Deaflympics

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Deaflympics
International Committee of Sports for the Deaf (CISS) Logo.gif
Deaflympics Logo
Motto PER LUDOS AEQUALITAS (Equality through sport)
First event 1924 in Paris, France – 1924 Summer Deaflympics
Occur every 4 years
Last event 2013 in Sofia, Bulgaria – 2013 Summer Deaflympics
Purpose Provision of opportunities for deaf persons to participate in elite sports
Headquarters Frederick, Maryland, United States
President Craig A Crowley MBE
Website Deaflympics Official Website

The Deaflympics (previously called World Games for the Deaf, and International Games for the Deaf) are an International Olympic Committee (IOC)-sanctioned event at which deaf athletes compete at an elite level. However, unlike the athletes in other IOC-sanctioned events (i.e., the Olympics, the Paralympics, and the Special Olympics), the Deaflympians cannot be guided by sounds (i.e., the starter's guns, bullhorn commands or referee whistles).[1] The games have been organized by the Comité International des Sports des Sourds (CISS, "The International Committee of Sports for the Deaf") since the first event.

History[edit]

The Deaflympics are held every 4 years, and are the longest running multi-sport event excluding the Olympics themselves.[2] The first games, held in Paris in 1924, were also the first ever international sporting event for athletes with a disability.[3] The event has been held every four years since, apart from a break for World War II, and an additional event, the Deaflympic Winter Games, was added in 1949.[4] The games began as a small gathering of 148 athletes from nine European nations competing in the International Silent Games in Paris, France, in 1924; now, they have grown into a global movement.[1]

Officially, the games were originally called the "International Games for the Deaf" from 1924 to 1965, but were sometimes referred to as the "International Silent Games". From 1966 to 1999 they were called the "World Games for the Deaf", and occasionally referred to as the "World Silent Games". From 2001, the games have been known by their current name "Deaflympics" (often mistakenly called the "Deaf Olympics").[4]

To qualify for the games, athletes must have a hearing loss of at least 55 db in their "better ear". Hearing aids, cochlear implants and the like are not allowed to be used in competition, to place all athletes on the same level.[4] Other examples of ways the games vary from hearing competitions are the manner in which they are officiated. To address the issue of Deaflympians not being able to be guided by sounds, certain sports use alternative methods of commencing the game. For example, the football referees wave a flag instead of blowing a whistle; on the track, races are started by using a light, instead of a starter pistol. It is also customary for spectators not to cheer or clap, but rather to wave – usually with both hands.

Sports[edit]

The following sports are currently on the Deaflympic Games programme:[5]

Summer disciplines[edit]

Individual sports[edit]

Team sports[edit]

Winter disciplines[edit]

Individual sports[edit]

Team sports[edit]

Host nations and cities[edit]

To date, the Deaflympic Games have been hosted by 36 cities in 21 countries, but by cities outside Europe on only five occasions (Washington D.C. 1965, Los Angeles 1985, Christchurch 1989, Melbourne 2005 and Taipei 2009). The last summer games was held in Sofia, Bulgaria in 2013, and the next scheduled winter games will be in Khanty-Mansiysk, Russia in 2015.

The 2011 Winter Games scheduled to be held in Vysoké Tatry, Slovakia were cancelled due to the lack of readiness by the organizing committee to host the games.[6][7] The International Committee of Deaf Sports filed a criminal complaint against the Slovak Deaflympics Organizing Committee and its President, Mr. Jaromír Ruda.[8] The criminal complaint demands reimbursement of the funds that were transferred to the Slovak Deaflympics Organizing Committee from national deaf sports federations, to cover hotel accommodations and other Deaflympics-related expenses.[8] According the Slovak newspaper, SME, "Jaromír Ruda, head of the Slovak Organising Committee, [is] a champion of promises and someone who is accused of a 1.6 million Euro Deaflympics-related fraud".[9] In a letter to the United States Deaflympians, International Committee of Sports for the Deaf ICSD President Craig Crowley expressed "his deep apologies for the cancellation of the 17th Winter Deaflympics".[10] Currently, the Slovak Deaflympic Committee and the Slovakia Association of Deaf Sportsmen Unions have been suspended.[11] Ruda was sentenced to a prison term of 13 years for defrauding €1.6 million that should have been used for Winter Deaflympics.[12]

The host cities and NOCs for all past and scheduled games are as follows:[3][13]

Summer Deaflympics[edit]

Year Games Host City NOC Notes
1924 I Paris  France
1928 II Amsterdam  Netherlands
1931 III Nuremberg  Germany
1935 IV London  United Kingdom
1939 V Stockholm  Sweden
cancelled due to World War II
1949 VI Copenhagen  Denmark
1953 VII Brussels  Belgium
1957 VIII Milan  Italy
1961 IX Helsinki  Finland
1965 X Washington, D.C.  United States
1969 XI Belgrade  Yugoslavia
1973 XII Malmö  Sweden
1977 XIII Bucharest  Romania
1981 XIV Köln  West Germany
1985 XV Los Angeles  United States
1989 XVI Christchurch  New Zealand
1993 XVII Sofia  Bulgaria
1997 XVIII Copenhagen  Denmark
2001 XIX Rome  Italy
2005 XX Melbourne  Australia
2009 XXI Taipei  Taiwan1
2013 XXII Sofia  Bulgaria
2017 XXIII Samsun  Turkey[14]
1 The Republic of China, commonly known as Taiwan, due to complicated relations with People's Republic of China, is recognized by the name Chinese Taipei by the ICSD and the majority of international organizations.

Winter Deaflympics[edit]

Year Games Host City NOC Notes
1949 I Seefeld  Austria
1953 II Oslo  Norway
1955 III Oberammergau  West Germany
1959 IV Montana-Vermala   Switzerland
1963 V Åre  Sweden
1967 VI Berchtesgaden  West Germany
1971 VII Adelboden   Switzerland
1975 VIII Lake Placid  United States
1979 IX Méribel  France
1983 X Madonna di Campiglio  Italy
1987 XI Oslo  Norway
1991 XII Banff  Canada
1995 XIII Ylläs  Finland
1999 XIV Davos   Switzerland
2003 XV Sundsvall  Sweden
2007 XVI Salt Lake City  United States
2011 cancelled Vysoké Tatry  Slovakia
2015 XVIII Khanty-Mansiysk  Russia

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b International Committee of Sports for the Deaf – News. Deaflympics.com. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  2. ^ What are the Deaflympics?. Disabled World. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  3. ^ a b Future Directions of the Deaflympics. Thefreelibrary.com. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  4. ^ a b c Historical overview of the Paralympics, Special Olympics, and Deaflympics. Thefreelibrary.com. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  5. ^ International Committee of Sports for the Deaf – Sports. Deaflympics.com. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  6. ^ Winter Olympics: 2011 Winter Deaflympics Cancelled. Healthyhearing.com (17 February 2011). Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  7. ^ International Committee of Sports for the Deaf – PressRelease. Deaflympics.com (13 February 2011). Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  8. ^ a b ICSD Pursuing Legal Action Following Failure of 17th Winter Deaflympics. Deaf Sports Mag. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  9. ^ Slovakia: Deaflympics 2011 Controversy · Global Voices. Globalvoicesonline.org. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  10. ^ 2011 US Deaflympics – Article | Letter from ICSD to USA athletes. Usdeaflympics.org (17 February 2011). Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  11. ^ International Committee of Sports for the Deaf – PressRelease. Deaflympics.com (14 February 2011). Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  12. ^ Deaflympics Committee Head Sentenced to Thirteen Years – English News. Webnoviny.sk. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  13. ^ International Committee of Sports for the Deaf – Games. Deaflympics.com. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  14. ^ "Huge boost for Deaflympics as Budapest and Ankara step in to host competition". Inside the ParaSport. Retrieved 20 January 2012. 

External links[edit]