List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll
This is a list of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll. It covers the lowest estimate of death as well as the highest estimate, the name of the event, the location, and the start and end of each event. Some events may belong in more than one category. In addition, some of the listed events overlap each other, and in some cases the death toll from a smaller event is included in the one for the larger event or time period of which it was part.
- 1 Wars and armed conflicts
- 2 Genocides
- 3 Famine
- 4 Floods and landslides
- 5 Human sacrifice and ritual suicide
- 6 Other deadly events
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Wars and armed conflicts
||It has been suggested that this section be merged into List of wars by death toll. (Discuss) Proposed since January 2014.|
These figures of one million or more deaths include the deaths of civilians from diseases, famine, etc., as well as deaths of soldiers in battle and massacres and genocide. Where only one estimate is available, it appears in both the low and high estimates. This is a sortable table. Click on the column sort buttons to sort results numerically or alphabetically.
Genocides with at least a million fatalities in the high estimate category are shown here. The United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) defines genocide in part as "acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group". Determining what historical events constitute a genocide and which are merely criminal or inhuman behavior is not a clear-cut matter. In nearly every case where accusations of genocide have circulated, partisans of various sides have disputed the interpretation and details of the event, often to the point of promoting different versions of the facts. An accusation of genocide will almost always be controversial. Determining the number of persons killed in each genocide can be just as difficult, with political, religious and ethnic biases or prejudices often leading to downplayed or exaggerated figures. Some of the accounts below may include ancillary causes of death such as malnutrition and disease, which may or may not have been intentionally inflicted.
The following list of genocides and alleged genocides should be understood in this context and not necessarily regarded as the final word on the events in question.
|Holocaust||Europe||1941||1945||With around 6 million Jews murdered as well as the genocide of the Romani: most estimates of Romani deaths are in the 200,000–500,000 range but some estimate more than a million. A broader definition includes political and religious dissenters, 200,000 people with disabilities, 2 to 3 million Soviet POWs, 5,000 Jehovah's Witnesses, 15,000 homosexuals and small numbers of mixed-race children (known as the Rhineland bastards), and millions of Polish and Soviet civilians, bringing the death toll to around 17 million. See Holocaust, Porajmos, Generalplan Ost, Consequences of German Nazism Note: the low estimate only accounts for Jewish deaths|
|2,582,000||8,000,000||Holodomor (and Soviet famine of 1932–1933)||Ukrainian SSR||1932||1933||Holodomor was a famine in Ukraine caused by the government of Joseph Stalin, a part of Soviet famine of 1932–1933. Holodomor is claimed by contemporary Ukrainian government to be a genocide of the Ukrainians.
As of March 2008[update], Ukraine and nineteen other governments have recognized the actions of the Soviet government as an act of genocide. The joint statement at the United Nations in 2003 has defined the famine as the result of cruel actions and policies of the totalitarian regime that caused the deaths of millions of Ukrainians, Russians, Kazakhs and other nationalities in the USSR. On 23 October 2008 the European Parliament adopted a resolution that recognized the Holodomor as a crime against humanity.
On January 12, 2010, the court of appeals in Kiev opened hearings into the "fact of genocide-famine Holodomor in Ukraine in 1932–33", in May 2009 the Security Service of Ukraine had started a criminal case "in relation to the genocide in Ukraine in 1932–33". In a ruling on January 13, 2010 the court found Stalin and other Bolshevik leaders guilty of genocide against the Ukrainians.
|European colonization of the Americas||Americas||1492||1900||A number of historians including David Stannard and Howard Zinn consider the deaths caused by disease, displacement, and conquest of Native American populations during European settlement of North and South America as constituting an act of genocide (or series of genocides). The alleged genocidal aspects of this event are entwined with loss of life caused by the lack of immunity of Native Americans to diseases carried by European settlers (see Population history of American indigenous peoples). Some estimates indicate case fatality rates of 80–90% in Native American populations during smallpox epidemics. Other historians such as Noble David Cook and Stafford Poole do not consider that the population reduction fits the definition of genocide.  |
|1,000,000||3,000,000||Nigerian Civil War||Nigeria||1967||1970||Since the independence of Nigeria in 1960 the 3 ethnic groups, the Hausa, Yoruba, and Igbo, had always been fighting over control in the political realm. The Igbos seemed to have control over most of Nigeria's politics until the assassination of the then Igbo president Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi by Northern general Yakubu Gowon. With this the Igbos seceded from Nigeria and created the Republic of Biafra. The Igbos had the upper hand until late 1967 when food supplies were cut off. By mid-1968 50% of Igbos were starving and thousands more were being slaughtered by Nigerian soldiers. In 1970 the Igbo's surrendered to the Nigerians and by then anywhere from 1 to 3 million Igbos had either starved or had been killed.|
|1,000,000||3,000,000||Cambodian Genocide||Cambodia||1975||1979||As of September 2010[update], no one has been found guilty of participating in this genocide, but on 16 September 2010 Nuon Chea, second in command of the Khmer Rouge and its most senior surviving member, was indicted on charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity. He will face Cambodian and United Nations appointed foreign judges at the special genocide tribunal.|
|500,000||1,000,000||Rwandan genocide||Rwanda||1994||1994||Hutu killed unarmed men, women and children. Some 50 perpetrators of the genocide have been found guilty by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, but most others have not been charged due to no witness accounts. Another 120,000 were arrested by Rwanda; of these, 60,000 were tried and convicted in the gacaca court system. Genocidaires who fled into Zaire (Democratic Republic of the Congo) were used as a justification when Rwanda and Uganda invaded Zaire (First and Second Congo Wars).|
|500,000||3,000,000||Expulsion of Germans after World War II||Europe||1945||1950||
With at least 12 million Germans directly involved, it was the largest movement or transfer of any single ethnic population in modern history and largest among the post-war expulsions in Central and Eastern Europe (which displaced more than twenty million people in total). The events have been usually classified as population transfer, or as ethnic cleansing. Martin Shaw (2007) and W.D. Rubinstein (2004) describe the expulsions as genocide. Felix Ermacora writing in 1991, (in line with a minority of legal scholars) considered ethnic cleansing to be genocide and stated that the expulsion of the Sudeten Germans was genocide.
|300,000||1,500,000||Armenian Genocide||Anatolia||1915||1923||Usually called the First Genocide of the 20th century. Despite recognition by some twenty one countries as a genocide, Turkey disputes genocide by the Ottoman Empire.|
|200,000||1,000,000||Greek genocide||Anatolia||1915||1923||Disputed by Turkey, but considered a genocide.|
|75,000||130,000||Massacres of Poles by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army||Volhyn and Eastern Galicia||1943||1944||Systematical massacres perpetrated by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army on Polish civilians in the eastern part of the Polish Second Republic (Tarnopolski, Stanisławski, Lwowski and Wołyński voivodeships in borders of 1939, under German or Soviet occupation at the time). The victims toll includes also women, children and elderly people. The small minority of dead belong to different ethnic group (mostly Ukrainians protecting Polish peoples against assaults, but also Jews and Russians). Most of the victims were tortured prior to their death. Disputed by Ukrainians, but considered a genocide by the Polish authorities.|
|26,000||3,000,000||1971 Bangladesh genocide||East Pakistan (now Bangladesh)||1971||1971||Atrocities in East Pakistan by the Pakistani Armed Forces, leading to the Bangladesh Liberation War and Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, are widely regarded as a genocide against Bengali people especially Bengali Hindus. In 2009, the Bangladeshi government started the International Crimes Tribunal in order to prosecute members of the Islamist Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami who were allegedly complicit in the genocide.|
Deadly prisons and camps
|Deaths||Name||Run by||Location||Date||Notes, References|
|800,000–1,500,000||Auschwitz-Birkenau||Nazi Germany||Oświęcim, Poland||1940–1945|||
|700,000–1,000,000||Treblinka||Nazi Germany||Treblinka, Poland||1942–1943|||
|480,000–600,000||Bełżec||Nazi Germany||Bełżec, Poland||1942–1943|||
|130,000–500,000||Kolyma Gulag||Soviet Union||Kolyma, Soviet Union||1932–1954|||
|12,790–75,000||Stara Gradiška||NDH Ustaše||Croatia||1941–1945||primarily for women and children|
|17,000||Tuol Sleng||Democratic Kampuchea||Phnom Penh, Cambodia||1975–1979|||
|13,171||Camp Sumter||Confederate States of America||Andersonville, Georgia, USA||1864–1865|||
|12,000||Crveni Krst||Nazi regime, Nedić's Serbia||Niš, Serbia||1941|||
|9,000–10,000||Omarska||Bosnian Serb forces||Omarska, Bosnia and Herzegovina||1992|||
|2,963||Elmira Prison||United States of America||Elmira, New York, USA||1864–1865|||
|>1,800||Krugersdorp||United Kingdom||Krugersdorp, Transvaal Republic||c. 1900–1902||Second Boer War, primarily for women and children|
Note: Some of these famines were partially caused by nature.
This section includes famines that were caused or exacerbated by the policies or actions of the ruling regime.
|Lowest estimate||Highest estimate||Event||Location||From||To||Notes|
|55,000,000||Great Chinese Famine||People's Republic of China||1958||1962||During the Great Leap Forward under Mao Zedong tens of millions of Chinese starved to death and about the same number of births were lost or postponed. State violence during this period further exacerbated the death toll, and some 2.5 million people were beaten or tortured to death in connection with Great Leap policies.|
|6,000,000||8,000,000||Soviet famine of 1932–1933,
|Soviet Union||1932||1939||As of March 2008[update], Ukraine and nineteen other governments have recognized the actions of the Soviet government that led to mass famine as an act of genocide. The joint statement at the United Nations in 2003 has defined the famine as the result of cruel actions and policies of the totalitarian regime that caused the deaths of millions of Ukrainians, Russians, Kazakhs and other nationalities in the USSR. On 23 October 2008 the European Parliament adopted a resolution that recognized the Holodomor as a crime against humanity.
On January 12, 2010, the court of appeals in Kiev opened hearings into the "fact of genocide-famine Holodomor in Ukraine in 1932–33", in May 2009 the Security Service of Ukraine had started a criminal case "in relation to the genocide in Ukraine in 1932–33". In a ruling on January 13, 2010 the court found Stalin and other Bolshevik leaders guilty of genocide against the Ukrainians.
|5,000,000||10,000,000||Russian famine of 1921||Soviet Russia||1921||1922||See also: Droughts and famines in Russia and the Soviet Union and Russian Civil War with its policy of War communism, especially prodrazvyorstka|
|4,000,000||4,000,000||Bengal famine of 1943||British India||1943||1943||The Japanese conquest of Burma cut off India's main supply of rice imports
However, administrative policies in British India ultimately helped cause the massive death toll.
|2,400,000||2,400,000||Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies||Indonesia||1944||1945||An estimated 2.4 million Indonesians starved to death during the Japanese occupation of Indonesia. The problem was partly caused by failures of the main 1944–45 rice crop, but mainly by the compulsory rice purchasing system that the Japanese authorities put in place to secure rice for distribution to the armed forces and urban population.|
|1,000,000||1,000,000||Siege of Leningrad||Soviet Union in World War II||1941||1944||An estimated 4 million Soviet people starved to death under Nazi occupation. There were an additional estimated 3 million famine deaths in areas of the USSR not under German occupation.|
|800,000||950,000||Cambodian Genocide||Cambodia||1975||1979||An estimated 2 million Cambodians lost their lives to murder, forced labor and famine from the Cambodian Communist government, of which nearly half was caused by forced starvation. Came to an end due to invasion by Vietnam in 1979.|
|750,000||1,500,000||Great Irish Famine||United Kingdom||1846||1849||Although blight ravaged potato crops throughout Europe during the 1840s, the impact and human cost in Ireland—where a third of the population was significantly dependent on the Irish Lumper potato for food—was exacerbated by a host of political, social and economic factors which remain the subject of historical debate.|
|400,000||2,000,000||Vietnamese Famine of 1945||Vietnam||1944||1945||The Japanese occupation during World War II caused the famine in North Vietnam.|
|400,000||1,000,000||1983–85 famine in Ethiopia||Ethiopia||1983||1985||The famines that struck Ethiopia between 1961 and 1985, and in particular the one of 1983–5, were in large part created by government policies.|
|70,000||70,000||Sudan famine||Sudan||1998||1998||The famine was caused almost entirely by human rights abuse and the war in Southern Sudan.|
Floods and landslides
|1.||2,500,000–3,700,000||1931 China floods||China||1931|
|2.||900,000–2,000,000||1887 Yellow River (Huang He) flood||China||1887|
|3.||500,000–700,000||1938 Yellow River (Huang He) flood||China||1938|
|4.||26,000-230,000||The failure of 62 dams in Zhumadian Prefecture, Henan, the largest of which was Banqiao Dam, caused by Typhoon Nina.||China||August 1975|
|5.||145,000||1935 Yangtze river flood||China||1935|
|6.||more than 100,000||St. Felix's Flood, storm surge||Netherlands||1530|
|7.||100,000||Hanoi and Red River Delta flood||North Vietnam||1971|
|8.||100,000||1911 Yangtze river flood||China||1911|
|9.||50,000–80,000||St. Lucia's flood, storm surge||Netherlands, England||1287|
|10.||10,000–50,000||Vargas Tragedy, landslide||Venezuela||1999|
|11.||2,400||North Sea flood, storm surge||Netherlands, Scotland, England, Belgium||31 January 1953|
|12.||2,209||Johnstown Flood||Pennsylvania||31 May 1889|
Human sacrifice and ritual suicide
|Lowest estimate||Highest estimate||Description||Group||Location||From||To||Notes|
|citation needed]300,000[||citation needed]1,500,000[||Human sacrifice in Aztec culture||Aztecs||Mexico||14th century||1521||Up to 3,000 sacrificed yearly|
|13,000||13,100||Human sacrifice||Shang dynasty||China||BC1300||BC1050||Last 250 years of rule|
|7,941||7,941||Ritual suicides||Sati||Bengal, India||1815||1828|
|3,912||3,912||Kamikaze suicide pilots, see note ||Imperial Japanese air forces||Pacific theatre||1944||1945|
|913||913||Jonestown murder-suicide||Followers of The Peoples Temple cult||Jonestown||November 18, 1978||November 19, 1978|
Other deadly events
Events with a large anthropogenic death toll not fitting any of the above classifications. May include deaths caused by famine, genocide, etc. as a portion of the total.
|49,000,000||78,000,000||Mao Zedong era 1949–1976||People's Republic of China||1949||1976||Millions of people died as a result of Mao Zedong's reforms, with most of these deaths due to the Great Chinese Famine caused by mismanagement of agricultural resources during the Great Leap Forward. Millions more died as a result of human rights abuses. The total includes those who died during the Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries, the Three-anti and Five-anti Campaigns, human rights abuses in Tibet, The Great Leap Forward (especially the resulting famine), and the Cultural Revolution. See also Mass killings under communist regimes.|
|8,000,000||61,000,000||Soviet crimes 1917–1953||Soviet Republics (1917–1922), the Soviet Union (1922–1953), the East and Center of Europe, Mongolia||1917||1953||War, forced collectivization, and poor central planning in the Soviet Republics and Soviet Union led to enormous famines in 1921, 1932–33, and 1946–47. Mass murders were also perpetrated by the Communist leaders of the Soviet Republics between 1917 and 1922 and later on in The Soviet Union during a period of 1922–1953 (until the death of Joseph Stalin). This includes terrors unleashed by Cheka during the Russian Civil War against nations and 'enemies of The Revolution', deaths in Gulags, forced resettlement, Holodomor, Dekulakization, Great Purge, National operations of the NKVD. See also Mass killings under communist regimes.|
|5,000,000||22,000,000||Crimes during Congo Free State 1885–1908||Now the Democratic Republic of the Congo||1885||1908||Private forces under the control of Leopold II of Belgium carried out mass murders, mutilations, and other crimes against the Congolese in order to encourage the gathering of valuable raw materials, principally rubber. Significant deaths also occurred due to major disease outbreaks and starvation, caused by population displacement and poor treatment. Estimates of the death toll vary considerably because of the lack of a formal census before 1924, but a commonly cited figure of 10 million deaths was obtained by estimating a 50% decline in the total population during the Congo Free State and applying it to the total population of 10 million in 1924.|
|175,000||576,000||Sanctions against Iraq||Iraq||1990||1998||Sanctions imposed by the United Nations Security Council caused excess deaths of young children.|
|100,000||2,000,000||Indonesian killings of 1965–1966||Indonesia||1965||1966||Massacres of people connected to the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) were carried out in 1965 and 1966. Death tolls are difficult to estimate.|
|100,000||250,000||War in the Vendée||France||1793||1796||Described as genocide by some historians but this claim has been widely discounted. See also French Revolution.|
|100,000||200,000||Bosnian genocide||Bosnia||1992||1995||During the Bosnian War, at least 100,000 people were killed.|
|100,000||120,000||Manila Massacre||Manila, Philippines||1945||1945||During the Battle of Manila, at least 100,000 civilians were killed.|
|90,800||202,600||Indonesian occupation of East Timor||East Timor||1974||1999||Civilian deaths under the Indonesian occupation of East Timor, including killings, disappearances, and deaths caused by conflict-related hunger and illness.|
|50,000||80,000||Operation Condor||South America||1975||1983||A campaign of political repression by right-wing dictatorships in South America, sponsored by the United States|
|40,000||350,000||Nanking Massacre||Nanking, China||1937||1938||The Nanking Massacre, commonly known as the Rape of Nanking, was a war crime committed by the Japanese military in Nanjing, then capital of the Republic of China, after it fell to the Imperial Japanese Army on 13 December 1937.|
|15,000||15,000||First Sack of Thessalonica||Byzantine Empire||904||904||The sack of the second city of the Byzantine Empire by a Muslim fleet under the command of Leo of Tripoli. In addition to the thousands killed the Saracen fleet also took 20,000 Greek slaves.|
|10,000||100,000||Great Fire of Smyrna||Turkey||September 9, 1922||September 24, 1922||Fires set during attacks on Greeks and Armenians by Turkish mobs and military forces in Smyrna at the end of the Greco-Turkish War (1919–22). The violence and fires resulted in the destruction of the Greek and Armenian portions of the city and the evacuation of their former populations by British and American military forces. After the attacks 30,000 Greek and Armenian men left behind were deported by Turkish forces, many of whom were subsequently killed.|
|9,000||30,000||Dirty War||Argentina||1976||1983||At least 9,000 people were tortured and killed in Argentina from 1976 to 1983, carried out primarily by the Argentinean military Junta (part of Operation Condor).|
Other lists organized by death toll
- List of accidents and disasters by death toll
- List of battles and other violent events by death toll
- List of events named massacres
- List of genocides by death toll
- List of murderers by number of victims
- List of natural disasters by death toll
- List of ongoing conflicts
- List of Australian disaster by death toll
- List of Canadian disasters by death toll
- List of New Zealand disasters by death toll
- List of United Kingdom disasters by death toll
- List of United States disasters by death toll
Other lists with similar topics
- List of accidents and incidents involving commercial aircraft
- List of battles
- List of disasters
- List of earthquakes
- List of famines
- List of historic fires
- List of invasions
- List of massacres
- List of notable tropical cyclones
- List of riots
- List of terrorist incidents
- List of wars
- Lists of rail accidents
Topics dealing with similar themes
- Casualties of the Iraq War
- Genocide in history
- Infectious disease
- Mass killings under Communist regimes
- Mass murder
- Most lethal battles in world history
- United States casualties of war
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- 1918 Influenza: the Mother of All Pandemics, CDC
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- – "The famine of 1932–33", Encyclopædia Britannica. Quote: "The Great Famine (Holodomor) of 1932–33—a man-made demographic catastrophe unprecedented in peacetime. Of the estimated six to eight million people who died in the Soviet Union, about four to five million were Ukrainians... Its deliberate nature is underscored by the fact that no physical basis for famine existed in Ukraine... Soviet authorities set requisition quotas for Ukraine at an impossibly high level. Brigades of special agents were dispatched to Ukraine to assist in procurement, and homes were routinely searched and foodstuffs confiscated... The rural population was left with insufficient food to feed itself."
- sources differ on interpreting various statements from different branches of different governments as to whether they amount to the official recognition of the famine as genocide by the country. For example, after the statement issued by the Latvian Sejm on March 13, 2008, the total number of countries is given as 19 (according to Ukrainian BBC: "Латвія визнала Голодомор ґеноцидом"), 16 (according to Korrespondent, Russian edition: "После продолжительных дебатов Сейм Латвии признал Голодомор геноцидом украинцев"), "more than 10" (according to Korrespondent, Ukrainian edition: "Латвія визнала Голодомор 1932–33 рр. геноцидом українців")
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- Arthur C. Aufderheide; Conrado Rodriguez-Martin (1998-05-13). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Paleopathology. Cambridge University Press. p. 205. ISBN 978-0-521-55203-5.
- Cook, Noble David (1998). Born to die: disease and New World Conquest, 1492–1650. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 9.
- Stafford Poole, quoted in Royal, p. 63.
- Heuveline, Patrick (2001). "The Demographic Analysis of Mortality in Cambodia." In Forced Migration and Mortality, eds. Holly E. Reed and Charles B. Keely. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
- Staff, Senior Khmer Rouge leader charged, BBC 19 September 2007
- Seth Mydans, Khmer Rouge Leaders Indicted
- See, e.g., Rwanda: How the genocide happened, BBC, April 1, 2004, which gives an estimate of 800,000, and OAU sets inquiry into Rwanda genocide, Africa Recovery, Vol. 12 1#1 (August 1998), page 4, which estimates the number at between 500,000 and 1,000,000. 7 out of 10 Tutsis were killed.
- Christoph Bergner, Secretary of State in Germany's Bureau for Inner Affairs, Deutschlandfunk, November 29, 2006,
- Hermann Kinder; Werner Hilgemann (1978). The Anchor atlas of world history. Anchor Books. p. 221.
- Jürgen Weber (2004). Germany, 1945–1990: A Parallel History. p. 2. ISBN 978-963-9241-70-1.
- Arie Marcelo Kacowicz, Pawel Lutomski, Population resettlement in international conflicts: a comparative study, Lexington Books, 2007, p.100, ISBN 073911607: "...largest movement of European people in modern history" 
- Peter H. Schuck; Rainer Münz (2001-12-01). Paths to Inclusion: The Integration of Migrants in the United States and Germany. p. 156. ISBN 978-1-57181-092-2.
- *Expelling the Germans: British Opinion and Post-1945 Population Transfer in Context, Matthew Frank Oxford University Press, 2008
- Europe and German unification,
- * Osmańczyk, Edmund Jan (2003). Encyclopedia of the United Nations and international agreements. Routledge. p. 656. ISBN 0-415-93924-0.
- Naimark, Norman M. (2001). Fires of hatred: ethnic cleansing in twentieth-century Europe. Harvard University Press. pp. 15, 112. 121, 136. ISBN 0-674-00994-0.
- Curp, T. David (2006). A clean sweep?: the politics of ethnic cleansing in western Poland, 1945–1960. University of Rochester Press. p. 200. ISBN 1-58046-238-3.
- Cordell, Karl (1999). Ethnicity and democratisation in the new Europe. Routledge. p. 175. ISBN 0-415-17312-4.
- Diner, Dan; Gross, Raphael; Weiss, Yfaat (2006). Jüdische Geschichte als allgemeine Geschichte. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. p. 163. ISBN 3-525-36288-9.
- Gibney, Matthew J. (2005). Immigration and asylum: from 1900 to the present, Volume 3. ABC-CLIO. p. 196. ISBN 1-57607-796-9.
- Glassheim, Eagle (2001). Ther, Philipp; Siljak, Ana, eds. Redrawing nations: ethnic cleansing in East-Central Europe, 1944–1948. Harvard Cold War studies book series. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 197. ISBN 0-7425-1094-8.
- Shaw, Martin (2007). What is genocide?. Polity. p. 56. ISBN 0-7456-3182-7.
- Totten, Paul; Bartrop; Jacobs, Steven L (2008). Dictionary of genocide, Volume 2. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 335. ISBN 0-313-34644-5.
- Frank, Matthew James (2008). Expelling the Germans: British opinion and post-1945 population transfer in context. Oxford historical monographs. Oxford University Press. p. 5. ISBN 0-19-923364-0.
- European Court of Human Rights – Jorgic v. Germany Judgment, July 12, 2007. § 47
- Jescheck, Hans-Heinrich (1995). Encyclopedia of Public International Law. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 978-90-04-14280-0.
- Ermacora, Felix (1991). "Gutachten Ermacora 1991" (PDF).
- Kamuran Gürün: Ermeni Soykirmi. 3rd Volume, Ankara 1985, p. 227
- French in Armenia 'massacre' row BBC
- Henry Morgenthau, Ambassador Morgenthau's Story, Doubleday, Page & Company, Garden City, New York, 1919.
- Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia
- Rzeź wołyńska (pl)
- While the official Pakistani government report estimated that the Pakistani army was responsible for 26,000 killings in total, other sources have proposed various estimates ranging between 200,000 and 3 million
Hamoodur Rahman Commission Report, chapter 2, paragraph 33 (official 1974 Pakistani report).White, Matthew. "Death Tolls for the Major Wars and Atrocities of the 20th Century: Bangladesh". Users.erols.com. "History: The Bangali Genocide, 1971". Virtualbangladesh.com.
- Wellers, Georges. Essai de determination du nombre de morts au camp d'Auschwitz (attempt to determine the number of dead at the Auschwitz camp), Le Monde Juif, Oct–Dec 1983, pp. 127–159
- Brian Harmon, John Drobnicki, Historical sources and the Auschwitz death toll estimates
- "Operation Reinhard: Treblinka Deportations". Nizkor.org. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
- Encyclopedia Americana
- Peter Witte and Stephen Tyas, A New Document on the Deportation and Murder of Jews during "Einsatz Reinhardt" 1942, Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Vol. 15, No. 3, Winter 2001, ISBN 0-19-922506-0
- Raul Hilberg (2003). The Destruction of the European Jews: Third Edition. ISBN 978-0-300-09557-9.
- Yitzhak Arad, Bełżec, Sobibor, Treblinka. The Operation Reinhard Death Camps, Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis, 1987, NCR 0-253-34293-7
- Ludwik Kowalski: Alaska notes on Stalinism Retrieved 18 January 2007. Case Study: Stalin's Purges from Genderside Watch. Retrieved 19 January 2007. George Bien, Gulag Survivor in the Boston Globe, June 22, 2005, Kolyma
- "Jewish virtual library". Jewish virtual library. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
- "Croatian holocaust still stirs controversy". BBC News. 2001-11-29. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
- "Balkan 'Auschwitz' haunts Croatia". BBC News. 2005-04-25. Retrieved 2010-09-29. "No one really knows how many died here. Serbs talk of 700,000. Most estimates put the figure nearer 100,000."
- Jelka Smreka. "STARA GRADIŠKA Ustaški koncentracijski logor". Spomen područja Jasenovac. Retrieved 2010-08-25.
- Davor Kovačić (2004). "Iskapanja na prostoru koncentracijskog logora Stara Gradiška i procjena broj žrtava". Retrieved 2010-08-25.
- A History of Democratic Kampuchea (1975–1979). Documentation Center of Cambodia. p. 74. ISBN 99950-60-04-3.
- The Andersonville Prison Trial: The Trial of Captain Henry Wirz, by General N.P. Chipman, 1911.
- "On the killing of Roma in World War II". Mrc.org.rs. 2013-03-13. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
- Razprave in gradivo, Volume 55. Institut za Narodnostna Vprašanja. 2008.
- "The Unindicted: Reaping the Rewards of "Ethnic Cleansing" in Prijedor". Human Rights Watch. 1997-01-01.
- "Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team report".
- Horigan, Michael (2002). Death Camp of the North: The Elmira Civil War Prison Camp. Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books. ISBN 0-8117-1432-2.
- Walker, DR (2011-09-20). "Burgershoop cemetery and concentration camp in Krugersdorp.". The All at Sea Network. Retrieved 2011-12-21.
- Stéphane Courtois; Mark Kramer (1999-10-15). Livre Noir Du Communisme: Crimes, Terreur, Répression. ISBN 978-0-674-07608-2.
- Wemheuer, Felix (July 2011). "Sites of horror: Mao's Great Famine [with response]". The China Journal (66): 155–164. JSTOR 41262812. on p.163 Frank Dikötter, in his response, quotes Yu Xiguang's figure of 55 million
- Becker, Jasper (1998). Hungry Ghosts: Mao's Secret Famine. Holt Paperbacks p.xi.
- "China's great famine: 40 years later". British Medical Journal 1999;319:1619–1621 (18 December)
- Dikötter, Frank. Mao's Great Famine: The History of China's Most Devastating Catastrophe, 1958–62. Walker & Company, 2010. p. 298.
- "How the U.S. saved a starving Soviet Russia: PBS film highlights Stanford scholar's research on the 1921–23 famine". Stanford University. April 4, 2011.
- Nicholas Tarling (Ed.) The Cambridge History of SouthEast Asia Vol.II Part 1 pp139-40
- Madhusree Mukerjee, Churchill’s Secret War: The British Empire and the Ravaging of India During World War II. See also Book review: Churchill's secret war in India by Susannah York
- Van der Eng, Pierre (2008) ‘Food Supply in Java during War and Decolonisation, 1940–1950.’ MPRA Paper No. 8852, pp.35–38. http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/8852/
- "Last Battle of Siege of Leningrad Re-Enacted." The St. Petersburg Times. January 29, 2008.
- The Russian Academy of Science Rossiiskaia Akademiia nauk. Liudskie poteri SSSR v period vtoroi mirovoi voiny:sbornik statei. Sankt-Peterburg 1995 ISBN 5-86789-023-6
- Bruce Sharp (2008), Counting Hell 2.Ben Kiernan, paragraph 3. Mekong.
- Marek Sliwinski (1995), Le Génocide Khmer Rouge: Une Analyse Démographique, L'Harmattan, p. 82.
- Foster, R.F. 'Modern Ireland 1600–1972'. Penguin Press, 1988. p324. Foster's footnote reads: "Based on hitherto unpublished work by C. Ó Gráda and Phelim Hughes, 'Fertility trends, excess mortality and the Great Irish Famine'...Also see C.Ó Gráda and Joel Mokyr, 'New developments in Irish Population History 1700–1850', Economic History Review, vol. xxxvii, no.4 (November 1984), pp. 473–488."
- Joseph Lee, The Modernisation of Irish Society p. 1. Lee says 'at least 800,000'.
- Vaughan, W.E. and Fitzpatrick, A.J.(eds). Irish Historical Statistics, Population, 1821/1971. Royal Irish Academy, 1978
- The Great Irish Famine Approved by the New Jersey Commission on Holocaust Education on 10 September 1996, for inclusion in the Holocaust and Genocide Curriculum at the secondary level. Revision submitted 11/26/98.
- Cecil Woodham-Smith (1991). The great hunger: Ireland 1845–1849. Penguin Books. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-14-014515-1.
- Dr Christine Kinealy (2006). This Great Calamity: The Irish Famine, 1845–52. ISBN 978-0-7171-4011-4.
- Charles Hirschman et al. "Vietnamese Casualties During the American War: A New Estimate". Population and Development Review (December 1995).
- Koh, David (21 August 2008). "Vietnam needs to remember famine of 1945". The Straits Times (Singapore). Retrieved 25 January 2010.
- de Waal, Alex (2002) . Famine Crimes: Politics & the Disaster Relief Industry in Africa. Oxford: James Currey. ISBN 0-85255-810-4.
- "Flashback 1984: Portrait of a famine". BBC News. April 6, 2000.
- Ó Gráda, Cormac (2009), Famine: a short history, Princeton University Press, p. 24, ISBN 978-0-691-12237-3.
- Despite aid effort, Sudan famine squeezing life from dozens daily CNN, Accessed May 25, 2006
- "Worst Natural Disasters In History". Nbc10.com. Retrieved 2010-08-11.
- Dai Qing (1998). The River Dragon Has Come!: The Three Gorges Dam and the Fate of China's Yangtze River and Its People. M.E. Sharpe. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-7656-0206-0.
- 230,000 is the highest of a range of unofficial estimates, including also deaths of ensuing epidemics and famine, in Yi 1998
- "The Enigma of Aztec Sacrifice", by Michael Harner. Natural History, April 1977, Vol. 86, No. 4, pages 46–51.
- National Geographic, July 2003, cited by White
- Sakuntala Narasimhan, Sati: widow burning in India, quoted by Matthew White, "Selected Death Tolls for Wars, Massacres and Atrocities Before the 20th Century", p.2 (July 2005), Historical Atlas of the 20th Century (self-published, 1998–2005).
- This toll is only for the number of Japanese pilots killed in Kamikaze suicide missions. It does not include the number of enemy combatants killed by such missions, which is estimated to be around 4,000. Kamikaze pilots are estimated to have sunk or damaged beyond repair some 70 to 80 allied ships, representing about 80% of allied shipping losses in the final phase of the war in the Pacific (see Kamikaze).
- The largest single loss of American civilian life in a deliberate act until the September 11, 2001 attacks.
- "Did Mao Really Kill Millions in the Great Leap Forward?". Maoists.org. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
- Andrew and Mitrokhin, The Sword and the Shield, paperback ed., Basic books, 1999.
- Steven Rosefielde (2010-02-15). Red Holocaust. Taylor & Francis. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-415-77757-5.
- Павел Полян, Не по своей воле... (Pavel Polian, Against Their Will... A History and Geography of Forced Migrations in the USSR), ОГИ Мемориал, Moscow, 2001
- С. Уиткрофт (Stephen G. Wheatcroft), "О демографических свидетельствах трагедии советской деревни в 1931—1933 гг.
- Lynne Viola The Unknown Gulag. The Lost World of Stalin's Special Settlements Oxford University Press 2007,
- Soviet Repression Statistics: Some Comments by Michael Ellman, 2002
- Vadim Rogovin "The Party of the Executed"
- Forbath, Peter. The River Congo: The Discovery, Exploration, and Exploitation of the World's Most Dramatic River, 1991 (Paperback). Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-122490-1.
- R. J. Rummel Exemplifying the Horror of European Colonization:Leopold's Congo"
- p.226-232, Hochschild, Adam (1999), King Leopold's Ghost, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, ISBN 0-547-52573-7
- Hochschild p.226–232.
- Crossette, Barbara. Iraq Sanctions Kill Children, U.N. Reports=1999.
- Garfield, Richard (1999). Morbidity and Mortality Among Iraqi Children from 1990 Through 1998: Assessing the Impact of the Gulf War and Economic Sanctions. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
- Cribb, Robert (2002). "Unresolved Problems in the Indonesian Killings of 1965–1966". Asian Survey 42 (4): 550–563. doi:10.1525/as.2002.42.4.550.
- Donald Greer, The Terror, a Statistical Interpretation, Cambridge (1935)
- Reynald Secher, La Vendée-Vengé, le Génocide franco-français (1986)
- Jean-Clément Martin, La Vendée et la France, Éditions du Seuil, collection Points, 1987 he gives the highest estimate of the civil war, including republican losses and premature death. However, he does not consider it as a genocide.
- Jacques Hussenet (dir.), « Détruisez la Vendée ! » Regards croisés sur les victimes et destructions de la guerre de Vendée, La Roche-sur-Yon, Centre vendéen de recherches historiques, 2007, p.148.
- Gough, Hugh (December 1987). "Genocide and the Bicentenary: The French Revolution and the Revenge of the Vendee". The Historical Journal 30 (4). JSTOR 2639130.
- White, Matthew. "Death Tolls for the Man-made Megadeaths of the 20th Century". Users.erols.com.
- "Conflict-related deaths in Timor-Leste 1974–1999". Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor. Retrieved 29 December 2013.
- "Background on Chile". The Center for Justice & Accountability. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
- Bob Tadashi Wakabayashi; Bob Tadashi Wakabayashi (2008). The Naking Atrocity: 1937–38. Berghahn Books. p. 362. ISBN 1845451805.
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Cite error: The named reference
- Warren T. Treadgold (1997). A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford University Press. p. 572. ISBN 0804726302.
- Biondich, Mark. The Balkans: Revolution, War, and Political Violence Since 1878. Oxford University Press, 2011. p. 92 
- Naimark, Norman M. Fires of Hatred: Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth-Century Europe. Cambridge: MA: Harvard University Press, 2002, p. 52.
- Rudolph J. Rummel, Irving Louis Horowitz (1994). "Turkey's Genocidal Purges". Death by Government. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-1-56000-927-6., p. 233.
- Naimark. Fires of Hatred, pp. 47–52.
- Phil Gunson. "The Guardian, Thursday 2 April 2009". Guardian. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
- PBS News Hour, 16 Oct. 1997, et al. Argentina Death Toll, Twentieth Century Atlas
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