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A dead-end job is a pejorative term describing a job in which there is little or no chance of progressing and succeeding into a higher paid position. Such work is usually regarded as unskilled and the phrase usually applies to those working as shelf stackers, cleaners, call center agents, clerks, or in other menial jobs where the pay is low, and the hours are long. By the same token, positions not regarded as menial may nonetheless qualify as dead-end jobs and forms of underemployment. A specialized employee working in a small firm in an underdeveloped local market, for example, might have few opportunities for advancement within the company while simultaneously facing a dearth of opportunities outside it. Most dead-end jobs offer little to no transferable skills and "trap" workers. Dead-end jobs are not limited to menial retail or fast food roles; professional positions in call centers, loss-mitigation underwriting, administrative and clerical work often trap the workers in jobs that offer almost no advancement potential.  Another common indicator of a dead-end job is the risk of it being made obsolete by automation.