Bangor Cathedral

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Bangor Cathedral
The Cathedral Church of Saint Deiniol
Bangor Cathedral
53°13′36″N 4°7′39″W
Location Bangor, Gwynedd
Country Wales
Denomination Anglican
Previous denomination Roman Catholic
History
Founded 525AD (525AD)
Founder(s) Saint Deiniol
Consecrated 546AD
Past bishop(s) Saint Deiniol - First Bishop of Bangor
The Most Revd Barry Morgan - Archbishop of Wales
Associated people Aled Jones
George Guest
Architecture
Architect(s) Sir George Gilbert Scott
Style Romanesque, Gothic
Administration
Deanery Ogwen
Archdeaconry Bangor
Diocese Bangor
Province Wales
Clergy
Bishop(s) Rt Revd Andrew John
Dean Very Revd Dr Sue Jones
Precentor The Revd Canon David Fisher
Canon Chancellor The Revd Chancellor Peter Russell Jones
Canon(s) The Revd Canon Stephanie Beacon
The Revd Canon Dylan Williams
The Revd Canon Cathleen Rogers
The Revd Canon Philip Hughes

Honarary Canons
The Revd Canon Dr Randolph Ellis
The Revd Canon Tegid Roberts
Canon Missioner The Revd Canon Nia Williams
Canon Treasurer The Revd Canon Professor Leslie Francis
Archdeacon Ven Paul Davies
Ven Andrew Jones
Prebendary The Revd Prebendary John Nice
The Revd Prebendary Professor Mike West
Assistant The Revd Prebendary Professor Mike West
Chaplain(s) The Revd Canon Dr Randolph Ellis
Deacon(s) The Revd Philip Keeble
Laity
Organist/Director of music Mr Graham Eccles
Organist(s) Mr Martin Brown
Mr Paul Booth
Organ scholar Mr Robert Jones
Chapter clerk Mr Martin Brown
Verger Vacant

Bangor Cathedral is an ancient place of Christian worship situated in Bangor, Gwynedd, north-west Wales. It is dedicated to its founder, Saint Deiniol.

The site of the present building of Bangor Cathedral has been in use as a place of Christian worship since the 6th century. The cathedral is built on a low-lying and inconspicuous site, possibly so as not to attract the attention of Viking raiders from the sea. Some visitors to Bangor assume that the Gothic style building on the hill is the cathedral, but this is actually part of the University.

History[edit]

Nave and Central Tower
West Tower

The site of Bangor Cathedral was originally occupied by St. Deiniol's monastery, established in the 6th century around c.525 on land given by the king of Gwynedd, Maelgwn Gwynedd. Deiniol is said to have been consecrated as a bishop by Saint David, making him the first Bishop of Bangor. This monastery was sacked in 634 and again in 1073. Nothing of the original building survives.

The Synod of Westminster in 1102 is recorded as taking measures to restore Bangor Cathedral, but the earliest part of the present building was built during the episcopate of Bishop David (1120–1139) with the assistance of the king of Gwynedd, Gruffudd ap Cynan who donated money towards the project and was buried by the high altar on his death in 1137. This was a cruciform building in the Norman style, about 130 feet in length. Gruffudd's son, Owain Gwynedd was also buried here, as was his brother Cadwaladr. Giraldus Cambrensis describes a service held here in 1188 when the Archbishop of Canterbury celebrated mass.

In 1211, the Cathedral was destroyed by the army of the English king John on a raid into Gwynedd.

In the 13th century the original apse was removed and the choir was extended to its present length. The church was badly damaged when King Edward I of England invaded Gwynedd in 1282, and in 1284 the Dean and Chapter were given £60 in compensation for the damage. There was extensive rebuilding in this period, under the first Bishop Anian, with the transepts and crossing rebuilt. The nave was rebuilt in the late 14th century.

The cathedral was said to have been burnt to the ground in 1402 during the rebellion of Owain Glyndŵr, but there is no contemporary evidence for this, though it may well have been damaged. There certainly was extensive reconstruction from the end of the 15th century, completed in 1532. There is a Latin inscription over the tower doorway recording that Bishop Skevington built the tower in 1532, though it was not complete when Skevington died in 1533. Some work was done during the 18th century and £2,000 was spent on repairs in 1824, followed by the altering and refitting of the interior in 1825 at a cost of a further £3252.

Rowland Meyrick the second son of Meyrick ab Llewellyn was the first Protestant Bishop of Bangor and is buried under the Cathedral. Meyrick ab Llewllyn was High Sheriff and Captain of the guard at the Coronation of King Henry the VIII April 26, 1509.

Architecture[edit]

East End and Tower
Interior - Nave

The building as seen today is the result of extensive work carried out under the supervision of Sir George Gilbert Scott begun in 1868. Scott's design originally called for a high central tower and spire, but this was never completed as cracks appeared which were thought to indicate subsidence of the foundations. The tower was therefore left as a low structure.

Features of interest[edit]

The cathedral contains the "Mostyn Christ", a figure of the Pensive Christ carved in oak and thought to date from the late 15th century, depicting Christ prior to the crucifixion, seated on a rock and wearing the crown of thorns.

In the grounds of the cathedral, the "Biblical garden is planted with an example of every plant mentioned in the Bible.

Burials[edit]

Deans[edit]

The Dean is head of the Cathedral chapter. There have been fifty-six recorded Deans. The current Dean is Sue Jones.[1]

Previous deans include:

The Organ[edit]

Interior - Quire

The first reference we have of an organ in the Cathedral comes in the poem by Gruffudd Gryg, who witnessed the arrival of a new instrument sometime between 1350 and 1370, and records how all the parishioners contributed towards it.

Under Bishop Rowlands (1598 - 1616) arrangements were made for the payment of a stipend to an organist. However, during the episcopate of the next bishop - Lewis Bayly - we hear of one Thomas Boulton playing the organ and complaining that his salary was not paid!

During the commonwealth (1649–60) the organ was either removed or destroyed in accordance with the Parliamentary Order 'for the speedy demolition of all organs, images and all matters of superstitious monuments in all cathedrals...throughout the kingdom of England and the dominion of Wales.'

When Charles II was restored to the throne in 1660 a new organ was installed being paid for from a legacy of £100 left by Bishop William Roberts and erected by his successor, Robert Morgan. On the organ case was a Latin verse in which the two bishops, who had provided the money and erected the organ, were compared to David and Solomon respectively.

In 1779 the organ was replaced by a new instrument. It cost 360 guineas and was made by Samuel Green, the leading organ builder of his day. This was in constant use until it was replaced by the present organ which was built by one of the greatest master organ builders of the nineteenth century - William Hill - and installed in 1873.

The organ is the largest pipe organ in Wales and potentially one of the finest in the British Isles. It provides North Wales with an irreplaceable community asset. It is a splendid four-manual instrument and the majority of its 4,210 pipes were supplied in 1873 by one of the most famous organ building firms of the day, William Hill, with subsequent additions by the same company in 1897.

The organ had a major re-build in 1954 by John Compton, and since then has been used on a daily basis. Numerous students have benefited from study at this instrument and noted organists from all over the world have visited Bangor Cathedral especially to play the organ and give public concerts.

Between 2006 and 2008, David Wells Organ Builders Ltd of Liverpool rebuilt the organ. The solo soundboard is now located in the Crossing Arch into the North Transept, and is the un-enclosed Choir Organ. The choir soundboard in the organ chamber has become the solo soundboard, and has been turned round to face through the Transept Arch. It has been raised high to facilitate toilet and kitchen facilities on the ground floor. A new vestry has been built on the first floor for servers. The new console is placed in the North Transept.

A specification of the organ can be found on the National Pipe Organ Register.

List of organists[edit]

  • 1644 Thomas Bolton
  • 1689 (A Vicar Choral) ?
  • 1691 Thomas Roberts
  • 1705  ? Priest
  • 1708  ? Smith
  • 1710  ? Ferrer
  • 1713 John Rathbone
  • 1721 Thomas Rathbone
  • 1750 Thomas Lloyd
  • 1778 Richard Jarred
  • 1782 William Shrubsole
  • 1784 Edmund Olive
  • 1793 Joseph Pring
  • 1842 James Sharpe Pring
  • 1868 Robert Roberts
  • 1872 Roland Rogers
  • 1892 T. Westlake Morgan
  • 1906 Roland Rogers (reappointed)
  • 1928 Leslie Douglas Paul
  • 1970 John Hywel
  • 1972 Andrew John Goodwin
  • 2009 Graham Eccles


The Celebrated Bard, Dafydd ap Gwilym, who wrote in the fourteenth century, makes particular mention of an organ and choir at Bangor in his time, in a commendatory Ode addressed to Hywel, Dean of Bangor. The Ode, which was in Welsh, has the following : "Whose organ, and harmonious choir, are unrivalled in performance." Hywel was made Dean of Bangor in 1359 and Bishop in 1370. This Ode, therefore, must have been written between 1359 and 1370, and the allusion to an organ renders it obvious there must have been an Organist at that time.[9]

Assistant organists[edit]

  • Vernon Oswald Wright 1895 - 1897[10]
  • Llewelyn Jones 1889 - 1902[11] (then organist of Christ Church, Llanfairfechan)
  • William E. Jones 1902 -
  • Michael Mullinar ca. 1909 - ?
  • James Griffiths 1964-2007
  • Marc Rochester 1978-1980
  • Martin Brown 1990 -

There have been many assistant organists over the years including Arnold Lewis who became head of music BBC Wales, James Griffiths 1964-2007, and the present assistant Martin Brown.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Diocese of Bangor: Cathedral - Who's Who". Diocese of Bangor. Archived from the original on 24 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-14. 
  2. ^ Williams, Glanmor. "Parry, Richard (1560–1623), bishop and biblical translator". Welsh Biography Online. National Library of Wales. Retrieved 2008-05-14. 
  3. ^ Jenkins, Robert Thomas. "Vincent family". Welsh Biography Online. National Library of Wales. Retrieved 2008-05-02. 
  4. ^ Boase, G. C. "Edwards, Henry Thomas (1837–1884)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online edition, subscription access). Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2007-07-18. 
  5. ^ Thomas, D. L. "Lewis, Evan (1818–1901)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online edition, subscription access). Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2008-04-26. 
  6. ^ "Ecclesiastical intelligence" The Times (London). Saturday, 8 February 1902. (36686), p. 14.
  7. ^ Jenkins, Robert Thomas. "Pryce, John (1828–1903), dean of Bangor". Welsh Biography Online. National Library of Wales. Retrieved 2008-05-14. 
  8. ^ "The Very Rev H. L. James". The Times. 19 January 1949. p. 7. 
  9. ^ West (John E.) (1899) Cathedral Organists Past and Present. London: Novello
  10. ^ Thornsby, Frederick W., ed. (1912) Dictionary of Organs and Organists. Bournemouth: Logan; p. 352
  11. ^ Thornsby (1912); p. 295
  • M. L. Clarke (1969) Bangor Cathedral (History of Bangor Diocese Vol. 1) (University of Wales Press)

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 53°13′36″N 4°7′39″W / 53.22667°N 4.12750°W / 53.22667; -4.12750