Deaths due to the Chernobyl disaster

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The Chernobyl disaster (Ukrainian: Чорнобильська катастрофа, Chornobylʹsʹka katastrofa, Chernobyl accident), was a nuclear disaster that occurred on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, then part of the Soviet Union), now in Ukraine. The scientific consensus on the effects of the disaster has been developed by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). In peer-reviewed publications UNSCEAR has identified fewer than 60 immediate deaths from trauma, acute radiation poisoning and cases of thyroid cancer from an original group of about 4,000 cases of thyroid cancers in the affected area [1] Other non-governmental organizations, many with staunch positions on the spectrum of the nuclear power debate, have claimed numbers up to a million excess deaths caused by the nuclear disaster. UN and other international agencies such as the Chernobyl Forum and the World Health Organization state that such numbers are wildly over-estimated, stressing a need for hard documentation of deaths. It is thought that the principal long-term adverse health outcomes are anxiety and depression among the general public across Eastern Europe as a result of irresponsible reporting and exaggerated statements by anti-nuclear power activists.[2][3]

Complicating the conflict is the fact that, with the exception of diagnoses of Acute Radiation Syndrome and obvious industrial accidents on site, assignment of causes of death is a statistical rather than a deterministic process.[4] Although non-peer-reviewed publications allege a bewildering variety of cancers, heart and other organ diseases, birth defects in children and grandchildren of nearby residents and other ailments, in fact, for the vast majority of these conditions radiation exposure is not even a recognized cause and, in any case, the incidence of such conditions in the relevant population has actually fallen since the Chernobyl incident. On the other hand, the effects of radiation are becoming better known as experience gathers and formerly disconnected illness may actually be the result of long-term, unseen damage during the exposure event.[5]

During mid-1986 the official Soviet death toll rose from 2 to 31, a figure that has often been repeated. Following the disaster itself, the USSR organized an effort to stabilize and shore up the reactor area, still awash in radiation, using the efforts of 600,000 “liquidators” recruited from all over the USSR. Some organizations claim that deaths as a result of the immediate aftermath and the cleanup operation may number at least 6000,[6] but that exceeds the number of workers believed to have died from all causes, including, for example, old age and traffic accidents) by the National Committee for Radiation Protection of the Ukrainian Population. For further information on the indirect health implications, see Chernobyl disaster's effects on human health.

Deaths due to trauma and radiation sickness[edit]

In the list following are 41 people whose deaths are directly attributable to the Chernobyl disaster. Of these, two died at the scene, four died in a single helicopter accident, 32 died within a few months of Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) and three died later of medical complications probably caused by the accident. One was a cinematographer, one a physician, five military personnel (four in a single helicopter), seven firefighters, two security guards and the rest staff at the power plant or subcontractors. At least one other person is reported to have who died of a coronary thrombosis at the scene, and nine children are reported to have died of thyroid cancer (in 2006 that number was raised to 15[7]), but identifications are not known. No members of the general public were hospitalized in the month following the accident,[8] though a pair of fishermen, Pustavoit and Protasov, reportedly received 400 REM doses.[9] There were a total of 137 confirmed cases of ARS, including Pyotr Palamarchuk who survived after a reported exposure to 800 roentgens, twice the usual death dose.[10]

The following list is of those directly killed by the explosion and initial radiation release, or in the support efforts that followed.[11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19]

The official list [Notes 1] Name in Russian: [Notes 2] Family name, first name and patronymic
(English)
(Cyrillic)
Date, place of birth Date, place of death Cause of death/injury Occupation Description Official Recognition
Yes Akimov, Aleksandr Fyodorovich
Акимов, Александр Фёдорович
1953-05-06, Novosibirsk 1986-05-10, Moscow ARS; burns on 100% of body, estimated 15 grays (1,500 rad) dose. Unit #4 shift leader A senior reactor operator, at the controls in the control room at the time of the explosion; received fatal dose during attempts to restart feedwater flow into the reactor. Ukraine's Order For Courage of third degree[16][20]
Ananenko, Alexei
Ананенко, Алексей
 ? 1986-05/6? ARS senior engineer/mechanic One of the three divers who opened the sluice gates allowing water to evacuate the basement below the reactor on May 2. Congratulated upon return, they died within a few weeks.[21][22]
Yes Baranov, Anatoly Ivanovich
Баранов, Анатолий Иванович
1953-06-13, Tsyurupynsk, Kherson, Ukrainian SSR 1986-05-20, Moscow ARS senior electrical engineer Managed generators during emergency, preventing fire spread through the generator hall. Ukraine's Order For Courage of third degree; Soviet Union's Order of the October Revolution[16][20]
Baranov, Boris
Баранов, Борис
 ? 1986-05/6? ARS plant shift supervisor One of the three divers who opened the sluice gates allowing water to evacuate the basement below the reactor on May 2. Congratulated upon return, they died within a few weeks.[21][22]
Bezpalov, Valeri
Безпалов, Валерий
 ? 1986-05/6-? ARS senior engineer One of the three divers who opened the sluice gates allowing water to evacuate the basement below the reactor on May 2. Congratulated upon return, they died within a few weeks.[21][22]
Yes Brazhnik, Vyacheslav Stepanovych
Бражник, Вячеслав Степанович
1957-05-03, Atbasar, Tselinograd, Kazakh SSR 1986-05-14 ARS senior turbine machinist operator In the turbine hall at the moment of explosion. Received fatal dose (over 1000 rad) during firefighting and stabilizing the turbine hall, died in Moscow hospital. Irradiated by a piece of fuel lodged on a nearby transformer of turbogenerator 7 during manual opening of the turbine emergency oil drain valves. Ukraine's Order For Courage of third degree;[16] Soviet Union's Order of the Badge of Honor.[20]
Yes Degtyarenko, Viktor Mykhaylovych
Дегтяренко, Виктор Михайлович
1954-08-10, Ryazan, Russian SFSR 1986-05-19, Moscow ARS reactor operator Close to the pumps at the moment of explosion.[23] face scalded by steam or hot water.[24] Ukraine's Order For Courage of third degree;[16] Soviet Union's Order of the Badge of Honor.[20]
Dyatlov, Anatoly Stepanovich
Дятлов, Анатолий Степанович
1931-03-03, Atamanovo, Krasnoyarsk, Russian SFSR 1995-12-13, Kiev, Ukraine heart failure, possibly a delayed consequence of his CHNPP and previous exposures Deputy chief engineer of the Power Plant Fomin's assistant; supervised the test, present in the control room at the moment of explosion. Sustained about 550 rads of radiation when surveying the reactor damage from the outside with Nikolai Gorbachenko; radiation burns on face, right hand, legs. After the disaster, stripped of Communist Party membership, arrested in August 1986, spent a year in Kiev prison awaiting trial in August 1987; found guilty of gross violation of safety regulations, sentenced to 10 years of labor camp, released after five years due to ill health.
Hanzhuk, Nikolai Aleksandrovich
Ганжук, Николай Александрович
1960-06-26 1986-10-02, Chernobyl NPP helicopter crash helicopter pilot Helicopter crewman tasked with helping to extinguish the reactor fire with a clay load airdrop, crashed above the reactor. However, crash was not directly related to radiation exposure, as it is obvious from crash video [25] that helicopter rotor hit a construction cable.
Yes Ignatenko, Vasyli Ivanovych
Игнатенко, Василий Иванович
1961-03-13, Sperizhe, Gomel, Byelorussian SSR 1986-05-13, Moscow ARS squad commander, 6th Paramilitary Fire/Rescue Unit, Pripyat, Kiev Chief Sergeant, first crew on the reactor roof. Received fatal dose during attempt to extinguish the roof and the reactor core fire. He was survived by his pregnant wife Lyudmilla. Her child died shortly after birth due to a heart failure and a cirrhosis of the liver, caused by contamination.[26] Hero of Ukraine with Order of the Gold Star; Cross for Courage; The Soviet Union's Order of Red Banner.[20]
Yes Ivanenko, Yekaterina Alexandrovna
Иваненко, Екатерина Александровна
1932-09-11, Nezhihov, Gomel, Byelorussian SSR 1986-05-26, Moscow ARS security guard Guarded a gate opposite to the Block 4, stayed on duty for the entire night until morning.[27] Soviet Union's Order of the Red Banner.[20]
Yes Khodemchuk, Valery Ilyich
Ходемчук, Валерий Ильич
1951-03-24, Krapyvnya, Ivankov, Kyiv, Ukrainian SSR 1986-04-26, Chernobyl NPP explosion trauma senior operator, main circulating pump, reactor 4 Stationed in the southern main circulating pumps engine room, likely killed immediately; body never found, likely buried under the wreckage of the steam separator drums. Has a memorial sign in the Reactor 4 building. Ukraine's Order For Courage of third degree.[16]
Khrystych, Leonid Ivanovych
Христич, Леонид Иванович
1953-02-28 1986-10-02, Chernobyl NPP helicopter crash helicopter pilot Helicopter crewman tasked with helping to extinguish the reactor fire with a clay load airdrop, crashed above the reactor. However, crash was not directly related to radiation exposure, as it is obvious from crash video [25] that helicopter rotor hit a construction cable.
Yes Kibenok, Viktor Mykolayovych
Кибенок, Виктор Николаевич
1963-02-17, Sirohozskoho, Kherson, Ukrainian SSR 1986-05-11, Moscow ARS Head guard, 6th Paramilitary Fire/Rescue Unit, Pripyat, Kiev Lieutenant, leader of the second unit, fighting fires in the reactor department, separator room, and the central hall. Soviet Union's Hero of the Soviet Union and the Order of Lenin, by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on September 25, 1986.[20]
Yes Konoval, Yuriy Ivanovych
Коновал, Юрий Иванович
1942-01-01, Ust-Pier, Altai ASSR 1986-05-28, Moscow ARS electrician Managed machinery and fought fires in the 4th and 5th block. Ukraine's Order For Courage of third degree;[16] Soviet Union's Badge of Honor.[20]
Yes Kudryavtsev, Aleksandr Gennadiyevych
Кудрявцев, Александр Геннадиевич
1957-12-11, Kirov, Russian SSR 1986-05-14, Moscow ARS Reactor Control Chief Engineer candidate Present in the control room at the moment of explosion; received fatal dose of radiation during attempt to manually lower the control rods as he looked directly to the open reactor core. Ukraine's Order For Courage of third degree.[16]
Yes Kurguz, Anatoly Kharlampiyovych
Кургуз, Анатолий Харлампиевич
1957-06-12, Unechskoho, Bryansk, Russian SSR 1986-05-12, Moscow ARS senior reactor operator, central hall Scalded by radioactive steam entering his control room at the epicenter of the explosion, he helped rescue personnel; his colleague, Oleg Genrikh, survived. USSR's Order of Lenin; Ukraine's Cross for Courage.[20]
Yes Lelechenko, Aleksandr Grigoryevich
Лелеченко, Александр Григорьевич
1938-07-26, Lubensky, Poltava, Ukrainian SSR 1986-05-07, Kiev, Ukrainian SSR ARS, 25 Gy (2,500 rad) deputy chief of the electrical shop Former Leningrad power plant electrical shop shift leader[28] at the central control room with Kukhar; at the moment of explosion just arrived to the block 4 control room;[29] in order to spare his younger colleagues a radiation exposure he himself went through radioactive water and debris three times to switch off the electrolyzers and the feed of hydrogen to the generators, then tried to supply voltage to feedwater pumps; after receiving first aid, returned to the plant and worked for several more hours. USSR's Order of Lenin, the title of Hero of Ukraine on awarding of the Order of the Gold Star; Ukraine's Cross for Courage.[20]
Yes Lopatyuk, Viktor Ivanovich
Лопатюк, Виктор Иванович
1960-08-22, Lilov, Kyiv, Ukrainian SSR 1986-05-17, Moscow ARS electrician Received a fatal dose while switching off the electrolyzer.[30] USSR's Order of Lenin; Ukraine's Cross for Courage.[20]
Yes Luzganova, Klavdia Ivanovna
Лузганова, Клавдия Ивановна
1927-05-09 1986-07-31, Moscow ARS, estimated 6 grays (600 rad) exposure security guard[18] Guarded the construction site of the spent fuel storage building about 200 meters from Block 4.[27] Soviet Union's Order of the Red Banner.[20]
Yes Novyk, Aleksandr Vasylyovych
Новик, Александр Васильевич
1961-08-11, Dubrovytsky, Rivne, Ukrainian SSR 1986-07-26, Moscow ARS turbine equipment machinist-inspector Received fatal dose (over 10 grays (1,000 rad)) during firefighting and stabilizing the turbine hall. Irradiated by a piece of fuel lodged on a nearby transformer of the turbo-generator 7 during attempts to call the control room. Ukraine's Order For Courage of third degree[16]
Orlov, Ivan Lukych
Орлов, Иван Лукич
1945-01-10 1986-05-13 ARS physicist Received fatal dose during attempts to restart feedwater flow into the reactor.
Orlov, Varsinian
Орлов, Варсиниан
 ?  ? ARS local physician Orlov treated firefighters at the disaster site for three hours in the morning before being sent to the Moscow hospital where all his patients were headed.[8]
Yes Perchuk, Kostyantyn Grigorovich
Перчук, Константин Григорьевич
1952-11-23, Magadan, Kolyma, Russian SSR 1986-05-20, Moscow ARS turbine operator, senior engineer In the turbine hall at the moment of explosion; received fatal dose (over 10 grays (1,000 rad)) during firefighting and stabilizing the turbine hall. Irradiated by a piece of fuel lodged on a nearby transformer of the turbo-generator 7 during manual opening of the turbine emergency oil drain valves. Ukraine's Order For Courage of third degree;[16]
Yes Perevozchenko, Valery Ivanovich
Перевозченко, Валерий Иванович
1947-05-06, Starodub, Bryansk, Russian SSR 1986-06-13,Moscow ARS foreman, reactor section Received fatal dose of radiation during attempt to locate and rescue Khodemchuk and others, and manually lower the control rods; together with Kudryavtsev and Proskuryakov he looked directly to the open reactor core, suffering radiation burns on side and back. Made extra efforts to save fellow crew. Ukraine's Order For Courage of third degree.[16]
Popov, Georgi Illiaronovich
Попов, Георгий Илларионович
1940-02-21 1986-06-13 ARS Employee of the Kharkiv "Turboatom" plant (a NPP subcontractor) Vibration specialist, mobile truck-based laboratory at Turbine 8; assisted in holding the turbine room fires in check.[11]
Yes Pravik, Vladimir Pavlovych
Правик, Владимир Павлович
1962-06-13, Chernobyl, Kiev, Ukrainian SSR 1986-05-11, Moscow ARS Head Guard, 2nd paramilitary fire brigade, Chernobyl NPP Lieutenant, leader of the first crew on the reactor roof, repeatedly visited the reactor and the roof of Unit C at Level 71 to supervise the firefighting; received fatal dose during attempt to extinguish the roof and the reactor core. His eyes are said to have been turned from brown to blue by the intensity of the radiation.[13] Named a Hero of the Soviet Union with the awarding of the Order of Lenin, by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on September 25, 1986.[20]
Yes Proskuryakov, Viktor Vasilyevich
Проскуряков, Виктор Васильович
1955-04-09, Svobodnyj, Amur, Russian SSR 1986-05-17, Moscow ARS Reactor Control Chief Engineer candidate Present in the control room at the moment of explosion; received fatal dose of radiation during attempt to manually lower the control rods as he peeked directly onto the open reactor core and suffered 100% radiation burns. Ukraine's Order For Courage of third degree;[16] Soviet Union's Order of Courage.[20]
Savenkov, Vladimir Ivanovych
Савенков, Владимир Иванович
1958-02-15 1986-05-21 ARS Employee of the Kharkiv "Turboatom" plant (a NPP subcontractor) Vibration specialist, mobile truck-based laboratory at Turbine 8; first one to become sick; buried in Kharkiv in a lead coffin.[11]
Yes Shapovalov, Anatoliy Ivanovych
Шаповалов, Анатолий Иванович
1941-04-06, Kirovograd, Ukrainian SSR 1986-05-19, Moscow ARS electrician Fought fires and managed electrical equipment. Ukraine's Order For Courage of third degree;[16] USSR's Order of Friendship of Peoples.[20]
Yes Shashenok, Vladimir Nikolaevich
Шашенок, Владимир Николаевич
1951-04-21, Schucha Dam, Chernihiv, Ukrainian SSR 1986-04-26, Kyiv thermal and radiation burns, trauma Employee of the "Atomenergonaladka" (Chernobyl startup and adjustment company, a NPP subcontractor), adjuster of automatic systems Stationed in Room 604, found unconscious and pinned down under a fallen beam, with broken spine, broken ribs, deep thermal and radiation burns. He died in the hospital without regaining consciousness. Ukraine's Order For Courage of third degree; USSR's Order of Courage.[20]
Shevchenko, Volodimir Mikitovich
Шевченко, Владимир Никитич
1929-12-23 1987-03-29 Cancer, complications of ARS Ukrainian cameraman A filmmaker who took much of the iconic footage of the early days in recovering from the Chernobyl disaster.[31] He filmed the famous clip of the helicopter crash when it clipped a guy wire while dropping sand on the open reactor; see Hanzhuk, Nikolai Aleksandrovich above. See a video of his work at.[32]
Yes Sitnikov, Anatoly Andreyevich
Ситников, Анатолий Андреевич
1940-01-20, Voskresenka, Primorye, Russian SSR 1986-05-30, Moscow ARS deputy chief operational engineer, physicist Received fatal dose (about 1500 roentgen), mostly to the head after being sent by Fomin to survey the reactor hall and peek at the reactor from the roof of Unit C. USSR's Order of Lenin; Ukraine's Cross for Courage.[20]
Yes Telyatnikov, Leonid Petrovich
Телятников, Леонид Петрович
1951-01-25, Vvedenka, Kustanai, Kazakh SSR 2004-12-02, Kyiv died of cancer 18 years after receiving an estimated 4 grays (400 rad) dose. Head of the 2nd paramilitary fire brigade, Chernobyl NPP Chief of the power plant fire department. Coordinated all fire fighting efforts. After Chernobyl, he stayed with the Soviet internal force, and later the Ukraine internal forces, retired a general in 1995. Hero of the Soviet Union with the awarding the Order of Lenin by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on September 25, 1986; Ukraine's Cross for Courage.[20]
Yes Tishchura, Vladimir Ivanovych
Тищура, Владимир Иванович
1959-12-15, North Station, Leningrad, Russian SSR 1986-05-10, Moscow ARS senior firefighter, 6th Paramilitary Fire/Rescue Unit, Pripyat, Kiev Sergeant, Kibenok's unit, fighting fires in the reactor department, separator room, and the central hall. Hero of Ukraine on awarding the Order of the Gold Star; Ukraine's Cross for Courage; USSR's Order of Red Banner.[20]
Yes Titenok, Nikolai Ivanovych
Титенок, Николай Иванович
1962-12-05, Mykolaivka, Kyiv, Ukrainian SSR 1986-05-16, Moskow external and internal radiation burns, blistered heart firefighter, 6th Paramilitary Fire/Rescue Unit, Pripyat, Kiev Chief Sergeant, Kibenok's unit, fighting fires in the reactor department, separator room, and the central hall; received fatal dose during attempt to extinguish the roof and the reactor core. Hero of Ukraine on awarding the Order of the Gold Star; Ukraine's Cross for Courage; USSR's Order of Red Banner.[20]
Yes Toptunov, Leonid Fedorovych
Топтунов, Леонид Федорович
1960-08-16, Mykolaivka, Burinskiy, Sumy, Russian SSR 1986-05-14, Moscow ARS Senior Reactor Control Chief Engineer In the control room at the reactor control panel at the moment of explosion, with Akimov; received fatal dose during attempts to restart feedwater flow into the reactor. Ukraine's Order For Courage of the third degree.[16]
Yes Vashchuk, Nikolai Vasilievich
Ващук, Николай Васильевич
1959-06-05, Haicheng, Zhitomir, Ukrainian SSR 1986-05-14, Moscow ARS Squad commander, 6th Paramilitary Fire/Rescue Unit, Pripyat, Kiev A sergeant in Kibenok's unit, he fought fires in the reactor department, separator room, and the central hall. Hero of Ukraine with the Order of the Gold Star.[20]
Yes Vershynin, Yuriy Anatoliyovych
Вершинин, Юрий Анатольевич
1959-05-22, Zuyevskaya, Kirov, Russian SSR 1986-07-21, Moscow ARS Turbine equipment machinist-inspector In the turbine hall at the moment of explosion; received over 10 Gy (1,000 rad) dose during firefighting and stabilizing the turbine hall. Irradiated by a piece of fuel lodged on a nearby transformer of the turbogenerator 7 during attempts to call the control room. Ukraine's Order For Courage of third degree;[16] Soviet Union's Order of the Badge of Honor.[20]
Vorobyov, Volodymyr Kostyantynovych
Воробьёв, Владимир Костантинович
1956-03-21 1986-10-02, Chernobyl NPP helicopter crash helicopter crew Helicopter crewman tasked with helping to extinguish the reactor fire with a clay load airdrop, crashed above the reactor. However, crash was not directly related to radiation exposure, as it is obvious from crash video [25] that helicopter rotor hit a construction cable.
Yunhkind, Oleksandr Yevhenovych
Юнхкинд, Олександр Евхновйч
1958-04-15 1986-10-02, Chernobyl NPP helicopter crash helicopter crew Helicopter crewman tasked with helping to extinguish the reactor fire with a clay load airdrop, crashed above the reactor. However, crash was not directly related to radiation exposure, as it is obvious from crash video [25] that helicopter rotor hit a construction cable.

Notes:

  1. ^ The indicated people are on the list of the original 28 official deaths caused by the Chernobyl accident.
  2. ^ The disaster relief operation, as well as the whole work of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, was directly supervised by the Soviet government using exclusively Russian language. Directly translated into wide English use, respective names and terms may differ from their local Ukrainian or Belarusian spelling/pronunciation. Names use eastern European naming conventions.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ [http://[www.unscear.org/docs/reports/2008/11-80076_Report_2008_Annex_D.pdf Health effects due to radiation from the Chernobyl accident (Annex D of the 2008 UNSCEAR Report)] (Report). http://[www.unscear.org/docs/reports/2008/11-80076_Report_2008_Annex_D.pdf.
  2. ^ Chernobyl’s Legacy: Health, Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts (Report). http://www.iaea.org/Publications/Booklets/Chernobyl/chernobyl.pdf.
  3. ^ "Health Impacts, Chernobyl Accident, Appendix 2". World Nuclear Association. 2009. Retrieved 22 June 2014. 
  4. ^ "What causes cancer?". American Cancer Association. Retrieved 22 June 2014. 
  5. ^ Hempelman, Louis Henry; Lushbaugh, Clarence C. and Voelz, George L. (1979-10-19). "What Has Happened to the Survivors of the Early Los Alamos Nuclear Accidents?". Conference for Radiation Accident Preparedness. Oak Ridge: Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. p. 15. LA-UR-79-2802. Retrieved 5 January 2013.  See "Discussion" section.
  6. ^ Marples, David R. (May 1996). Chernobyl: The Decade of Despair (Report). p. 20. http://books.google.co.nz/books?id=xAwAAAAAMBAJ&lpg=PA20&pg=PA20#v=onepage&q&f=false.
  7. ^ "Chernobyl Accident 1986". World Nuclear Association. April 2014. Retrieved 26 April 2014. 
  8. ^ a b Ebel, Robert E. Chernobyl and Its Aftermath: A Chronology of Events. Center for Strategic and International Studies. Retrieved 26 April 2014. 
  9. ^ Medvedev, Grigori (1991). The Truth about Chernobyl. I.B.Tauris,. p. 86. Retrieved 26 April 2014. 
  10. ^ Gee, Alistair (April 24, 2008). "Chernobyl Victims Struggle With Consequences of Radiation Exposure". US News and World Report. 
  11. ^ a b c "Последняя командировка [Архив] - Forum on pripyat.com". Forum.pripyat.com. Retrieved 2010-03-22. 
  12. ^ "Воспоминания Р.И.Давлетбаева". Voropay.net. Retrieved 2010-03-22. 
  13. ^ a b Adam Higginbotham (2006-03-26). "Adam Higginbotham: Chernobyl 20 years on | World news | The Observer". London: Guardian. Retrieved 2010-03-22. 
  14. ^ "Ukrainian History - Dr. W. Zuzak's Chernobyl Files: Chernobyl on the Internet, Part 2". InfoUkes. Retrieved 2010-03-22. 
  15. ^ "Chernobyl - Tschernobyl - Information". Chernobyl.info. Retrieved 2010-03-22. 
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "History does not know the words 'too late' - Publications. Materials about: Pripyat, Chernobyl accident". Pripyat.com. 2007-07-23. Retrieved 2010-03-22. 
  17. ^ "Юрий Щербак "Чернобыль"". Kuto4ok.info. Retrieved 2010-03-22. 
  18. ^ a b "Лузганова Клавдия Ивановна / Прочие катастрофы / Чернобыльская авария 26 апреля 1986 г". Pomnimih.ru. Retrieved 2010-03-22. 
  19. ^ "Памятники в Красногорске". Krasnogorsk.ru. Retrieved 2010-03-22. 
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v "Chernobyl NPP Heros". Retrieved 28 April 2014. 
  21. ^ a b c "Soviets Report Heroic Acts at Chernobyl Reactor With AM Chernobyl Nuclear Bjt". Associated Press. 15 May 1986. Retrieved 2014-04-26. 
  22. ^ a b c Marples, David R. (1986). Chernobyl and Nuclear Power in the USSR. University of Toronto Press. p. 127. ISBN 0-920862-48-9. 
  23. ^ "Leopolis: April 2006". Leopolis.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2010-03-22. 
  24. ^ Sergey Petrov. "Сразу же после аварии на ЧАЭС". Bluesbag6.narod.ru. Retrieved 2010-03-22. 
  25. ^ a b c d "Video of the Chernobyl helicopter crash". 
  26. ^ "Svetlana Alexievich: Voices from Chernobyl. Dalkey Archive Press: 2005. Originally published as: Чернобыльска. Moліtва. Eдitioнс Oсtojie: 1997". Retrieved 2014-06-07. 
  27. ^ a b "Г.Медведев Чернобыльская Тетрадь". Library.narod.ru. Retrieved 2010-03-22. 
  28. ^ "Как готовился взрыв Чернобыля. (Воспоминания В.И.Борца.) - Версии г.Припять ( Чернобыль)". Pripyat.com. 2007-07-23. Retrieved 2010-03-22. 
  29. ^ "Документы ЧАЭС: Свидетельства очевидцев и показания свидетелей " ЧАЭС Зона отчуждения". Chernobil.info. 1999-02-22. Retrieved 2010-03-22. 
  30. ^ Lisova, Natasha. "Nation & World | Far from their buried husbands, Chernobyl widows still cope with loss | Seattle Times Newspaper". Community.seattletimes.nwsource.com. Retrieved 2010-03-22. 
  31. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/1987/05/30/world/a-soviet-film-maker-at-chernobyl-in-86-is-dead-of-radiation.html
  32. ^ "The Chernobyl Disaster: The Severe Days". youtube channel andree965. 2006-11-10. Retrieved 2012-10-05.