Deborah Charlesworth FRS FRSE (née Maltby; born March 13 1943) is a British evolutionary biologist.
Charlesworth received a PhD in genetics from Cambridge University in 1968, and did postdoctoral work at Cambridge, the University of Chicago, and Liverpool University. She taught at the University of Chicago from 1988–1997, leaving to take up a Professorial Research Fellowship at the University of Edinburgh. She is best known for her work on the evolution of genetic self-incompatibility in plants and is recognised as a leader in that field. Charlesworth was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 2001 and of the Royal Society of London in 2005. According to the Web of Science she has published over 300 articles in peer-reviewed journals. These articles have been cited over 10,000 times and she has an h-index of 53. She has been married since 1967 to the British evolutionary biologist Brian Charlesworth.