Bhattacharya was born into a musical family in Kolkata, it became apparent that Bhattacharya was skilled at a young age. His parents, both traditional Indian vocalists, gave him a basic understanding of music and he first began strumming a guitar at age three, when his father gave him a full-size Hawaiian lap steel guitar. He made his debut at the age of four on All India Radio, in Calcutta.
At the age of nine, he left his parents for ten years to study under the pioneer of Indian slide-guitar Brij Bhushan Kabra. At age twenty, he was awarded the President of India Award for winning the National Music competition of All India Radio.
His originality as a musician has earned him global admiration, and he has performed on networks all over the world. He has attracted attention to the slide guitar and Indian classical music within India and globally. Today he has more than 2000 students in India and other countries, and thousands of musicians, music directors, teachers, and followers who have been led to the new language of old traditional Indian music of Debashish. He invented his own slide-guitars, unique to his compositions, which he calls the "Trinity of Guitars". These hollow neck instruments are the 24-string chaturangui, the 14 string gandharvi and the anandi, a 4-string lap steel ukulele. He opened a new Universal School of Music in Kolkata, India, where he teaches students from all over the world the principle universal form of Indian music and special course of Guitar. The school is a non-profit organisation, works for restoring music, musician and traditional art. His most popular albums are: Mahima with Bob Brozman, and Calcutta Slide-Guitar, Vol. 3. Both of these albums are on Riverboat records and ranked in the top 10 of the Billboard World Music Charts.