Death of Sean Rigg
|Sean Nicholas Rigg|
11 February 1968|
|Died||21 August 2008
Cause of death
|Cardiac arrest, partial positional asphyxia, ischaemia, and acute arrhythmia|
|Brixton Police Station, South London|
|Parents||Daniel and Marie Rigg|
Sean Rigg was a 40-year old black British musician and music producer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia. He died on 21 August 2008 while in police custody at the entrance to Brixton police station, South London, England. The case became a cause célèbre for civil rights and justice campaigners in the United Kingdom, who called for "improvement and change on a national level" regarding deaths in police custody and the police treatment of suspects with mental health issues.
Events leading to death
Following a deterioration in his mental health, Rigg—who lived in a hostel for people with a forensic mental health history—became uncooperative and aggressive. Five 999 calls were made over a three-hour period by the hostel staff requesting emergency police help. During the fifth call, operator Maurice Gluck insisted that Rigg was not a police priority, informed the caller to speak with her MP if she was unhappy, and terminated the call. Police eventually responded to calls from members of the public who observed Rigg's "strange behaviour" in the street.
Four police officers eventually gave chase to Rigg, who was handcuffed and restrained in a prone, face down position as officers leant on him for eight minutes. Arrested for assaulting a police officer, public disorder and theft of a passport—which was actually his own—he was then placed face-down with his legs bent behind him in the caged rear section of a police van and transported to Brixton police station. During the journey "his mental and physical health deteriorated" and he was "extremely unwell and not fully conscious" when eventually taken out of the van. This followed a delay of ten minutes during which he was left handcuffed in a 'rear stack' position, unattended and unmonitored while the van sat outside the station in the car parking area. One of the arresting officers was captured on the station's CCTV claiming that Rigg was "faking it".
Two officers then carried Rigg to the caged area at the entrance to the station's custody suite where he was left placed on the floor "handcuffed and unresponsive." After a further delay of 25 minutes Dr Nandasena Amarasekera, the Force Medical Examiner, was called to examine Rigg, although CCTV later showed that custody sergeant PS Paul White misled the doctor by telling him that Rigg was "feigning unconsciousness." When the FME examined him again ten minutes later he found that his heart had stopped and he was not breathing. Although CPR was attempted, Rigg was officially pronounced dead after arriving at King's College Hospital, Southwark.
The Independent Police Complaints Commission (IPCC) launched an investigation into Rigg's death on 22 August 2008. The investigation took 18 months to complete and concluded that there was no evidence of neglect or wrongdoing and that the police had acted "reasonably and proportionately."
An inquest jury at Southwark Coroner's Court, however, returned a narrative verdict which concluded that the police had used "unsuitable and unnecessary force" on Rigg, that officers failed to uphold his basic rights and that the failings of the police "more than minimally" contributed to his death. The inquest highlighted serious shortfalls in the IPCC's investigation, while South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust was also criticised for failing to organise a mental health assessment for Rigg and failing to ensure that he took his medication.
The IPCC's report had been prepared before the inquest, but publication was delayed until the Coroner's Court proceedings were completed. Daniel Machover, the solicitor acting on behalf of Rigg's brother Wayne, reacted: "Now that the IPPC has published its February 2010 report, the public can see for itself that the IPCC failed to properly examine the most basic evidence in its possession in Sean Rigg's case, including police incident records, photographs of the restraint and CCTV footage, which meant that officers were never asked key questions until the inquest. This helps to account for the gulf between the IPCC's ludicrous findings and the jury's damning narrative verdict: so, while the IPCC gave the police a clean bill of health in 2010, two weeks ago the inquest jury was highly critical of every aspect of the police conduct, including the eight minutes restraint in the prone position, a fact totally missed by the IPCC."
Evidence given by police officers
Following the inquest, the Metropolitan Police requested that the IPCC investigate the "honesty and integrity" of the evidence given to both the IPCC and the inquest by one of the officers. Deborah Coles of the charity group Inquest, which campaigns on behalf of bereaved families with a particular focus on deaths in custody, said: "The IPCC investigation was fundamentally flawed from the outset and it is shameful that without the relentless and dogged determination of the family and their legal team, so many of these failures would never have been uncovered."
In March 2013 three Metropolitan Police officers were arrested on suspicion of perverting the course of justice with regard to evidence given at Rigg's inquest. In April 2014 the IPCC passed files to the CPS to consider whether criminal charges of perjury and perverting the course of justice should be brought against two of the officers. The third officer was cleared by the IPCC.
External review of IPCC investigation
In November 2012 it was announced that an independent review of the IPCC investigation would be carried out, headed by Dr Silvia Casale, former president of both the European and United Nations committees for the prevention of torture and inhuman and degrading treatment of prisoners. The review, the first ever into an IPCC investigation, would also consider whether any of the police officers or emergency telephone operators should face misconduct or criminal proceedings.
The report was published on 17 May 2013. It concluded that the IPCC "committed blunder after blunder" and that there had been "inappropriate conduct" by the Police Federation of England and Wales. Failings included:
- Failure to secure the crime scene
- Failure to prevent officers from conferring with each other
- Failure to ensure they all gave statements
- Waiting six months to interview officers
- Failure to examine CCTV
- Failure to carry out robust analysis
- Too soft in challenging the officers' accounts.
The report also recommended that the IPCC "reconsider the conduct of the police officers involved in the apprehension, restraint and detention of Mr Rigg, in relation to possible breaches of their duty of care, with a view to determining whether to bring misconduct proceedings." Rigg's sister Marcia said: "Almost five years after our brother's unnecessary death, this report shows just how badly we were failed by the IPCC, not to mention the police. We hope that a complete reinvestigation of the issues identified by the review, with new consideration of police misconduct and criminal proceedings, will take place as quickly as possible."
Independent Commission on Mental Health and Policing
As a result of Rigg's inquest verdict, the Independent Commission on Mental Health and Policing was established in September 2012 to examine the conduct of the Metropolitan Police in dealing with people with mental health issues. The commission reviewed 55 cases involving mentally ill people who died or were seriously injured in police custody or following police contact between September 2007—September 2012. Five of the victims died following police restraint and 45 subsequently committed suicide. The review also included 4 cases of suicide by Metropolitan Police officers.
- The disproportionate use of force and restraint
- Discriminatory attitudes and behaviour
- The internal [police] culture
- Failure of the Central Communications Command to deal effectively with calls in relation to mental health
- The lack of mental health awareness among staff and officers
- Frontline police lack of training and policy guidance in suicide prevention
- Failure of procedures to provide adequate care to vulnerable people in custody
- Problems of interagency working
- Failures in operational learning
- A disconnect between policy and practice
- Poor record keeping
- Failure to communicate with families
- IPCC Independent Investigation into the death of Sean Rigg whilst in the custody of Brixton police (15 August 2012)
- Independent external review of investigation into Sean Rigg's death (17 May 2013)
- Independent Commission on Mental Health and Policing (10 May 2013)
- Death of Christopher Alder
- Death of Wayne Douglas
- Death of Oluwashijibomi Lapite
- Death of Colin Roach
- Death of Roger Sylvester
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- Forensic ("pertaining to the law") mental health services are specialist services for people with mental health issues who have been arrested, are on remand or have been found guilty of a crime.
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- Independent Commission on Mental Health and Policing Report. 2013. p. 3.