Dean of the Chapel Royal
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Dean of the Chapel Royal, in any kingdom, can be the title of an official charged with oversight of that kingdom's Chapel Royal, the ecclesiastical establishment which is part of the Royal Household and ministers to it.
In England, the Dean of the Chapel Royal was appointed by royal warrant and appointed its officers and staff. The office of dean (dating from 1312) has been by custom held by the Bishop of London since 1748. In practice, the chapel, its choir, and the various chapel buildings associated with it come under the oversight of the Sub-Dean, who is the Queen's residential chaplain.
- c.1349: John de Wodeford
- c.1356: John de Leek
- c.1380: Thomas de Lynton
- c.1389: John Boor
- c.1400: Richard Kyngeston (Archdeacon of Hereford, c.1389–1405)
- c.1403: Richard Prentys
- 1414: Edmund Lacy (afterwards Bishop of Hereford, 1417}
- c.1421: Robert Gilbert (later Bishop of London, 1436}
- 1432: Richard Praty (afterwards Bishop of Chichester, 1436)
- c.1440: John Croucher
- c.1447 Robert Ayscogh
- c.1449: William Say
- c.1471: William Dudley (Dean of Windsor, 1473 and Bishop of Durham, 1476)
- 1476: John Gunthorpe (Dean of Wells, 1472–1498)
- c.1483: William Chauntre
- c.1489: Richard Hill (Bishop of London, 1489)
- c.1496: Thomas Jane (Bishop of Norwich, 1499)
- c.1500: Richard Nikke
- c.1501: Geoffrey Simeon
- 1502: William Atwater (later Bishop of Lincoln, 1514} (died 1521)
- 1572: William Day (also Dean of Windsor, 1572 and afterwards Bishop of Winchester, 1595)
- 1617: Lancelot Andrewes (Bishop of Ely, 1609–1619)
- 1626: William Laud (Bishop of St David's, 1621–1627 and Bishop of Bath and Wells, 1626–1628)
- 1643–?1651: Richard Steward (Provost of Eton and Dean of St Paul's (but not installed), 1642–1651))
- 1660: Gilbert Sheldon (Bishop of London, 1660–1663)
- 1663: George Morley (Bishop of Winchester, 1662–1684)
- 1668: Herbert Croft (Bishop of Hereford, 1661–1691)
- 1669: Walter Blandford (Bishop of Oxford, 1665–1671 and Bishop of Worcester, 1671–1675)
- 1675: Hon. Henry Compton (Bishop of London, 1675–1713)
- 1685: Hon. Nathaniel Crew (Bishop of Durham, 1674–1721)
- 1689: Hon. Henry Compton (Bishop of London, 1675–1713)
- 1713: John Robinson (Bishop of London, 1713–1723)
- 1718: William Talbot (Bishop of Salisbury, 1715–1722)
- 1721–1748: Edmund Gibson (Bishop of London, 1723–1748)
- For deans after 1748 see Bishop of London
In Scotland, the title first appears in the fifteenth century, when it may have referred to a prebend in the church of St Mary on the Rock, St Andrews. In 1501 James IV founded a new Chapel Royal in Stirling Castle, but from 1504 onwards the deanery was held by successive Bishops of Galloway with the title of Bishop of the Chapel Royal and authority over all the royal palaces within Scotland. The deanery was annexed to the bishopric of Dunblane in 1621, and the Chapel Royal was removed to Holyrood.
The office of Dean was suppressed with the abolition of prelacy in 1689, and the revenues of the Chapel Royal reverted to the Crown. Grants from these revenues were made to individual Church of Scotland ministers and from 1727 onwards part was allocated to three royal chaplains, known collectively as the Deans of the Chapel Royal. Replacement of these chaplains by professors of the Divinity Faculties in the University of Glasgow, the University of Aberdeen, Edinburgh University and the University of St Andrews took place between 1860 and 1868. In 1886 the office of Dean was revived and united by royal warrant to that of Dean of the Thistle, eventually being separated in 1969. Under the 1886 royal warrant, the Dean is also titular Abbot of Crossraguel and Abbot of Dundrennan.
Office-holders since revival
- 1887–1910: The Very Revd James Cameron Lees KCVO
- 1910–1926: The Rt Revd Andrew Wallace Williamson KCVO
- 1926–1969: The Very Revd Charles Laing Warr GCVO
- 1969–1973: The Very Revd James Boyd Longmuir CBE
- 1974–1981: The Very Revd Hugh Osborne Douglas KCVO CBE
- 1981–1991: The Very Revd Robert Alexander Stewart Barbour KCVO
- 1991–1996: The Very Revd William James Morris KCVO
- 1996–2006: The Very Revd James Harkness, KCVO CB OBE
- 2006–2013: The Very Revd John B. Cairns KCVO
- 2013–present: The Very Revd Professor Iain Richard Torrance
The Chapel Royal (Irish: Séipéal Ríoga) in Dublin Castle was the official Church of Ireland chapel of the Household of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland from 1814 until the creation of the Irish Free State in 1922. The chaplain of the Lord Lieutenant is styled Dean of the Chapel Royal.
- 1828-1831 George Bisshopp
- 1831–1842 Thomas Hawkins
- 1842-1852 Charles Augustus Vignoles
- 1852-1860 Hugh Usher Tighe (afterwards Dean of Ossory, 1843}
- 1860–1866 Charles Graves (afterwards Bishop of Limerick, Ardfert and Aghadoe, 1866)
- 1866–1868 William Connor Magee
- 1868–1902 Hercules Henry Dickinson (died 1905)
- 1905–1913 Reginald Godfrey Michael Webster
- 1914–1922 Charles William O'Hara Mease (died 1922)
- Hillebrand, Harold (1920). The Early History of the Chapel Royal. p. 243.
- "The Chapel Royal Deans and Sub-Deans". Retrieved 6 April 2012.
- Stair Memorial Encyclopaedia of the Laws of Scotland, Volume 7: The Crown, paragraph 838.
- "Court Circular". The Times. 5 July 2013. p. 53.