Deaths due to the Chernobyl disaster

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The Chernobyl disaster (Ukrainian: Чорнобильська катастрофа, Chornobylʹsʹka katastrofa, Chornobyl accident), was a nuclear disaster that occurred on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (then part of the Soviet Union), now in Ukraine. The scientific consensus on the effects of the disaster is developed by the UN Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) (UNSCEAR is the direct equivalent of the (better known) IPCC in the field of climate change). In peer-reviewed publications UNSCEAR has identified fewer than 60 immediate deaths from acute radiation poisoning and trauma, and estimated up to 5,000 deaths from thyroid cancers in the long-term (although this figure has not, in fact, materialised).[1] Other, non-peer-reviewed publications and pressure groups have claimed tens or even hundreds of thousands of excess deaths but UN agencies, including the WHO state that such numbers are wildly over-estimated and that the principal long-term adverse health outcomes are anxiety and depression among the general public across Eastern Europe as a result of irresponsible reporting and exaggerated statements by anti-nuclear power activists.[2]

With the exception of diagnoses of Acute Radiation Syndrome and obvious industrial accidents on site, assignment of death from other causes is a statistical rather than a deterministic process. Although non-peer-reviewed publications allege a bewildering variety of cancers, heart (and other organ) diseases, birth defects (even in children and grandchildren of nearby residents) and other ailments, in fact, for the vast majority of these conditions radiation exposure is not even a recognised cause and, in any case, the incidence of such conditions in the relevant population has actually fallen since the Chernobyl incident.

During mid-1986 the official Soviet death toll was raised from 2 to 31, a figure that has often been repeated. In their campaigning publications, pressure groups claim that deaths as a result of the immediate aftermath and the cleanup operation may number at least 6000,[3] but that exceeds the number of workers believed to have died from all causes (e.g. including old age and traffic accidents) by the National Committee for Radiation Protection of the Ukrainian Population. For further information on the indirect health implications, see Chernobyl disaster's effects on human health.

Deaths due to the explosion and initial radiation release[edit]

The following is a list of those known to be directly killed by the explosion and initial radiation release, or in the support efforts that followed.[4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]

Name in Russian:[13] Family name, first name and patronymic according to the Eastern Slavic naming customs (English)
(Cyrillic)
Date of birth Date of death Cause of death/injury Title Description
Akimov, Aleksandr Fyodorovich

Акимов, Александр Фёдорович
1953-05-06 1986-05-10 radiation burns on 100% of body, caused by an estimated 15 Gray (Gy) dose. Unit #4 shift leader A senior reactor operator, at the controls in the control room at the time of the explosion; received fatal dose during attempts to restart feedwater flow into the reactor; posthumously awarded the Order "For Courage" of third degree.[9]
Ananenko, Alexei

Ананенко, Алексей
 ? 1986-05/6? acute radiation sickness engineer One of the three divers who opened the sluice gates allowing water to evacuate the basement below the reactor on May 1. Congratulated upon return, he died afterwards.
Baranov, Anatoly Ivanovich

Баранов, Анатолий Иванович
1953-06-13 1986-05-20 acute radiation sickness electrical engineer, senior electrician Posthumously awarded the Order "For Courage" of third degree.[9]
Baranov, Boris

Баранов, Борис
 ? 1986-05/6? acute radiation sickness soldier One of the three divers (he carried a lamp, which later failed) who opened the sluice gates allowing water to evacuate the basement below the reactor on May 1. Congratulated upon return, he died afterwards.
Bezpalov, Valeri

Безпалов, Валерий
 ? 1986-05/6-? acute radiation sickness engineer One of the three divers who opened the sluice gates allowing water to evacuate the basement below the reactor on May 1. Congratulated upon return, he died afterwards.
Brazhnik, Vyacheslav Stepanovych

Бражник, Вячеслав Степанович
1957-05-03 1986-05-14 acute radiation sickness senior turbine machinist operator In the turbine hall at the moment of explosion. Received fatal dose (over 1000 rad) during firefighting and stabilizing the turbine hall, died in Moscow hospital. Posthumously awarded the Order "For Courage" of third degree;[9] irradiated by a piece of fuel lodged on a nearby transformer of turbogenerator 7 during manual opening of the turbine emergency oil drain valves.
Degtyarenko, Viktor Mykhaylovych

Дегтяренко, Виктор Михайлович
1954-08-10 1986-05-19 acute radiation sickness reactor operator Close to the pumps at the moment of explosion. Posthumously awarded the Order "For Courage" of third degree[9][14] face scalded by steam or hot water.[15]
Dyatlov, Anatoly Stepanovich

Дятлов, Анатолий Степанович
1931-03-03 1995-12-13 heart failure, possibly a delayed consequence of the exposure to a 400 rads radiation Deputy chief engineer of the Power Plant Fomin's assistant; supervised the test, present in the control room at the moment of explosion. Sustained about 400 rads irradiation when surveying the reactor damage from the outside with Nikolai Gorbachenko; radiation burns on face, right hand, legs. After the disaster, stripped of Communist Party membership, arrested in August 1986, spent a year in Kiev prison awaiting trial in August 1987; found guilty of gross violation of safety regulations, sentenced to 10 years of labor camp, released after five years.
Hanzhuk, Nikolai Aleksandrovich

Ганжук, Николай Александрович
1960-06-26 1986-10-02 helicopter crash helicopter pilot Helicopter, tasked with helping to extinguish the reactor fire with a clay load airdrop, crashed above the reactor. However, crash was not directly related to radiation exposure, as it is obvious from crash video [16] that helicopter rotor hit a construction cable.
Ignatenko, Vasyli Ivanovych


Игнатенко, Василий Иванович
1961-03-13 1986-05-13 acute radiation sickness fireman Chief Sergeant, first crew on the reactor roof. Received fatal dose during attempt to extinguish the roof and the reactor core fire, died two weeks later in Moscow Hospital 6[17]
Ivanenko, Yekaterina Alexandrovna

Иваненко, Екатерина Александровна
1932-09-11 1986-05-26 acute radiation sickness security guard Guarded a gate opposite to the Block 4, stayed on duty for the entire night until morning.[18]
Khodemchuk, Valery Ilyich

Ходемчук, Валерий Ильич
1951-03-24 1986-04-26 initial explosion main circulating pumps, senior operator Stationed in the southern main circulating pumps engine room, likely killed immediately; body never found, likely buried under the wreckage of the steam separator drums; has a memorial sign in the Reactor 4 building; posthumously awarded the Order "For Courage" of third degree.[9]
Khrystych, Leonid Ivanovych

Христич, Леонид Иванович
1953-02-28 1986-10-02 helicopter crash helicopter pilot Helicopter, tasked with helping to extinguish the reactor fire with a clay load airdrop, crashed above the reactor. However, crash was not directly related to radiation exposure, as it is obvious from crash video [16] that helicopter rotor hit a construction cable.
Kibenok, Viktor Mykolayovych

Кибенок, Виктор Николаевич
1963-02-17 1986-05-11 acute radiation sickness firefighter Lieutenant, leader of the second unit, fighting fires in the reactor department, separator room, and the central hall; in 1987 posthumously named a Hero of the Soviet Union.
Konoval, Yuriy Ivanovych

Коновал, Юрий Иванович
1942-01-01 1986-05-28 acute radiation sickness electrician Posthumously awarded the Order "For Courage" of third degree.[9]
Kudryavtsev, Aleksandr Gennadiyevych

Кудрявцев, Александр Геннадиевич
1957-12-11 1986-05-14 acute radiation sickness Reactor Control Chief Engineer candidate Present in the control room at the moment of explosion; received fatal dose of radiation during attempt to manually lower the control rods as he looked directly to the open reactor core; posthumously awarded the Order "For Courage" of third degree.[9]
Kurguz, Anatoly Kharlampiyovych

Кургуз, Анатолий Харлампиевич
1957-06-12 1986-05-12 acute radiation sickness operator, central hall Scalded by radioactive steam entering his control room; his colleague, Oleg Genrikh, was spared the worst and survived.
Lelechenko, Aleksandr Grigoryevich

Лелеченко, Александр Григорьевич
1938-07-26 1986-05-07 fatal radiation exposure, 2500 rads deputy chief of the electrical shop Former Leningrad power plant electrical shop shift leader[19] at the central control room with Kukhar; at the moment of explosion just arrived to the block 4 control room;[20] in order to spare his younger colleagues a radiation exposure he himself went through radioactive water and debris three times to switch off the electrolyzers and the feed of hydrogen to the generators, then tried to supply voltage to feedwater pumps; after receiving first aid, returned to the plant and worked for several more hours. Died in Kiev hospital.
Lopatyuk, Viktor Ivanovich

Лопатюк, Виктор Иванович
1960-08-22 1986-05-17 acute radiation sickness electrician Received fatal dose during switching off the electrolyzer[21]
Luzganova, Klavdia Ivanovna

Лузганова, Клавдия Ивановна
1927-05-09 1986-07-31 radiation exposure, est. 600 rad security guard[11] Guarded the construction site of the spent fuel storage building about 200 meters from Block 4[18]
Novyk, Aleksandr Vasylyovych

Новик, Александр Васильевич
1961-08-11 1986-07-26 acute radiation sickness turbine equipment machinist-inspector Received fatal dose (over 1000 rad) during firefighting and stabilizing the turbine hall, died in Moscow hospital; posthumously awarded the Order "For Courage" of third degree;[9] irradiated by a piece of fuel lodged on a nearby transformer of the turbogenerator 7 during attempts to call the control room.
Orlov, Ivan Lukych

Орлов, Иван Лукич
1945-01-10 1986-05-13 acute radiation sickness physicist Received fatal dose during attempts to restart feedwater flow into the reactor.
Perchuk, Kostyantyn Grigorovich

Перчук, Константин Григорьевич
1952-11-23 1986-05-20 acute radiation sickness turbine operator, senior engineer In the turbine hall at the moment of explosion; received fatal dose (over 1000 rad) during firefighting and stabilizing the turbine hall, died in Moscow hospital; posthumously awarded the Order "For Courage" of third degree;[9] irradiated by a piece of fuel lodged on a nearby transformer of the turbogenerator 7 during manual opening of the turbine emergency oil drain valves.
Perevozchenko, Valery Ivanovich

Перевозченко, Валерий Иванович
1947-05-06 1986-06-13 acute radiation sickness foreman, reactor section Received fatal dose of radiation during attempt to locate and rescue Khodemchuk and others, and manually lower the control rods; together with Kudryavtsev and Proskuryakov he looked directly to the open reactor core, suffering radiation burns on side and back; posthumously awarded the Order "For Courage" of third degree.[9]
Popov, Georgi Illiaronovich

Попов, Георгий Илларионович
1940-02-21 1986-06-13 acute radiation sickness Employee of the Kharkiv "Turboatom" plant (a NPP subcontractor) Vibration specialist, mobile truck-based laboratory at Turbine 8; buried in Mitinskoe Cemetery.[4]
Pravik, Vladimir Pavlovych

Правик, Владимир Павлович
1962-06-13 1986-05-11 radiation burns firefighter Lieutenant, leader of the first crew on the reactor roof, repeatedly visited the reactor and the roof of Unit C at Level 71 to supervise the firefighting; received fatal dose during attempt to extinguish the roof and the reactor core, died two weeks later in Moscow Hospital 6; his eyes are said to have been turned from brown to blue by the intensity of the radiation;[6] in 1987 posthumously named a Hero of the Soviet Union.
Proskuryakov, Viktor Vasilyevich

Проскуряков, Виктор Васильович
1955-04-09 1986-05-17 acute radiation sickness Reactor Control Chief Engineer candidate Present in the control room at the moment of explosion; received fatal dose of radiation during attempt to manually lower the control rods as he peeked directly onto the open reactor core; posthumously awarded the Order "For Courage" of third degree;[9] 100% radiation burns.
Savenkov, Vladimir Ivanovych

Савенков, Владимир Иванович
1958-02-15 1986-05-21 acute radiation sickness Employee of the Kharkiv "Turboatom" plant (a NPP subcontractor) Vibration specialist, mobile truck-based laboratory at Turbine 8; first one to become sick; buried in Kharkiv in a lead coffin.[4]
Shapovalov, Anatoliy Ivanovych

Шаповалов, Анатолий Иванович
1941-04-06 1986-05-19 acute radiation sickness electrician Posthumously awarded the Order "For Courage" of third degree.[9]
Shashenok, Vladimir Nikolaevich

Шашенок, Владимир Николаевич
1951-04-21 1986-04-26 thermal and radiation burns, trauma Employee of the "Atomenergonaladka" (Chernobyl startup and adjustment company, a NPP subcontractor), adjuster of automatic systems Stationed in Room 604, found unconscious and pinned down under a fallen beam, with broken spine, broken ribs, deep thermal and radiation burns; died in hospital without regaining consciousness.
Shevchenko, Volodimir Mikitovich

Шевченко, Владимир Никитич
1929-12-23 1987-03-29 Cancer, complication of Acute Radiation Sickness Ukrainian cameraman A filmmaker who took much of the iconic footage of the early days in recovering from the Chernobyl disaster.[22] He filmed the famous clip of the helicopter crash when it clipped a guy wire while dropping sand on the open reactor; see Hanzhuk, Nikolai Aleksandrovich above. See a video of his work at.[23]
Sitnikov, Anatoly Andreyevich

Ситников, Анатолий Андреевич
1940-01-20 1986-05-30 acute radiation sickness deputy chief operational engineer, physicist Received fatal dose (about 1500 roentgens or 15 Sv), mostly to head, after being sent by Fomin to survey the reactor hall and peek at the reactor from the roof of Unit C.
Telyatnikov, Leonid Petrovich

Телятников, Леонид Петрович
1951-01-25 2004-12-02 died of cancer, received an estimated 4 Gy firefighter Chief of the power plant fire department; in 1987 named a Hero of the Soviet Union.
Tishchura, Vladimir Ivanovych

Тищура, Владимир Иванович
1959-12-15 1986-05-10 radiation burns firefighter Sergeant, Kibenok's unit, fighting fires in the reactor department, separator room, and the central hall.
Titenok, Nikolai Ivanovych

Титенок, Николай Иванович
1962-12-05 1986-05-16 radiation burns external and internal, incl. blistered heart firefighter Chief Sergeant, Kibenok's unit, fighting fires in the reactor department, separator room, and the central hall; received fatal dose during attempt to extinguish the roof and the reactor core, died two weeks later in Moscow Hospital 6.
Toptunov, Leonid Fedorovych

Топтунов, Леонид Федорович
1960-08-16 1986-05-14 acute radiation sickness Reactor Control Chief Engineer In the control room at the reactor control panel at the moment of explosion, with Akimov; received fatal dose during attempts to restart feedwater flow into the reactor; posthumously awarded the Order "For Courage" of third degree.[9]
Vashchuk, Nikolai Vasilievich

Ващук, Николай Васильевич
1959-06-05 1986-05-14 firefighter Sergeant, Kibenok's unit, fighting fires in the reactor department, separator room, and the central hall.
Vershynin, Yuriy Anatoliyovych

Вершинин, Юрий Анатольевич
1959-05-22 1986-07-21 acute radiation sickness Turbine equipment machinist-inspector In the turbine hall at the moment of explosion; received fatal dose (over 1000 rad) during firefighting and stabilizing the turbine hall, died in Moscow hospital; posthumously awarded the Order "For Courage" of third degree;[9] irradiated by a piece of fuel lodged on a nearby transformer of the turbogenerator 7 during attempts to call the control room.
Vorobyov, Volodymyr Kostyantynovych

Воробьёв, Владимир Костантинович
1956-03-21 1986-10-02 helicopter crash helicopter crew Helicopter, tasked with helping to extinguish the reactor fire with a clay load airdrop, crashed above the reactor. However, crash was not directly related to radiation exposure, as it is obvious from crash video [16] that helicopter rotor hit a construction cable.
Yunhkind, Oleksandr Yevhenovych

Юнхкинд, Олександр Евхновйч
1958-04-15 1986-10-02 helicopter crash helicopter crew Helicopter, tasked with helping to extinguish the reactor fire with a clay load airdrop, crashed above the reactor. However, crash was not directly related to radiation exposure, as it is obvious from crash video [16] that helicopter rotor hit a construction cable.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://[www.unscear.org/docs/reports/2008/11-80076_Report_2008_Annex_D.pdf "Health effects due to radiation from the Chernobyl accident ( Annex D of 2008 UNSCEAR Report).]"
  2. ^ "Chernobyl’s Legacy: Health, Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts"
  3. ^ Marples, David R. (1996) "Chernobyl: The Decade of Despair" in Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists May 1996. p. 20.
  4. ^ a b c "Последняя командировка [Архив] - Forum on pripyat.com". Forum.pripyat.com. Retrieved 2010-03-22. 
  5. ^ "Воспоминания Р.И.Давлетбаева". Voropay.net. Retrieved 2010-03-22. 
  6. ^ a b Adam Higginbotham (2006-03-26). "Adam Higginbotham: Chernobyl 20 years on | World news | The Observer". London: Guardian. Retrieved 2010-03-22. 
  7. ^ "Ukrainian History - Dr. W. Zuzak's Chernobyl Files: Chernobyl on the Internet, Part 2". InfoUkes. Retrieved 2010-03-22. 
  8. ^ "Chernobyl - Tschernobyl - Information". Chernobyl.info. Retrieved 2010-03-22. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "History does not know the words 'too late' - Publications. Materials about: Pripyat, Chernobyl accident". Pripyat.com. 2007-07-23. Retrieved 2010-03-22. 
  10. ^ "Юрий Щербак "Чернобыль"". Kuto4ok.info. Retrieved 2010-03-22. 
  11. ^ a b "Лузганова Клавдия Ивановна / Прочие катастрофы / Чернобыльская авария 26 апреля 1986 г". Pomnimih.ru. Retrieved 2010-03-22. 
  12. ^ "Памятники в Красногорске". Krasnogorsk.ru. Retrieved 2010-03-22. 
  13. ^ The disaster relief operation, as well as the whole work of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, was directly supervised by the Soviet government using exclusively Russian language. Directly translated into wide English use, respective names and terms may differ from their local Ukrainian or Belarusian spelling/pronunciation.
  14. ^ "Leopolis: April 2006". Leopolis.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2010-03-22. 
  15. ^ Sergey Petrov. "Сразу же после аварии на ЧАЭС". Bluesbag6.narod.ru. Retrieved 2010-03-22. 
  16. ^ a b c d "Video of the Chernobyl helicopter crash". 
  17. ^ "Humanity for Chernobyl - Voices from Chernobyl: Wife of deceased Fireman". Chernobylinfo.com. Retrieved 2010-03-22. 
  18. ^ a b "Г.Медведев Чернобыльская Тетрадь". Library.narod.ru. Retrieved 2010-03-22. 
  19. ^ "Как готовился взрыв Чернобыля. (Воспоминания В.И.Борца.) - Версии г.Припять ( Чернобыль)". Pripyat.com. 2007-07-23. Retrieved 2010-03-22. 
  20. ^ "Документы ЧАЭС: Свидетельства очевидцев и показания свидетелей " ЧАЭС Зона отчуждения". Chernobil.info. 1999-02-22. Retrieved 2010-03-22. 
  21. ^ Lisova, Natasha. "Nation & World | Far from their buried husbands, Chernobyl widows still cope with loss | Seattle Times Newspaper". Community.seattletimes.nwsource.com. Retrieved 2010-03-22. 
  22. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/1987/05/30/world/a-soviet-film-maker-at-chernobyl-in-86-is-dead-of-radiation.html
  23. ^ "The Chernobyl Disaster: The Severe Days". youtube channel andree965. 2006-11-10. Retrieved 2012-10-05.