ruptured during the earthquake in 749 and again in 1033, the most recent major earthquake along this structure. The deficit in slip that has built up since the 1033 event is sufficient to cause an earthquake of Mw~7.4.
Sea of Galilee basin
The Sea of Galilee Basin or Kinneret Basin is a pull apart formed between Jordan valley fault along its eastern edge and a set of smaller faults to the north. The basin's main depocentre lies on the eastern side, against the continuation of the Jordan valley fault. The thickness of the fill is estimated as 3 km down to the deepest mapped seismic reflection, correlated with the top of a basalt layer that was extruded about four million years ago.
The Hula pull-apart basin lies to the north of the Sea of Galilee basin and is formed between several short fault segments. The currently active part of the basin is relatively narrow. The Hula Western Border Fault defines the western side of the basin and splays to the north into several faults, including the Roum fault and the Yammouneh fault. The Hula Eastern Border Fault continues northwards from the northeastern part of the Sea of Galilee, forming the eastern edge of the basin and linking eventually to the Rachaya fault.
Lebanon restraining bend
The Yammouneh fault is the main fault strand within the Lebanon restraining bend, carrying most of the plate boundary displacement. It is SSW-NNE trending and runs for about 170 km from the northwestern end of the Hula Basin to its junction with the Missyaf Fault. It has been the location of several major historical earthquakes, such as the 1202 Syria event. The estimated average slip rate along the Yammouneh fault is 4.0 to 5.5 mm per year, with a major earthquake recurrence interval of 1020 to 1175 years. There have been no major earthquakes since that in 1202. 
The Roum fault branches away from the Yammouneh fault at the northwestern part of the Hula Basin. It can be traced from there northwards for about 35 km before becoming indistinct. Movement on this fault has been linked to the 1837 Galilee earthquake. A slip-rate of 0.86—1.05 mm per year has been estimated.
This fault zone comprises two main fault strands, the Rachaya and Serghaya faults. The Serghaya fault branches off the Hula Eastern Border Fault, continuing northeastwards to the south of Mount Hermon into the Anti-Lebanon range where it becomes SSW-NNE trending. The fault has a slip rate of about 1.4 mm per year. Movement on this fault is thought to be responsible for the November 1759 earthquake. The Rachaya fault also branches off the Hula Eastern Border Fault, trending SSW-NNE, passing to the north of Mount Hermon. No slip rate has yet been estimated for this fault. The Rachaya fault is the interpreted location of the October 1759 earthquake.
Mount Lebanon thrust
A thrust of series of thrust fault segments has been recognised on seismic reflection data offshore Lebanon. It has been proposed that these are surface expressions of a large thrust fault structure or structures that link back to the main part of the DSF beneath the Mount Lebanon range. The presence of a series of uplifted marine terraces on the Lebanese coast suggests that the range was formed by continuing movement on such structures. The 551 Beirut earthquake is thought to have been caused by movement on one of these thrust faults.
The northern section of the DST extends from the northern end of the Yammouneh fault up to the triple junction with the East Anatolian Fault. The over all deformation style is transpressional, in keeping with the relative plate motions as determined from GPS measurements.
This fault segment, also known as the Ghab fault, runs for about 70 km from the northern end of the Yammouneh fault into the Ghab basin. The estimated slip rate for this segment is 6.9 mm per year. Major historical earthquakes interpreted to have occurred along this structure include the Mw>7 events in AD 115 and 1170. No major earthquakes have been recorded since 1170, suggesting that such an event is overdue.
The Ghab basin was formed in the Pliocene and is interpreted to be a pull apart basin formed due to the overlap at the left-stepping offset between the Missyaf fault and the Hacıpaşa fault. The basin is about 60 km long and 15 km wide. Based on the interpretation of seismic reflection data and a single well penetration (Ghab-1) the fill of the basin is thought to be entirely Pliocene to recent in age. There are two main depocentres in the basin at the northern and southern end, separated by an intrabasinal high.
The Hacıpaşa fault extends from the Ghab basin into the Amik basin. It is thought to carry the bulk of the plate boundary displacement linking through on to the Karasu fault. Major earthquakes in 1408 and 1872 have been linked to movement on this fault.
The Karasu fault or Amanos fault has SW-NE trend and represents part of the transition from the DST to the East Anatolian Fault. It has an estimated slip rate of 1.0 to 1.6 mm per year for the whole Quaternary. No historical earthquakes have been linked with movement on this fault.
The Dead Sea Transform began to form during the early to mid-Miocene, when there was a change in plate motions and rifting stopped in the Gulf of Suez Rift. The initial phase of northward propagation reached as far as southernmost Lebanon and was followed by a period in the Late Miocene where continuing displacement across the plate boundary was taken up mainly by shortening in the Palmyride fold belt. A total displacement of 64 km has been estimated for this early phase of motion. In the Pliocene the DST propagated northwards once more through Lebanon into northwestern Syria before reaching the East Anatolian Fault.
- Klinger, Yann; Rivera, Luis; Haessler, Henri; Maurin, Jean-Christophe (August 1999), "Active Faulting in the Gulf of Aqaba: New Knowledge from the Mw 7.3 Earthquake of 22 November 1995", Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (Seismological Society of America) 89 (4): 1025–1036
- Klinger Y., Avouac J.P., Karaki N.A., Dorbath L., Bourles D. & Reyss J.L. (2000). "Slip rate on the Dead Sea transform fault in northern Araba valley (Jordan)". Geophysical Journal International 142 (3): 755–768. Bibcode:2000GeoJI.142..755K. doi:10.1046/j.1365-246x.2000.00165.x.
- Makovsky Y., Wunch A., Ariely R., Shaked Y., Rivlin A., Shemesh A., Ben Avraham Z. & Agnon A. (2008). "Quaternary transform kinematics constrained by sequence stratigraphy and submerged coastline features: The Gulf of Aqaba". Earth and Planetary Science Letters 271: 109–122. Bibcode:2008E&PSL.271..109M. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2008.03.057.
- Klinger Y., Avouac J.P., Dorbath L., Abou Karaki N. & Tisnerat N. (2000). "Seismic behaviour of the Dead Sea fault along the Araba valley, Jordan". Geophysical Journal International 142: 769–782. Bibcode:2000GeoJI.142..769K. doi:10.1046/j.1365-246X.2000.00166.x.
- Garfunkel Z. (1997). "The History and Formation of the Dead Sea Basin". In Niemi T.M., Ben Avraham Z. & Gat J.R. The Dead Sea: The Lake and Its Setting. Oxford University Press. pp. 36–56. ISBN 9780195087031.
- Ferry M., Meghraoui M., Karaki A.A., Al-Taj M., Amoush H., Al-Dhaisat S. & Barjous M. (2008). "A 48-kyr-long slip rate history for the Jordan Valley segment of the Dead Sea Fault". Earth and Planetary Science Letters 260 (3—4): 394–406. Bibcode:2007E&PSL.260..394F. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2007.05.049.
- Marco S., Hartal M., Hazan N., Leve L. & Stein M. (2003). "Archaeology, history, and geology of the A.D. 749 earthquake, Dead Sea transform". Geology 31 (8): 665–668. Bibcode:2003Geo....31..665M. doi:10.1130/G19516.1.
- Hurwitz S., Garfunkel Z., Ben-Gai Y., Reznikov M., Rotstein Y. & Gvirtzman H. (2002). "The tectonic framework of a complex pull-apart basin: seismic reflection observations in the Sea of Galilee, Dead Sea transform". Tectonophysics 359 (3-4): 289–306. Bibcode:2002Tectp.359..289H. doi:10.1016/S0040-1951(02)00516-4.
- Marco S. (2007). "Temporal variation in the geometry of a strike–slip fault zone: Examples from the Dead Sea Transform". Tectonophysics 445 (3-4): 186–199. Bibcode:2007Tectp.445..186M. doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2007.08.014.
- Weinberger R., Schattner U., Medvedev B., Frieslander U., Sneh A., Harlavan Y. & Gross M.R. (2010). "Convergent strike–slip across the Dead Sea Fault in northern Israel, imaged by high- resolution seismic reflection data". Israel Journal of Earth Sciences 58: 203–216. doi:10.1560/IJES.58.3-4.203.
- Weinberger R., Gross M.R. & Sneh A. (2009). "Evolving deformation along a transform plate boundary: Example from the Dead Sea Fault in northern Israel". Tectonics 28 (TC5005). Bibcode:2009Tecto..28.5005W. doi:10.1029/2008TC002316.
- Romieh M.A., Westaway R., Daoud M. & Bridgland D.R. (2012). "First indications of high slip rates on active reverse faults NW of Damascus, Syria, from observations of deformed Quaternary sediments: Implications for the partitioning of crustal deformation in the Middle Eastern region". Tectonophysics. 538-540: 86–104. doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2012.03.008,.
- Homberg C., Barrier E., Mroueh M., Hamdan W. & Higazi F. (2010). "Tectonic evolution of the central Levant domain (Lebanon) since Mesozoic time". In Homberg C. & Bachmann M. Evolution of the Levant Margin and Western Arabia Platform Since the Mesozoic. Special Publications 341. Geological Society. pp. 245–268. ISBN 9781862393066.
- Daëron M., Klinger Y., Tapponnier P., Elias A., Jacques E. & Sursock A. (2005). "Sources of the large A.D. 1202 and 1759 Near East earthquakes". Geology 33 (7): 529–532. Bibcode:2005Geo....33..529D. doi:10.1130/G21352.1.
- Jaafar R. (2008). "GPS Measurements of Present day crustal deformation within the Lebanese Restraining Bend along the Dead Sea Transform". MSc thesis. Retrieved February 24, 2013.
- Nemer T., Gomkez F., Al Haddad S. & Tabet C. (2008). "Coseismic growth of sedimentary basins along the Yammouneh strike-slip fault (Lebanon)". Geophysical Journal International 175: 1023–1039. Bibcode:2008GeoJI.175.1023N. doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2008.03889.x.
- Nemer T. & Meghraoui M. (2006). "Evidence of coseismic ruptures along the Roum fault (Lebanon): a possible source for the AD 1837 earthquake". Journal of Structural Geology 28 (8): 1483–1495. Bibcode:2006JSG....28.1483N. doi:10.1016/j.jsg.2006.03.038.
- Gomez F., Nemer T., Tabet C., Khawlie M., Meghraoui M. & Barazangi M. (2007). "Strain partitioning of active transpression within the Lebanese restraining bend of the Dead Sea Fault (Lebanon and SW Syria)". In Cunningham W.D. & Mann P. Tectonics of Strike-Slip Restraining and Releasing Bends. London: Geological Society. pp. 285–303. ISBN 9781862392380.
- Elias, A.; Tapponnier P., Singh S.C., King G.C.P., Briais A., Daëron M., Carton H., Sursock A., Jacques E., Jomaa R. & Klinger Y. (2007). "Active thrusting offshore Mount Lebanon: Source of the tsunamigenic A.D. 551 Beirut-Tripoli earthquake". Geology 35 (8): 755–758. doi:10.1130/G23631A.1.
- Gomez, F., Karam, G., Khawlie, M., McClusky S., Vernant P., Reilinger R., Jaafar R., Tabet C., Khair K., and Barazangi M (2007). "Global Positioning System measurements of strain accumulation and slip transfer through the restraining bend along the Dead Sea fault system in Lebanon". Geophysical Journal International 168 (3): 1021–1028. Bibcode:2007GeoJI.168.1021G. doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2006.03328.x.
- Meghraoui M., Gomez F., Sbeinati R., Van der Woerd J., Mounty M., Darkal A. N., Radwan Y., Layyous I., Al-Najjar H., Darawcheh R., Hijazi F., Al-Ghazzi R., & Barazangi M. (2003). "Evidence for 830 years of Seismic Quiescence from Palaeoseismology, Archaeoseismology and Historical Seismicity Along the Dead Sea Fault in Syria". Earth and Planetary Science Letters 210 (1-2): 35–52. doi:10.1016/S0012-821X(03)00144-4,.
- Brew G., Lupa J., Barazangi M., Sawaf T., Al-Imam A. & Zaza T. (2001). "Structure and tectonic development of the Ghab basin and the Dead Sea fault system, Syria". Journal of the Geological Society 158: 665–674. doi:10.1144/jgs.158.4.665.
- Karabacak V., Altunel E., Meghraoui M. & Akyüz H.S. (2010). "Field evidences from northern Dead Sea Fault Zone (South Turkey): New findings for the initiation age and slip rate". Tectonophysics 480 (1-4): 172–182. doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2009.10.001.
- Akyuz H.S., Altunel E., Karabacak V. & Yalciner C.C. (2006). "Historical earthquake activity of the northern part of the Dead Sea Fault Zone, southern Turkey". Tectonophysics 426 (3-4): 281–293. doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2006.08.005,.
- Mahmoud Y., Masson F., Meghraoul M., Cakir Z., Alchalbi A., Yavaoglu H., Yönlü O., Daoud M., Ergintav S. & Inan S. (2012). "Kinematic study at the junction of the East Anatolian fault and the Dead Sea fault from GPS measurements". Journal of Geodynamics. in press. Bibcode:2013JGeo...67...30M. doi:10.1016/j.jog.2012.05.006.
- Yurtmen S., Guillou H., Westaway R., Rowbotham G. & Tatar O. (2002). "Rate of strike-slip motion on the Amanos Fault (Karasu Valley, southern Turkey) constrained by K–Ar dating and geochemical analysis of Quaternary basalts". Tectonophysics 344: 207–246. Bibcode:2002Tectp.344..207Y. doi:10.1016/S0040-1951(01)00265-7.
- Tatar O., Piper J.D.A., Gürsoy H., Heimann A. & Koçbulut F. (2004). "Neotectonic deformation in the transition zone between the Dead Sea Transform and the East Anatolian Fault Zone, Southern Turkey: a palaeomagnetic study of the Karasu Rift Volcanism". Tectonophysics 385: 17–43. Bibcode:2004Tectp.385...17T. doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2004.04.005.
- Gomez F., Khawlie M., Tabet C., Darkal A., Khair K. & Barazangi M. (2006). "Late Cenozoic uplift along the northern Dead Sea transform in Lebanon and Syria". Earth and Planetary Science Letters 241 (3-4): 913–931. Bibcode:2006E&PSL.241..913G. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2005.10.029.
- Dead Sea transform (DST) study
- Emre, O.; Duman, T. Y. (December 2004), The East Anatolian Fault: Structural pattern and relationship with the Dead Sea Transform, Bibcode:2004AGUFM.T42B..01E