Deathstalker

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For other uses, see Deathstalker (disambiguation).
Deathstalker
Deathstalker ST 07.JPG
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Chelicerata
Class: Arachnida
Order: Scorpiones
Family: Buthidae
Genus: Leiurus
Species: L. quinquestriatus
Binomial name
Leiurus quinquestriatus
Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1829

The deathstalker (Leiurus quinquestriatus), is a species of scorpion, a member of the Buthidae family. It is also known as Israeli yellow scorpion, Palestine Yellow Scorpion[1][2][3][4] Omdurman scorpion, Israeli desert scorpion and numerous other colloquial names, which generally originate from the commercial captive trade of the animal. To eliminate confusion, especially with potentially dangerous species, the scientific name is normally used to refer to them. The name Leiurus quinquestriatus roughly translates into English as "five-striped smooth-tail". Other species of the genus Leiurus are often referred to as "deathstalkers" as well.

Description[edit]

L. quinquestriatus is yellow in color, and measures 30–77 millimetres (1.2–3.0 in) long, with an average of 58 mm (2.3 in).[5]

Geographic range[edit]

L. quinquestriatus can be found in desert and scrubland habitats ranging from North Africa through to the Middle East. Countries where it lives include Algeria, Bahrain, Chad, Egypt, Ethiopia, Libya, Mali, Niger, Somalia, Sudan, Tunisia, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Qatar, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.

Venom[edit]

A deathstalker eating a cricket in captivity

The deathstalker is regarded as a highly dangerous species because its venom is a powerful mixture of neurotoxins, with a low lethal dose.[6] While a sting from this scorpion is extraordinarily painful, it normally would not kill an otherwise healthy adult human. However, young children, the elderly, or infirm (such as those with a heart condition or those who are allergic) would be at much greater risk. Any envenomation runs the risk of anaphylaxis, a potentially life-threatening allergic reaction to the venom. A study from Israel showed a high rate of pancreatitis following envenomation.[7] If a sting from Leiurus quinquestriatus does prove fatal, the cause of death is usually pulmonary edema. It is the 3rd most venomous scorpion in the world. The German pharmaceutical company Twyford[8] and the French pharmaceutical company Sanofi Pasteur[9] both make an antivenom intended for the treatment of deathstalker envenomations; additionally, the Antivenom and Vaccine Production Center in Riyadh also produces an antivenom.[10] However, even with antivenom treatment, envenomation by the deathstalker is considered a medical emergency as its venom is unusually resistant to treatment and typically requires large doses of antivenom.[11]

In the United States and other countries outside of the typical range of the deathstalker, there is the additional complicating factor that none of the existing antivenoms are approved by the Food and Drug Administration (or equivalent agencies) and are only available as investigational drugs. The US Armed Forces maintains an Investigational drug (IND) application[12] for the AVPC-Riyadh antivenom in the event of envenomation of soldiers in the Gulf War theater of operations, and the Florida Antivenin Bank maintains an IND application for Sanofi Pasteur's Scorpifav antivenom.[13]

One component of the deathstalker's venom, the peptide chlorotoxin, has shown potential for treating human brain tumors.[14] There has also been some evidence to show that other components of the venom may aid in the regulation of insulin and could be used to treat diabetes.

Neurotoxins in L. quinquestriatus venom include:

Legality[edit]

Jurisdictions are increasingly including L.quinquestriatus in laws requiring permits to keep exotic animals or restricting ownership of "dangerous" exotics, and in some cases have outlawed the keeping of L.quinquestriatus save by licensed zoos and educational facilities. A number of state and provincial departments of fish and wildlife require exotic animal permits,[15] and a number of cities and municipal governments have prohibited their ownership in their bylaws prohibiting ownership of dangerous exotics.[16][17][18][19][20] Ownership of L.quinquestriatus may be broadly illegal in South Africa under laws prohibiting the ownership of dangerous animals. There are legal aspects regarding keeping of L.quinquestriatus. In the UK a licence is required under the 1976 Dangerous Wild Animals Act.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Minton, Sherman A. (1974). Venom diseases. Thomas. p. 235. ISBN 978-0-398-03051-3. Retrieved April 30, 2010. 
  2. ^ The Staff of Cambridge Scientific Abstracts (1993). Entomology abstracts, Volume 24, Issues 10-12. Cambridge Scientific Abstracts. Retrieved April 30, 2010. 
  3. ^ Werness, Hope B. (2004). The Continuum encyclopedia of animal symbolism in art. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 476. ISBN 978-0-8264-1525-7. Retrieved April 30, 2010. 
  4. ^ Young, Mark (1998). The Guinness Book of World Records 1998. Bantam Books. p. 768. ISBN 978-0-553-57895-9. Retrieved April 30, 2010. 
  5. ^ Zuhair S. Amr & Ratib El-Oran (1994). "Systematics and distribution of scorpions (Arachnida, Scorpionida) in Jordan". Italian Journal of Zoology 61 (2): 185–190. doi:10.1080/11250009409355881. 
  6. ^ Lucian K. Ross (2008). "Leiurus quinquestriatus (Ehrenberg, 1828)" (PDF). The Scorpion Files. Retrieved September 17, 2011. 
  7. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2028471
  8. ^ "Scorpion Antivenom Twyford (North Africa)". MAVIN. Poison Centre Munich. January 15, 2010. Retrieved December 1, 2010. 
  9. ^ "Scorpifav". MAVIN. Poison Centre Munich. January 15, 2010. Retrieved December 1, 2010. 
  10. ^ "Saudi National Antivenom and Vaccine Production Center". Retrieved December 1, 2010. 
  11. ^ Goldfrank, Lewis R. (2006). Goldfrank's toxicologic emergencies. McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 2064. ISBN 978-0-07-147914-1. Retrieved November 23, 2010. 
  12. ^ Eric A. Shalita & Ryan D. Wells (2007). "Treatment of yellow scorpion (Leiurus quinquestriatus) sting: a case report". Journal of the American Pharmacists Association 47 (5): 616–619. doi:10.1331/JAPhA.2007.07051. PMID 17848352. 
  13. ^ "Antivenom: Species Covered". Miami-Dade Fire Rescue Department. January 2009. Retrieved December 1, 2010. 
  14. ^ Liliana Soroceanu, Yancey Gillespie, M. B. Khazaeli & Harald Sontheimer (1998). "Use of chlorotoxin for targeting of primary brain tumors". Cancer Research 58 (21): 4871–4879. PMID 9809993. 
  15. ^ "Appendix: Exceptions to unrestricted wild animal list" (PDF). Wild Bird and Animal Importation and Possession. Vermont Fish and Wildlife Department. August 2010. Retrieved April 25, 2013. 
  16. ^ "Ordinance No: 07-02. Public Nuisance Ordinance" (PDF). Town of Morrison, Brown County, Wisconsin. Retrieved April 25, 2013. 
  17. ^ "Licensing of dogs and cats; regulation of animals" (PDF). Village of Pulaski, Wisconsin. Archived from the original on July 11, 2012. Retrieved April 25, 2013. 
  18. ^ "Public Health and Welfare" (PDF). City of Green Bay, Wisconsin. Archived from the original on March 11, 2012. Retrieved April 25, 2013. 
  19. ^ "Animal Ordinances Revision as of 4/11/05 passed at 4/11/05Council Mtg." (PDF). City of Brooklyn, Ohio. Archived from the original on May 17, 2011. Retrieved April 25, 2013. 
  20. ^ "Animal Ordinance Draft" (DOC). Town of Rockland, Brown County, Wisconsin. November 28, 2007. Retrieved April 25, 2013. 

External links[edit]