A debut novel is the first novel an author publishes. Debut novels are often the author's first opportunity to make an impact on the publishing industry, and thus the success or failure of a debut novel can affect the ability of the author to publish in the future. In contemporary British and American publishing markets, most authors receive only a small monetary advance before publication of their debut novel; in the rare exceptions when a large print run and high volume of sales are anticipated, the advance can be larger.
First-time novelists (without a previous published reputation, such as in nonfiction, magazines, or journals), typically struggle to find a publisher. Sometimes new novelists will self-publish, because publishing houses will not risk the capital needed to market books by an unknown author to the public. Most publishers purchase rights to novels, especially debut novels, through literary agents. These hurdles to publishing reflect both publishers' limits in resources for reviewing and publishing unknown works, and that readers typically buy more books by established authors with a reputation than first-time writers.
Often an author's first novel will not be as complex stylistic or thematically as subsequent works and often without the authors typical literary characteristics. Huffington Post's Dave Astor attributes these to two forces: first that authors are still learning how and audiences are more willing to read works from unknown authors if they resemble more conventional styles of literature. To prove his point, Astor provides examples of works like J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit (1937), Margaret Attwood's The Edible Woman (1969) and Charles Dickens' The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club (1837). Sometimes, instead of writing novels to begin their career, some authors will start with short stories, which are an easier for to publish and allow author's to get their feet wet in writing fiction.
There are numerous literary prizes for debut novels often associated with genre or nationality. These prizes are in recognition of the difficulties faced by debut novelists and bring attention to deserving works and authors. Some of the more prestigious awards around the world include the American Hemingway Foundation/PEN Award, the French Prix Goncourt du Premier Roman, the British Guardian First Book Award, the German Aspekte-Literaturpreis and the Japanese Noma Literary Prize.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the earliest attested usage of "first novel" is from 1876. However, the term is much older, with instances going back to at least 1800. The Oxford English Dictionary doesn't have an entry for "debut novel." The earliest usage of "debut novel" in the Google Books database is 1930 (as of 2011[update]). The Google Books Ngram Viewer shows it becoming more widely used after about 1980, gaining in popularity since.
- "The Big Question: What should you do if you want to get your first novel published? - Features, Books". The Independent. 2008-01-04. Retrieved 2011-05-23.
- Kellaway, Kate (25 March 2007). "Kate Kellaway: That difficult first novel | Books |". The Observer. The Guardian. Retrieved 2011-05-23.
- Kapur, Niraj (26 January 2007). "How to sell your debut novel | Books | guardian.co.uk". The Guardian. Retrieved 2011-05-23.
- Woodroof, Martha (October 08, 2013). "First Novels: The Romance Of Agents". Monkey See (NPR). Retrieved October 9, 2013.
- Astor, David (03/20/2012). Blog. "Many Famous Authors Started With 'Novel 101'". Huffington Post. Retrieved September 23, 2013.
- See entry for "first novel" in OED, Second Edition 1989, online version, accessed June 2011.
- Robert Bisset (1800). Douglas; or, The Highlander,pg. 306. "Her first novel is a pretty and affecting tale".
- American Library Association (1930). A.L.A. Booklist, Volume 27. Publishing Board, League of Library Commissions (U.S.).pg. 423, "A debut novel, mature as to style and composition.."
- Google Books Ngram: debut novel. Last accessed June 2011.