List of death deities
Deities associated with death take many different forms, depending on the specific culture and religion being referenced. Psychopomps, deities of the underworld, and resurrection deities are commonly called death deities in comparative religions texts. The term colloquially refers to deities that either collect or rule over the dead, rather than those deities who determine the time of death. However, all these types will be included in this article.
Many have incorporated a god of death into their mythology or religion. As death, along with birth, is among the major parts of human life, these deities may often be one of the most important deities of a religion. In some religions with a single powerful deity as the source of worship, the death deity is an antagonistic deity against which the primary deity struggles. The related term death worship has most often been used as a derogatory term to accuse certain groups of morally abhorrent practices which set no value on human life, or which seem to glorify death as something positive in itself.
- 1 Occurrence
- 1.1 Babylonian mythology
- 1.2 Aztec mythology
- 1.3 Celtic mythology
- 1.4 Chinese mythology
- 1.5 Inca mythology
- 1.6 Japanese mythology
- 1.7 Egyptian mythology
- 1.8 Finnish mythology
- 1.9 Greek mythology
- 1.10 Norse mythology
- 1.11 Roman mythology
- 1.12 Etruscan mythology
- 1.13 Misc African mythology
- 1.14 Misc American mythology
- 1.15 Hindu mythology
- 1.16 Misc East Asian mythology
- 1.17 Misc European mythology
- 1.18 Misc Pacific Islands mythology
- 1.19 Misc Southwest Asia mythology
- 2 In fiction
- 3 See also
- 4 References
In polytheistic religions or mythologies which have a complex system of deities governing various natural phenomena and aspects of human life, it is common to have a deity who is assigned the function of presiding over death. The inclusion of such a "departmental" deity of death in a religion's pantheon is not necessarily the same thing as the glorification of death which is commonly condemned by the use of the term "death-worship" in modern political rhetoric.
In the theology of monotheistic religion, the one god governs both life and death. However in practice this manifests in different rituals and traditions and varies according to a number of factors including geography, politics, traditions and the influence of other religions.
- Mictlantecuhtli, the chief death god; lord of the Underworld.
- Mictecacihuatl, the chief death goddess; Queen of Mictlan (underworld) or Lady of the Dead
- Cihuateteo, dead, roaming spirits; envoys of Mictlan
- Coatlicue, minor goddess of death, as well of the goddess of life and rebirth.
- Xipe Totec, hero god, death god; inventor of warfare and master of plagues.
- Tlaloc, water god and minor death god; ruler of Tlalocan, a separate underworld for those who died from water-related death.
Emperor(s) of Youdu (Capital City of the Underworld)
Kings of the Ten Underworld Palaces
- Chiang Ziwen
- Bao Zheng
- Dong Ji
- Huang Xile
The rest only have surnames including Li, Yu, Lu, Bi, Lu and Xue
Four Kings of the Underworld
- Bao Zheng
- Han Qinhu
- Fan Zhongyan
- Kou Zhun
Ghost Kings of the Five Regions
- Cai Yulei
- Zhao He
- Zhang Heng
- Duzi Ren
- Zhou Qi
Ghost Kings of the Five Regions(Ver.2)
- Shen Cha
- Yang Yun
- Yan Di (Shenlong)
- Ji Kang
- Immortal Wang
Governors of Fengdu
- Deng Ai
- Ji Ming
Imperial Censor of Fengdu
- Han Yi
- Zeng Yuanshan
- Jiao Zhongqing
- Ma Zhong
- Song Youqing
- Guan Yu (Note: Different from the famous general of three kingdom)
- Wu Lun
- Tu Cha
Four Generals of the Direct Alter of Fengdu
- Ma Sheng
- Ma Chuanzhong
- Chen Yuanbo
- Guo Zhongyou
Eight Generals of the Inner Alter of Fengdu
- Wei Tin, Ghost Capturing General
- Liu Chu, Ghost Restraining General
- Wang Jian, Ghost Flailing General
- Meng E, Ghost Interrogating General
- Che Zi, Guardian of the East Gate
- Xia Dali, Guardian of the West Gate
- Lie Weizhi, Guardian of the South Gate
- Sang Tongguai, Guardian of the North Gate
Eight Generals of the Outer Alter of Fengdu
- Zhang Yuanlian
- Chen Yuanqing
- Li Yuande
- Fan YuanZhang
- Du YuanZhen
- Liu Yuanfu
- Chang Yuan
- Jia Taoyuan
Ten Masters of the Underworld
- A Bang, Bull Head
- Luo Cha, Horse Face
- Xie Bian, Wondering God of the Day
- Fan Wujiu, Wondering God of the Night
- He Wuchang (Black Impermanence)
- Bai Wuchang (White Impermanence)
- Huangfeng (responsible for insects)
- Paowei (responsible for animals)
- Yusai (responsible for fishes)
- Guaiwang (responsible for Hungry Ghosts)
(Note: In some versions, Xie Bian and Fanjiu are the He Wuchang and Bai Wuchang)
Four Strongmen of Fengdu
- Zhang Yuanzhen, Taiyi Strongman
- Hu Wenzhong, Tri-day Strongman
- Sun Zhongwu, Demon-smiting Strongman
- Tang Bocheng, Ghost-smiting Strongman
Two Agents of Fengdu
- Xun Gongda, Great God of the Black Sky
- Liu Guangzhong, Great God of the Black Fog
Wardens of the Nine Prison of Fengdu
- Wang Yuanzhen
- Zhen Yan
- Yao Quan
- Shi Tong
- Zhou Sheng
- Diao Xiao
- Kong Sheng
- Wu Yan
- Wang Tong
Administers of the Six Paths of Rebirth of Fengdu
- Cao Qing, Administer of the Path of Heaven
- Tien Yan, Administer of the Path of Ghosts
- Cui Cong, Administer of the Path of Earth
- Ji Bie, Administer of the Path of Gods
- Chen De, Administer of the Path of Hungry Ghosts
- Gao Ren, Administer of the Path of Beasts
Judges of Fengdu
- Cui (Chief Judge)
- Wang Fu
- Ban Jian
- Zi He
- Jia Yuan
- Zhao Sheng
- Zhang Qi
- Yang Tong
- Fu Po
- Zhu Shun
- Li Gong
- Xue Zhong
- Rong Zhen
- Lu Zhongce
- Chen Xun
- Huang Shou
- Zhou Bi
- Bian Shen
- Cheng De
- Liu Bao
- Dong Jie
- Guo Yuan
- Anubis, guardian of the dead, mummification and the afterlife in ancient Egyptian religion.
- Osiris, lord of the Underworld.
- Nephthys, Anubis' mother, and sister of Osiris, was also a guardian of the dead. She was believed to also escort dead souls to Osiris.
- Seker, A falcon god of the Memphite necropolis who was known as a patron of the living, as well as a god of the dead. He is known to be closely tied to Osiris.
- Hades, king of Underworld.
- Persephone, queen of the Underworld, wife of Hades and goddess of spring growth.
- Hecate, goddess of magic, night, moon, ghosts, necromancy and crossroads
- Thanatos, spirit of death and mortality.
- Macaria, daughter of Hades, goddess of the blessed death (not to be confused with the daughter of Heracles).
- Melinoe, daughter of Persephone and Hades (or Zeus disguised as Hades), goddess of the restless undead, (ghosts etc.)
- Angelos, a daughter of Zeus and Hera who became an underworld goddess.
- Lampades, torch-bearing Underworld nymphs.
- Orphne, a Lampad nymph of Hades, mother of Askalaphos.
- Erebus, the primeval god of darkness, his mists encircled the underworld and filled the hollows of the earth.
- Tartarus, the darkest, deepest part of the underworld.
- Keres, goddesses of violent death, sisters of Thanatos.
- Keuthonymos, an Underworld spirit and father of Menoetes.
- Lamia, a vampiric Underworld spirit or spirits in the train of Hecate.
- Menoetes, an Underworld spirit who herded the cattle of Hades.
- Mormo, a fearsome Underworld spirit or spirits in the train of Hecate.
- Styx, goddess of the river Styx, a river that formed a boundary between Earth and the Underworld.
- Charon (mythology), Ferryman of Hades
- Dis Pater, god of the underworld
- Mania, goddess of death
- Mors, personification of death
- Orcus, punisher of broken oaths; usually folded in with Pluto
- Pluto, ruler of the underworld
- Aita, God of the underworld.
- Culga, A female underworld spirit.
- Mani, Spirits of the dead.
- Orcus, God of the underworld.
- Vanth, Winged demon of the underworld.
- Tuchulcha, An underworld demon.
Misc African mythology
- Iku (Yoruba religion), Yoruba influenced syncretic religions such as Santería, Umbanda and Candomblé
- Ogbunabali (Igbo mythology)
Misc American mythology
- Guédé or Ghede (Haitian Vodou)
- Baron Samedi (Haitian Vodou)
- Maya death gods known under various names (Hunhau, Uacmitun Ahau, Kisin, Yum Kimil) Lord of Underworld in Maya mythology
- Santa Muerte (Saint Death), in Mexico
- San La Muerte (Saint Death), in Paraguay, the Northeast of Argentina and Southern Brazil
- El Tío, lord of the underworld, in Cerro Rico, Bolivia
- Anguta, Gatherer of the dead, Inuit mythology
Misc East Asian mythology
Misc European mythology
- Ankou (Breton people)
- Grim Reaper, Europe, personification of Death
- Erio (Basque mythology)
- Giltinė (Lithuanian mythology)
- Ishtar-Deela Nakh, Lord of Underworld
- Māra (Latvian mythology)
- Morana (Slavic mythology)
- Banshee (Irish Mythology)
- Dullahan (Irish Mythology)
- Cu Sith (Scottish folklore)
- Black Dog (ghost)
Misc Pacific Islands mythology
Misc Southwest Asia mythology
- Angra Mainyu or Ahriman, the destructive spirit (Persian mythology)
- Asto Vidatu or Astiwihad or Asto-widhatu, death deity (Persian mythology)
- Aminon, Gatekeeper of the underworld (Ossetian mythology)
- Azrael, the Archangel of Death (Islam, Sikhism)
- Barastyr, the ruler of the underworld (Ossetian mythology)
- Erlik (Turkic mythology)
- Mot, (Canaanite)
Death is the protagonist in the science fantasy novel On a Pale Horse, book one in a series of 8 books, the "Incarnations of Immortality". In the novel The Book Thief Death is the narrator of the story.
In A Song of Ice and Fire by George R.R. Martin the guild of assassins known as the Faceless Men believe that all death deities are simply different incarnations of the same god, known to them as the Many-Faced God or Him of Many Faces.
In the manga and anime of the popular hit series Sailor Moon, the tenth and last Sailor Soldier of the Moon Kingdom, Sailor Saturn, is the Sailor Soldier of all silence, destruction, oblivion, nothingness, ruin, and death. Her weapon is the Silent Glaive that is capable of utterly obliterating and destroying entire worlds and planets if used to its maximum potential.
- "The counterpart to these deities of sky, air, water, and earth was the underworld, the realm of the dead, originally seen as ruled by the powerful Goddess Ereshkigal." Ruether, Rosemary Radford. Goddesses and the Divine Feminine: A Western Religious History. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23146-5
- "After consulting his mistress Ereshkigal, the queen of the Nether World, he admits Ishtar" Kramer, "Ishtar in the Nether World According to a New Sumerian Text" Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research. 1940. Google scholar results as the JSTOR link is unlikely to be universally available.
-  A page describing Hades.
- Kveldulf Gundarsson. (1993, 2005) Our Troth. ISBN 0-9770165-0-1
- The dwelling one went to after death varied depending on where one died, at the battlefield or not. If not at the battlefield, one would go to Hel (not to be confused with the Christian Hell). Of the slain at the battlefield, some went to Folkvang, the dwelling of Freyja and some went to Valhalla, the dwelling of Odin (see Grímnismál). The ninth hall is Folkvang, where bright Freyja. Decides where the warriors shall sit. Some of the fallen belong to her. And some belong to Odin.
- Mania (mythology)
- Jaimoukha, Amjad M. (2005-03-01). The Chechens: a handbook (1st ed.). Routledge. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-415-32328-4. Retrieved 2009-08-14.
- Duchesne-Guillemin, Jacques (1982), "Ahriman", Encyclopaedia Iranica 1, New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul, pp. 670–673
- Micha F. Lindemans (27 July 1997), "Asto Vidatu", Encyclopedia Mythica