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I am the LORD thy God
The Ten Commandments, also known as the Decalogue, are a set of biblical principles relating to ethics and worship, which play a fundamental role in Judaism and Christianity. They include instructions to worship only God and to keep the sabbath, and prohibitions against idolatry, blasphemy, murder, theft, dishonesty, and adultery. Different groups follow slightly different traditions for interpreting and numbering them.
The Ten Commandments appear twice in the Hebrew Bible, in the books of Exodus and Deuteronomy. According to the story in Exodus, God inscribed them on two stone tablets, which he gave to Moses on Mount Sinai. Modern scholarship has found likely influences in Hittite and Mesopotamian laws and treaties, but is divided over exactly when the Ten Commandments were written and who wrote them.
- 1 Terminology
- 2 Story in Exodus and Deuteronomy
- 3 Traditions for numbering
- 4 Religious interpretations
- 4.1 Judaism
- 4.2 Samaritan
- 4.3 Christianity
- 4.4 Main points of interpretative difference
- 5 Critical historical analysis
- 6 United States debate over display on public property
- 7 Cultural references
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
In biblical Hebrew, the Ten Commandments are called עשרת הדברים (transliterated Asereth ha-D'bharîm) and in Rabbinical Hebrew עשרת הדברות (transliterated Asereth ha-Dibroth), both translatable as "the ten words", "the ten sayings" or "the ten matters". The Tyndale and Coverdale English translations used "ten verses". The Geneva Bible appears to be the first to use "tenne commandements", which was followed by the Bishops' Bible and the Authorized Version (the "King James" version) as "ten commandments". Most major English versions follow the Authorized Version.
The English name "Decalogue" is derived from Greek δεκάλογος, dekalogos, the latter meaning and referring to the Greek translation (in accusative) δέκα λόγους, deka logous, "ten words", found in the Septuagint (or LXX) at Exodus 34:28 and Deuteronomy 10:4.
The stone tablets, as opposed to the commandments inscribed on them, are called לוחות הברית: Luchot HaBrit, meaning "the tablets of the covenant".
Story in Exodus and Deuteronomy
The biblical narrative of the revelation at Sinai begins in Exodus 19 after the arrival of the children of Israel at Mount Sinai, (also called Horeb). In the morning of the "third day" of their encampment, "there were thunders and lightnings, and a thick cloud upon the mount, and the voice of the trumpet exceeding loud", and the people assembled at the base of the mount. After "the LORD came down upon mount Sinai", Moses went up briefly and returned and prepared the people, and then in Exodus 20 "God spoke" to all the people the words of the covenant, "even ten commandments" as it is written.
The people were afraid to hear more and moved "afar off" and even Moses said, "I exceedingly fear and quake". Nevertheless, he drew near the "thick darkness" to hear the additional statutes and "judgments", (Exodus 21–23) all which he "wrote" in the "book of the covenant" which he read to the people the next morning, and they agreed to be obedient and do all that the LORD had said. Moses escorted a select group consisting of Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, and "seventy of the elders of Israel" to a location on the mount where they worshipped "afar off" and they "saw the God of Israel" above a "paved work" like clear sapphire stone. (Exodus 24:1-11)
And the LORD said unto Moses, Come up to me into the mount, and be there: and I will give thee tables of stone, and a law, and commandments which I have written; that thou mayest teach them. 13 And Moses rose up, and his minister Joshua: and Moses went up into the mount of God.—First mention of the tablets in Exodus 24:12,13
The mount was covered by the cloud for six days, after which Moses went into the midst of the cloud and was "in the mount forty days and forty nights." (Exodus 24:16-18) And Moses said, "the LORD delivered unto me two tables of stone written with the finger of God; and on them was written according to all the words, which the LORD spake with you in the mount out of the midst of the fire in the day of the assembly." (Deuteronomy 9:10) Before the full forty days expired, the children of Israel decided that something happened to Moses, and compelled Aaron to fashion a golden calf, and he "built an altar before it" (Ex.32:1–5) and the people "worshipped" the calf. (Ex.32:6–8)
After the full forty days, Moses and Joshua came down from the mountain with the tables of stone: "And it came to pass, as soon as he came nigh unto the camp, that he saw the calf, and the dancing: and Moses' anger waxed hot, and he cast the tables out of his hands, and brake them beneath the mount." (Ex.32:19) After the events in chapters 32 and 33, the LORD told Moses, "Hew thee two tables of stone like unto the first: and I will write upon these tables the words that were in the first tables, which thou brakest." (Ex.34:1) "And he wrote on the tables, according to the first writing, the ten commandments, which the LORD spake unto you in the mount out of the midst of the fire in the day of the assembly: and the LORD gave them unto me." (Deuteronomy 10:4)
According to Jewish tradition, Exodus 20:1–17 constitutes God's first recitation and inscription of the ten commandments on the two tables, which were broken in pieces by Moses, and later rewritten on replacement stones and placed in the ark of the covenant; and Deuteronomy 5:4–20 consists of God's re-telling of the ten commandments to the younger generation who were to enter the promised land. The passages in Exodus 20 and Deuteronomy 5 contain more than ten imperative statements, totalling 14 or 15 in all.
Traditions for numbering
Different religious traditions divide the seventeen verses of Exodus 20:1–17 and their parallels at Deuteronomy 5:4–21 into ten "commandments" or "sayings" in slightly different ways, shown in the table below. The number ten seems to be a choice to aid memorization rather than a matter of theology.
|S||Septuagint, generally followed by Orthodox Christians.|
|P||Philo, same as the Septuagint, but with the prohibitions on killing and adultery reversed.|
|T||Jewish Talmud, makes the "prologue" the first "saying" or "matter" and combines the prohibition on worshiping deities other than Yahweh with the prohibition on idolatry.|
|A||Augustine follows the Talmud in combining verses 3–6, but omits the prologue as a commandment and divides the prohibition on coveting in two and following the word order of Deuteronomy 5:21 rather than Exodus 20:17.|
|C||Catechism of the Catholic Church, largely follows Augustine.|
|L||Lutherans follow Luther's Large Catechism, which follows Augustine but omits the prohibition of images and uses the word order of Exodus 20:17 rather than Deuteronomy 5:21 for the ninth and tenth commandments.|
|R||Reformed Christians follow John Calvin's Institutes of the Christian Religion, which mostly follows Philo.|
|S||P||T||A||C||L||R||Main article||Exodus 20:1-17||Deuteronomy 5:4-21|
|—||—||1||—||1||—||(1)||I am the Lord thy God||2 “I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery.||6 “‘I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery.|
|1||1||2||1||1||1||1||Thou shalt have no other gods before me||3 “You shall have no other gods before me.||7 “‘You shall have no other gods before me.|
|2||2||2||1||1||1||2||Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image||4–6 “You shall not make for yourself a carved image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. You shall not bow down to them or serve them, for I the LORD your God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children to the third and the fourth generation of those who hate me, but showing steadfast love to thousands of those who love me and keep my commandments.||8–10 “‘You shall not make for yourself a carved image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is on the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. You shall not bow down to them or serve them; for I the LORD your God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children to the third and fourth generation of those who hate me, but showing steadfast love to thousands of those who love me and keep my commandments.|
|3||3||3||2||2||2||3||Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain||7 “You shall not take the name of the LORD your God in vain, for the LORD will not hold him guiltless who takes his name in vain.||11 “‘You shall not take the name of the LORD your God in vain, for the LORD will not hold him guiltless who takes his name in vain.|
|4||4||4||3||3||3||4||Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy||8–11 “Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days you shall labor, and do all your work, but the seventh day is a Sabbath to the LORD your God. On it you shall not do any work, you, or your son, or your daughter, your male servant, or your female servant, or your livestock, or the sojourner who is within your gates. For in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested on the seventh day. Therefore the LORD blessed the Sabbath day and made it holy.||12–15 “‘Observe the Sabbath day, to keep it holy, as the LORD your God commanded you. Six days you shall labor and do all your work, but the seventh day is a Sabbath to the LORD your God. On it you shall not do any work, you or your son or your daughter or your male servant or your female servant, or your ox or your donkey or any of your livestock, or the sojourner who is within your gates, that your male servant and your female servant may rest as well as you. You shall remember that you were a slave in the land of Egypt, and the LORD your God brought you out from there with a mighty hand and an outstretched arm. Therefore the LORD your God commanded you to keep the Sabbath day.|
|5||5||5||4||4||4||5||Honour thy father and thy mother||12 “Honor your father and your mother, that your days may be long in the land that the LORD your God is giving you.||16 “‘Honor your father and your mother, as the LORD your God commanded you, that your days may be long, and that it may go well with you in the land that the LORD your God is giving you.|
|6||7||6||5||5||5||6||Thou shalt not kill||13 “You shall not murder.||17 “‘You shall not murder.|
|7||6||7||6||6||6||7||Thou shalt not commit adultery||14 “You shall not commit adultery.||18 “‘And you shall not commit adultery.|
|8||8||8||7||7||7||8||Thou shalt not steal||15 “You shall not steal.||19 “‘And you shall not steal.|
|9||9||9||8||8||8||9||Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour||16 “You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor.||20 “‘And you shall not bear false witness against your neighbor.|
|10||10||10||10||10||9||10||Thou shalt not covet||17a “You shall not covet your neighbor's house;||21b “‘And you shall not desire your neighbor's house, his field,|
|10||10||10||9||9||10||10||Thou shalt not covet||17b “you shall not covet your neighbor's wife,||21a “‘And you shall not covet your neighbor's wife.|
|10||10||10||10||10||10||10||Thou shalt not covet||17c “or his male servant, or his female servant, or his ox, or his donkey, or anything that is your neighbor's.”||21c “or his male servant, or his female servant, his ox, or his donkey, or anything that is your neighbor's.’|
- All scripture quotes above are from the English Standard Version. Click on verses at top of columns for other versions.
The Ten Commandments concern matters of fundamental importance in both Judaism and Christianity: the greatest obligation (to worship only God), the greatest injury to a person (murder), the greatest injury to family bonds (adultery), the greatest injury to commerce and law (bearing false witness), the greatest inter-generational obligation (honor to parents), the greatest obligation to community (truthfulness), the greatest injury to moveable property (theft).
Herbert Huffmon writes that the Ten Commandments were written with room for varying interpretation because they are fundamental. They are not as explicit or detailed as rules and regulations or many other biblical laws and commandments, because they provide guiding principles that apply universally, across changing circumstances. They do not specify punishments for their violation. Their precise import must be worked out in each separate situation.
The Bible indicates the special status of the Ten Commandments among all other Old Testament laws in several ways. They have a uniquely terse style. Of all the biblical laws and commandments, the Ten Commandments alone were "written with the finger of God" (Exodus 31:18). And lastly, the stone tablets were placed in the Ark of the Covenant (Exodus 25:21).
In Judaism, the Ten Commandments provide God's universal and timeless standard of right and wrong, unlike the other 603 commandments in the Torah, which include, for example, various duties and ceremonies such as the kashrut dietary laws and now unobservable rituals to be performed by priests in the Holy Temple. They form the basis of Jewish law. Jewish tradition considers the Ten Commandments the theological basis for the rest of the commandments; a number of works (starting with Rabbi Saadia Gaon) have made groupings of the commandments according to their links with the Ten Commandments.
The traditional Rabbinical Jewish belief is that the observance of these commandments and the other mitzvot are required solely of the Jewish people, and that the laws incumbent on humanity in general are outlined in the seven Noahide laws (several of which overlap with the Ten Commandments). In the era of the Sanhedrin transgressing any one of six of the Ten Commandments theoretically carried the death penalty, the exceptions being the First Commandment, honoring your father and mother, saying God's name in vain, and coveting, though this was rarely enforced due to a large number of stringent evidentiary requirements imposed by the oral law.
The two tablets
The arrangement of the commandments on the two tablets is interpreted in different ways in the classical Jewish tradition. Rabbi Hanina ben Gamaliel says that each tablet contained five commandments, "but the Sages say ten on one tablet and ten on the other". Because the commandments establish a covenant, it is possible that they were duplicated on both tablets. This can be compared to diplomatic treaties of Ancient Egypt, in which a copy was made for each party.
According to the Talmud, the compendium of traditional Rabbinic Jewish law, tradition, and interpretation, one interpretation of the biblical verse "the tablets were written on both their sides", is that the carving went through the full thickness of the tablets, yet was miraculously legible from both sides.
Use In Jewish ritual
During the period of the Second Temple, the Ten Commandments were recited daily. The Mishnah records that in the Temple, it was the practice to recite them every day before the reading of the Shema Yisrael (as preserved, for example, in the Nash Papyrus, a Hebrew manuscript fragment from 150–100 BCE found in Egypt, containing a version of the ten commandments and the beginning of the Shema); but that this practice was abolished in the synagogues so as not to give ammunition to heretics who claimed that they were the only important part of Jewish law, or to dispute a claim by early Christians that only the Ten Commandments were handed down at Mount Sinai rather than the whole Torah.
In later centuries, rabbis continued to omit the Ten Commandments from daily liturgy in order to prevent a confusion among Jews that they are only bound by the Ten Commandments, and not also by many other biblical and talmudic laws, such as the requirement to observe holy days other than the sabbath.
Today, the Ten Commandments are heard in the synagogue three times a year: as they come up during the readings of Exodus and Deuteronomy, and during the festival of Shavuot. The Exodus version is read in parashat Yitro around late January–February, and on the festival of Shavuot, and the Deuteronomy version in parashat Va'etchanan in August–September. In some traditions, worshipers rise for the reading of the Ten Commandments to highlight their special significance though many rabbis, including Maimonides, have opposed this custom since one may come to think that the Ten Commandments are more important than the rest of the Mitzvot.
In printed Chumashim, as well as in those in manuscript form, the Ten Commandments carry two sets of cantillation marks. The ta'am 'elyon (upper accentuation), which makes each Commandment into a separate verse, is used for public Torah reading, while the ta'am tachton (lower accentuation), which divides the text into verses of more even length, is used for private reading or study. The verse numbering in Jewish Bibles follows the ta'am tachton. In Jewish Bibles the references to the Ten Commandments are therefore Exodus 20:2–14 and Deuteronomy 5:6–18.
The Samaritan Pentateuch varies in the Ten Commandments passages, both in that the Samaritan Deuteronomical version of the passage is much closer to that in Exodus, and in the addition of a commandment on the sanctity of Mount Gerizim.
The text of the commandment follows:
- And it shall come to pass when the Lord thy God will bring thee into the land of the Canaanites whither thou goest to take possession of it, thou shalt erect unto thee large stones, and thou shalt cover them with lime, and thou shalt write upon the stones all the words of this Law, and it shall come to pass when ye cross the Jordan, ye shall erect these stones which I command thee upon Mount Gerizim, and thou shalt build there an altar unto the Lord thy God, an altar of stones, and thou shalt not lift upon them iron, of perfect stones shalt thou build thine altar, and thou shalt bring upon it burnt offerings to the Lord thy God, and thou shalt sacrifice peace offerings, and thou shalt eat there and rejoice before the Lord thy God. That mountain is on the other side of the Jordan at the end of the road towards the going down of the sun in the land of the Canaanites who dwell in the Arabah facing Gilgal close by Elon Moreh facing Shechem.
Christians believe the Ten Commandments have divine authority and continue to be valid, though they have different interpretations and uses of them. Through most of Christian history, the decalogue has been considered a summary of God's law and standard of behavior, and has been central to Christian life, piety, and worship.
References in the New Testament
During his Sermon on the Mount, Jesus explicitly referenced the prohibitions against murder and adultery. In Matthew 19:16-19 Jesus repeated five of the Ten Commandments, followed by that commandment called "the second" (Matthew 22:34-40) after the first and great commandment.
And, behold, one came and said unto him, Good Master, what good thing shall I do, that I may have eternal life? And he said unto him, Why callest thou me good? there is none good but one, that is, God: but if thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments. He saith unto him, Which? Jesus said, Thou shalt do no murder, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness, Honour thy father and thy mother: and, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.
Romans 13:8 Owe no man any thing, but to love one another: for he that loveth another hath fulfilled the law.
9 For this, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness, Thou shalt not covet; and if there be any other commandment, it is briefly comprehended in this saying, namely, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.
10 Love worketh no ill to his neighbour: therefore love is the fulfilling of the law.—Romans 13:8-10 KJV
In Roman Catholicism, Jesus freed Christians from Jewish religious law, but not from their obligation to keep the Ten Commandments. They are to the moral order what the creation story is to the natural order.
According to the Catechism of the Catholic Church—the official exposition of the Catholic Church's Christian beliefs—the Commandments are considered essential for spiritual good health and growth, and serve as the basis for social justice. Church teaching of the Commandments is largely based on the Old and New Testaments and the writings of the early Church Fathers. In the New Testament, Jesus acknowledged their validity and instructed his disciples to go further, demanding a righteousness exceeding that of the scribes and Pharisees. Summarized by Jesus into two "great commandments" that teach the love of God and love of neighbor, they instruct individuals on their relationships with both.
The Eastern Orthodox Church holds its moral truths to be chiefly contained in the Ten Commandments. A confession begins with the Confessor reciting the Ten Commandments and asking the penitent which of them he has broken.
Even after rejecting the Roman Catholic moral theology, giving less importance to biblical law in order to better hear and be moved by the gospel, early Protestant theologians still took the Ten Commandments to be the starting point of Christian moral life. Different versions of Christianity have varied in how they have translated the bare principles into the specifics that make up a full Christian ethic. Where Catholicism emphasizes taking action to fulfill the Ten Commandments, Protestantism uses the Ten Commandments for two purposes: to outline the Christian life to each person, and to make each person realize, through their failure to live that life, that they lack the ability to do it on their own.
The Lutheran division of the commandments follows the one established by St. Augustine, following the then current synagogue scribal division. The first three commandments govern the relationship between God and humans, the fourth through eighth govern public relationships between people, and the last two govern private thoughts. See Luther's Small Catechism and Large Catechism.
According to Mormon doctrine, Jesus completed rather than rejected the Mosaic Law. The Ten Commandments are considered eternal gospel principles necessary for exaltation. They appear in the Book of Mosiah and Doctrine and Covenants. In Mosiah, a prophet named Abinadi taught the Ten Commandments in the court of King Noah and was martyred for his righteousness. Abinadi knew the Ten Commandments from the Brass Plates.
|The Ten Commandments in the Book of Mormon||Book of Mosiah|
|I am the Lord thy God. Thou shalt have no other God before me.||Mosiah 12:34 Mosiah 12:35|
|Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing in heaven above, or things which are in the earth beneath.||Mosiah 12:36|
|Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain; for the Lord will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain.||Mosiah 13:15|
|Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy.||Mosiah 13:16|
|Honor thy father and thy mother, that thy days may be long upon the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee.||Mosiah 13:20|
|Thou shalt not kill.||Mosiah 13:21|
|Thou shalt not commit adultery.||Mosiah 13:22|
|Thou shalt not steal.||Mosiah 13:22|
|Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbor.||Mosiah 13:23|
|Thou shalt not covet.||Mosiah 13:24|
New Covenant Theology
New Covenant Theology (NCT) is a recently expressed Christian theological view of redemptive history which claims that all Old Covenant laws have been cancelled in favor of the Law of Christ or New Covenant law of the New Testament. This can be summarized as the ethical expectation found in the New Testament. New Covenant Theology does not reject all religious law, they only reject Old Covenant law. NCT is in contrast with other views on biblical law in that most others do not believe the Ten Commandments and Divine laws of the Old Covenant have been cancelled and prefer the term "Supersessionism" (rather than "cancelled" or "abrogated") for the rest. In 2001, Richard Barcellos, an associate professor and pastor of a Reformed Baptist Church in California, published a critique of NCT for proposing that the Ten Commandments have been cancelled.
Main points of interpretative difference
Sabbath in Christianity is a weekly day of rest or religious observance, derived from the sabbath. Non-Sabbatarianism is the principle of Christian liberty from being bound to physical sabbath observance. Most dictionaries provide both first-day and seventh-day definitions for "sabbath" and "Sabbatarian", among other related uses.
Until the 2nd and 3rd century, Christians kept the Jewish Sabbath, which occurs from Friday night to Saturday night each week. Observing the Sabbath on Sunday, the day of resurrection, gradually became the dominant Christian practice from the Jewish-Roman wars onward. Before then, Christianity was predominantly still a Jewish sect. The Church's general repudiation of Jewish practices during this period is apparent in the Council of Laodicea (4th Century AD) where Canons 37–38 state: "It is not lawful to receive portions sent from the feasts of Jews or heretics, nor to feast together with them" and "It is not lawful to receive unleavened bread from the Jews, nor to be partakers of their impiety".
Canon 29 of the Laodicean council specificially refers to the sabbath: "Christians must not judaize by resting on the [Jewish] Sabbath, but must work on that day, rather honoring the Lord's Day; and, if they can, resting then as Christians. But if any shall be found to be judaizers, let them be anathema (excommunicated) from Christ."
Killing or murder
Multiple translations exist of the fifth/sixth commandment; the Hebrew words לא תרצח (lo tirtzach) are variously translated as "thou shalt not kill" or "thou shalt not murder".
The imperative is against unlawful killing resulting in bloodguilt. The Hebrew Bible contains numerous prohibitions against unlawful killing, but also allows for justified killing in the context of warfare (1Kings 2:5–6), capital punishment (Leviticus 20:9–16) and self-defence (Exodus 22:2–3). The New Testament is in agreement that murder is a grave moral evil, and maintains the Old Testament view of bloodguilt.
You shall not steal
Significant voices among academic theologians (such as German Old Testament scholar Albrecht Alt: Das Verbot des Diebstahls im Dekalog (1953)) suggest that commandment "you shall not steal" was originally intended against stealing people—against abductions and slavery, in agreement with the Talmudic interpretation of the statement as "you shall not kidnap" (Sanhedrin 86a).
In Christianity's earliest centuries, some Christians had informally adorned their homes and places of worship with images of Christ and the saints, while some thought it inappropriate. No church council had ruled on whether such practices constituted idolatry. The controversy reached crisis level in the 8th century, during the period of iconoclasm: the smashing of icons.
In 726, Emperor Leo III ordered all images removed from all churches; in 730, a council forbade veneration of images, citing the Second Commandment; in 787, the Seventh Ecumenical Council reversed the preceding rulings, condemning iconoclasm and sanctioning the veneration of images; in 815, Leo V called yet another council, which reinstated iconoclasm; in 843, Empress Theodora again reinstated veneration of icons. This mostly settled the matter until the Protestant Reformation, when John Calvin declared that the ruling of the Seventh Ecumenical Council "emanated from Satan". Protestant iconoclasts at this time destroyed statues, pictures, stained glass, and artistic masterpieces.
The Eastern Orthodox Church celebrates Theodora's restoration of the icons every year on the First Sunday of Great Lent. Eastern Orthodox tradition teaches that while images of God, the Father, remain prohibited, depictions of Jesus as the incarnation of God as a visible human are permissible. To emphasize the theological importance of the incarnation, the Orthodox Church encourages the use of icons in church and private devotions, but prefers a two-dimensional depiction as a reminder of this theological aspect. Icons depict the spiritual dimension of their subject rather than attempting a naturalistic portrayal. In modern use (usually as a result of Roman Catholic influence), more naturalistic images and images of the Father, however, also appear occasionally in Orthodox churches, but statues, i.e. three-dimensional depictions, continue to be banned.
The Roman Catholic Church holds that one may build and use "likenesses", as long as the object is not worshipped. Many Roman Catholic Churches and services feature images; some feature statues. For Roman Catholics, this practice is understood as fulfilling the Second Commandment, as they understand that these images are not being worshipped.
For Jews and Muslims, veneration violates the Second Commandment. Jews and Muslims read this commandment as prohibiting the use of idols and images in any way.
Some Protestants will picture Jesus in his human form, while refusing to make any image of God or Jesus in Heaven.
Critical historical analysis
Critical scholarship is divided over its interpretation of the ten commandment texts.
The classic form of higher criticism was Julius Wellhausen's documentary hypothesis (see JEDP), first published in 1878. According to his scheme, Exodus 20-23 and 34 were composed by the J or Jehovist writer and "might be regarded as the document which formed the starting point of the religious history of Israel." Deuteronomy 5 would then reflect Josiah's attempt to link the document produced by his court to the older Mosaic tradition.
In a 2002 analysis of the history of this position, Dr. Bernard M. Levinson has argued that this reconstruction assumes a Christian perspective, and dates back to Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's polemic against Judaism, which asserted that religions evolve from the more ritualistic to the more ethical. Goethe thus argued that the Ten Commandments revealed to Moses at Mt. Sinai would have emphasized rituals, and that the "ethical" Decalogue Christians recite in their own churches was composed at a later date, when Israelite prophets had begun to prophesy the coming of the messiah, Jesus Christ. Dr. Levinson points out that there is no evidence, internal to the Hebrew Bible or in external sources, to support this conjecture. He concludes that its vogue among later critical historians represents the persistence of this polemic that the supersession of Judaism by Christianity is part of a longer history of progress from the ritualistic to the ethical.
By the 1930s, historians who accepted the basic premises of multiple authorship had come to reject the idea of an orderly evolution of Israelite religion. Critics instead began to suppose that law and ritual could be of equal importance, while taking different form, at different times. This means that there is no longer any a priori reason to believe that Exodus 20: 2-17 and Exodus 34: 10-28 were composed during different stages of Israelite history. For example, critical historian John Bright also dates the Jahwist texts to the tenth century BCE, but believes that they express a theology that "had already been normalized in the period of the Judges" (i.e. of the tribal alliance). He concurs about the importance of the decalogue as "a central feature in the covenant that brought together Israel into being as a people" but views the parallels between Exodus 20 and Deuteronomy 5, along with other evidence, as reason to believe that it is relatively close to its original form and Mosaic in origin.
According to John Bright, however, there is an important distinction between the Decalogue and the "book of the covenant" (Exodus 21-23 and 34:10–24). The Decalogue, he argues, was modeled on the suzerainty treaties of the Hittites (and other Mesopotamian Empires), that is, represents the relationship between God and Israel as a relationship between king and vassal, and enacts that bond.
"The prologue of the Hittite treaty reminds his vassals of his benevolent acts.. (compare with Exodus 20:2 "I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery.") The Hittite treaty also stipulated the obligations imposed by the ruler on his vassals, which included a prohibition of relations with peoples outside the empire, or enmity between those within."  (Exodus 20:3 "You shall have no other gods before Me.") Viewed as a treaty rather than a law code, its purpose is not so much to regulate human affairs as to define the scope of the king's power.
Julius Morgenstern argued that Exodus 34 is distinct from the Jahwist document, identifying it with king Asa's reforms in 899 BCE. Bright, however, believes that like the Decalogue this text has its origins in the time of the tribal alliance. The book of the covenant, he notes, bears a greater similarity to Mesopotamian law codes (e.g. the Code of Hammurabi which was inscribed on a stone stele). He argues that the function of this "book" is to move from the realm of treaty to the realm of law: "The Book of the Covenant (Ex., chs. 21 to 23; cf. ch. 34), which is no official state law, but a description of normative Israelite judicial procedure in the days of the Judges, is the best example of this process." According to Bright, then, this body of law too predates the monarchy.
Hilton J. Blik writes that the phrasing in the Decalogue`s instructions suggests that it was conceived in a mainly polytheistic milieu, evident especially in the formulation of "no-other-gods-before-me" commandment.
If the Ten Commandments are based on Hittite forms that would date it somewhere between the 14th-12th century BCE. Archaeologists Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman argue that "the astonishing composition came together... in the seventh century BCE". Critical scholar Yehezkel Kaufmann (1960) dates the oral form of the covenant to the time of Josiah. An even later date (after 586 BCE) is suggested by David H. Aaron.
The Ritual Decalogue
Some proponents of the Documentary hypothesis have argued that the biblical text in Exodus 34:28 identifies a different list as the ten commandments, that of Exodus 34:11–27. Since this passage does not prohibit murder, adultery, theft, etc., but instead deals with the proper worship of Yahweh, some scholars call it the "Ritual Decalogue", and disambiguate the ten commandments of traditional understanding as the "Ethical Decalogue".
According to these scholars the Bible includes multiple versions of events. On the basis of many points of analysis including linguistic it is shown as a patchwork of sources sometimes with bridging comments by the editor (Redactor) but otherwise left intact from the original, frequently side by side.
Richard Elliott Friedman argues that the Ten Commandments at Exodus 20:1-17 "does not appear to belong to any of the major sources. It is likely to be an independent document, which was inserted here by the Redactor." In his view, the Covenant Code follows that version of the Ten Commandments in the northern Israel E narrative. In the J narrative in Exodus 34 the editor of the combined story known as the Redactor (or RJE), adds in an explanation that these are a replacement for the earlier tablets which were shattered. "In the combined JE text, it would be awkward to picture God just commanding Moses to make some tablets, as if there were no history to this matter, so RJE adds the explanation that these are a replacement for the earlier tablets that were shattered."
He writes that Exodus 34:14-26 is the J text of the Ten Commandments: "The first two commandments and the sabbath commandment have parallels in the other versions of the Ten Commandments. (Exodus 20 and Deuteronomy 5)... The other seven commandments here are completely different." He suggests that differences in the J and E versions of the Ten Commandments story are a result of power struggles in the priesthood. The writer has Moses smash the tablets "because this raised doubts about the Judah's central religious shrine" 
According to Kaufmann, the Decalogue and the book of the covenant represent two ways of manifesting God's presence in Israel: the Ten Commandments taking the archaic and material form of stone tablets kept in the ark of the covenant, while the book of the covenant took oral form to be recited to the people.
United States debate over display on public property
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There have been recurring disputes in the United States concerning the posting of the ten commandments on public property. Certain conservative religious groups[who?] have taken the banning of officially sanctioned prayer from public schools by the U.S. Supreme Court as a threat to the expression of religion in public life. In response, they have successfully lobbied many state and local governments to display the ten commandments in public buildings. Displaying the commandments can reflect a sectarian position if they are numbered. Protestants and Orthodox, Roman Catholics, and Jews number the commandments differently. However, this problem can be circumvented by omitting the numbers, as was done at the Texas capitol (shown here). Hundreds of these monuments—including some of those causing dispute—were originally placed by director Cecil B. DeMille as a publicity stunt to promote his 1956 film The Ten Commandments.
Others oppose the posting of the ten commandments on public property, arguing that it violates the establishment clause of the First Amendment to the Constitution of the United States.
In contrast, groups supporting the public display of the ten commandments[who?] claim that the commandments are not necessarily religious but represent the moral and legal foundation of society, and are appropriate to be displayed as a historical source of present day legal codes. Also, some[who?] argue that prohibiting the public practice of religion is a violation of the first amendment's guarantee of freedom of religion.
U.S. legislators counter that the ten commandments are derived from Judeo-Christian religions. The statement "Thou shalt have no other gods before me" excludes Hinduism and Zoroastrianism for example, which are not Judeo-Christian, monotheistic religions. Whether the Constitution prohibits the posting of the commandments or not, there are additional political and civil rights issues regarding the posting of what is construed as religious doctrine. Excluding religions that have not accepted the ten commandments creates the appearance of impropriety. The perception that a US state church has been established is viewed as repugnant, the impression being that the intent of the establishment clause regarding freedom of religion is undermined.
In addition, it has been argued if the commandments are posted, it would require that members of other religions be allowed to post the particular tenets of their religions as well. For example, an organization called Summum has won court cases against municipalities in Utah for refusing to allow the group to erect a monument of Summum aphorisms next to the ten commandments. The cases were won on the grounds that Summum's right to freedom of speech was denied and the governments had engaged in discrimination. Instead of allowing Summum to erect its monument, the local governments chose to remove their ten commandments.
Some religious Jews[who?] oppose the posting of the ten commandments in public schools, as they feel it is wrong for public schools to teach their children Judaism. The argument is that if a Jewish parent wishes to teach their child to be a Jew, then this education should come only from practicing Jews. This position is based on the demographic fact that the vast majority of public school teachers in the United States are not Jews; the same is true for the students. This same reasoning and position is also held by many believers in other religions. Many Christians have some concerns about this as well; for example, can Catholic parents count on Protestant or Orthodox Christian teachers to tell their children their particular understanding of the commandments? Differences in the interpretation and translation of these commandments, as noted above, can sometimes be significant.
Organizations such as the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) have launched lawsuits challenging the posting of the ten commandments in public buildings. Opponents of these displays include a number of religious groups, including some Christian denominations,[who?] both because they do not want government to be issuing religious doctrine, and because they feel strongly that the commandments are inherently religious. Many commentators see this issue as part of a wider culture war between liberal and conservative elements in American society. In response to the perceived attacks on traditional society, other legal organizations, such as the Liberty Counsel, have risen to advocate the conservative interpretation.
Two famous films of this name were directed by Cecil B. DeMille, a silent movie released in 1923 starring Theodore Roberts as Moses, and a color VistaVision version of 1956, starring Charlton Heston as Moses. The Decalogue, a 1989 Polish film series directed by Krzysztof Kieślowski, and The Ten, a 2007 American film, use the ten commandments as a structure for 10 smaller stories.
- Alternatives to the Ten Commandments – Secular and humanist alternatives to the biblical lists
- Code of Hammurabi (1772 BCE)
- Code of Ur-Nammu (2050 BCE)
- Five Pillars of Islam
- Five Precepts
- Five Precepts (Taoism)
- Maat, 42 confessions, ' The negative confession ' (1500 BCE) of Papyrus of Ani, also known as The declaration of innocence before the Gods of the tribunal from The book of going forth by day, also Book of the dead
- The Ten Commandments (2007 film)
- Ten Commandments of Computer Ethics
- Ten Conditions of Bai'at
- "UBA: Rosenthaliana 1768" [English: 1768: The Ten Commandments, copied in Amsterdam Jekuthiel Sofer] (in Dutch). Retrieved 26 April 2012.
- Rooker, Mark (2010). The Ten Commandments: Ethics for the Twenty-First Century. Nashville, Tennessee: B&H Publishing Group. p. 3. ISBN 0-8054-4716-4. Retrieved 2011-10-02. "The Ten Commandments are literally the "Ten Words" (ăśeret hadděbārîm) in Hebrew. The use of the term dābār, "word," in this phrase distinguishes these laws from the rest of the commandments (mişwâ), statutes (hōq), and regulations (mišpāţ) in the Old Testament."
- "Exodus 34:28 – multiple versions and languages". Studybible.info. Retrieved 2012-12-09.
- δεκάλογος. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
- "Deuteronomy 10:4 – multiple versions and languages". Studybible.info. Retrieved 2012-12-09.
- When LORD is printed in small caps, it typically represents the so-called Tetragrammaton, a Greek term representing the four Hebrews YHWH which indicates the divine name. This is typically indicated in the preface of most modern translations. For an example, see Crossway Bibles (28 December 2011), "Preface", Holy Bible: English Standard Version, Wheaton: Crossway, p. IX, ISBN 978-1-4335-3087-6, retrieved 19 November 2012
- Deuteronomy 4:13, 5:22
- Hebrews 12:20-21
- Exodus 20:21
- Exodus 24:4
- Exodus 24:7
- Exodus 24:1,9
- Chan, Yiu Sing Lúcás (2012). The Ten Commandments and the Beatitudes. Lantham, MA: Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 38, 241.
- Luther's Large Catechism (1529)
- Herbert Huffmon, "The Fundamental Code Illustrated: The Third Commandment," in The Ten Commandments: The Reciprocity of Faithfulness, ed. William P. Brown., pp. 205–212. Westminster John Knox Press (2004). ISBN 0-664-22323-0
- William Barclay, The Ten Commandments. Westminster John Knox Press (2001), originally The Plain Man's Guide to Ethics (1973). ISBN 0-664-22346-X
- Gail R. O'Day and David L. Petersen, Theological Bible Commentary, p. 34. Westminster John Knox Press (2009) ISBN 0-664-22711-2
- Wayne D. Dosick, Living Judaism: The Complete Guide to Jewish Belief, Tradition, and Practice, pp. 31–33. HarperCollins (1995). ISBN 0-06-062179-6 "There are 603 more Torah commandments. But in giving these ten—with their wise insight into the human condition—God established a standard of right and wrong, a powerful code of behavior, that is universal and timeless."
- Norman Solomon, Judaism, p. 17. Sterling Publishing Company (2009) ISBN 1-4027-6884-2
- Rabbi Ishmael. Horowitz-Rabin (ed.), ed. Mekhilta. pp. 233, Tractate de–ba–Hodesh, 5.
- Margaliot, Dr. Meshulam (July 2004). "What was Written on the Two Tablets?". Bar-Ilan University. Retrieved 2006-09-20.
- Exodus 32:15
- Babylonian Talmud, tractate Shabbat 104a.
- Simon Glustrom, The Myth and Reality of Judaism, pp 113–114. Behrman House (1989). ISBN 0-87441-479-2
- Yerushalmi Berakhot, Chapter 1, fol. 3c. See also Rabbi David Golinkin, Whatever Happened to the Ten Commandments?
- Talmud. tractate Berachot 12a.
- [dead link]
- Gaster, Moses (1923). "The Samaritan Tenth Commandment". The Samaritans, Their History, Doctrines and Literature. The Schweich Lectures.
- Braaten, Carl E.; Seitz, Christopher (2005). "Preface". I Am the Lord Your God. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans. p. x. – via Questia (subscription required)
- Turner, Philip (2005). "The Ten Commandments in the Church in a Postmodern World". In Braaten, Carl E.; Seitz, Christopher. I Am the Lord Your God. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans. p. 3. – via Questia (subscription required)
- Jan Kreeft, Catholic Christianity: A Complete Catechism of Catholic Beliefs based on the Catechism of the Catholic Church, ch. 5. Ignatius Press (2001). ISBN 0-89870-798-6
- Kreeft, Peter (2001). Catholic Christianity. Ignatius Press. ISBN 0-89870-798-6. pp. 201–203 (Google preview p.201)
- Carmody, Timothy R. (2004). Reading the Bible. Paulist Press. ISBN 978-0-8091-4189-0. p. 82
- Paragraph number 2052–2074 (1994). "Catechism of the Catholic Church". Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Retrieved 8 June 2009.
- Kreeft, Peter (2001). Catholic Christianity. Ignatius Press. ISBN 0-89870-798-6. p. 202 (Google preview p.202)
- Schreck, Alan (1999). The Essential Catholic Catechism. Servant Publications. ISBN 1-56955-128-6. p. 303
- Sebastian Dabovich, Preaching in the Russian Church, p. 65. Cubery (1899).
- Alexander Hugh Hore, Eighteen Centuries of the Orthodox Church, p. 36. J. Parker and Co. (1899).
- Timothy Sedgwick, The Christian Moral Life: Practices of Piety, pp. 9–20. Church Publishing (2008). ISBN 1-59627-100-0
- Luther's Small Catechism (1529)
- Olmstead, Thomas F. "The Savior’s Use of the Old Testament". Ensign. Church of Latter-Day Saints. p. 46. Retrieved November 28, 2013.
- "Ten Commandments". Gospel Library. Church of Latter-Day Saints. Retrieved November 28, 2013.
- Cramer, Lew W. (1992). "Abinadi". In Ludlow, Daniel H. Encyclopedia of Mormonism. New York: Macmillan. pp. 5–7. Retrieved November 28, 2013.
- Mosiah 13:11–26 :The Ten Commandments: Some may wonder how Abinadi could have read the Ten Commandments that God gave to Moses. It should be remembered that the brass plates Nephi, son of Lehi obtained contained the five books of Moses (Nephi 5:10–11 ). This record, which would have contained the Ten Commandments, had been passed down by Nephite prophets and record keepers. The previous scriptures were known to King Noah and his priests because they quoted from Isaiah and referred to the law of Moses (see Mosiah 12:20–24, 28).
- ALL Old Testament Laws Cancelled: 24 Reasons Why All Old Testament Laws Are Cancelled and All New Testament Laws Are for Our Obedience, Greg Gibson, 2008, page 7: "New Covenant Theology ... [has]... a better priest, better sacrifice, and better covenant (containing a better law)."
- In Defense of the Decalogue : A Critique of New Covenant Theology, Richard Barcellos, Founder's Press, 2001. Barcellos is an associate professor of New Testament Studies at the Midwest Center for Theological Studies.
- (Hebrew: שַׁבָּת, shabbâth, Hebrew word #7676 in Strong's, meaning intensive "repose").
- Synod of Laodicea (4th Century) – New Advent
- Exodus 20:13 Multiple versions and languages.
- Bloodguilt, Jewish Virtual Library, Genesis 4:10, Genesis 9:6, Genesis 42:22, Exodus 22:2-2, Leviticus 17:4, Leviticus 20, Numbers 20, Deuteronomy 19, Deuteronomy 32:43, Joshua 2:19, Judges 9:24, 1 Samuel 25, 2 Samuel 1, 2 Samuel 21, 1 Kings 2, 1 Kings 21:19, 2 Kings 24:4, Psalm 9:12, Psalm 51:14, Psalm 106:38, Proverbs 6:17, Isaiah 1:15, Isaiah 26:21, Jeremiah 22:17, Lamentations 4:13, Ezekiel 9:9, Ezekiel 36:18, Hosea 4:2, Joel 3:19, Habakkuk 2:8, Matthew 23:30-35, Matthew 27:4, Luke 11:50-51, Romans 3:15, Revelation 6:10, Revelation 18:24
- Matthew 5:21, Matthew 15:19, Matthew 19:19, Matthew 22:7, Mark 10:19, Luke 18:20, Romans 13:9, 1 Timothy 1:9, James 2:11, Revelation 21:8
- Matthew 23:30-35, Matthew 27:4, Luke 11:50-51, Romans 3:15, Revelation 6:10, Revelation 18:24
- Archpriest John W. Morris, The Historic Church: An Orthodox View of Christian History, chapter 7. AuthorHouse (2011) ISBN 1-4567-3492-X
- Alexander Hugh Hore, Eighteen Centuries of the Orthodox Church, J. Parker and co. (1899)
"The images or Icons, as they are called, of the Greek Church are not, it must be remarked, sculptured images, but flat pictures or mosaics; not even the Crucifix is sanctioned; and herein consists the difference between the Greek and Roman Churches, in the latter of which both pictures and statues are allowed, and venerated with equal honour." p.353
- Julius Wellhausen 1973 Prolegomena to the history of Israel Glouster, MA: Peter Smith. 392
- Levinson, Bernard M. (July 2002). "Goethe's Analysis of Exodus 34 and Its Influence on Julius Wellhausen: The Pfropfung of the Documentary Hypothesis". Zeitschrift für die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 114 (2): 212–223
- John Bright 1972 A History of Israel Second Edition. Philadelphia: the Westminster Press. 142-143
4th edition p.146-147 ISBN 0-664-22068-1
- Bright, John, 2000, ''A History of Israel'' 4th ed. p.146. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-12-09.
- John Bright 1972 A History of Israel Second Edition. Philadelphia: the Westminster Press. 142 4th ed. p.146+
- John Bright 1972 A History of Israel Second Edition. Philadelphia: the Westminster Press. 146-147 4th ed. p.150-151
- Cornfeld, Gaalyahu Ed Pictorial Biblical Encyclopedia, MacMillan 1964 p 237
- John Bright 1972 A History of Israel Second Edition. Philadelphia: the Westminster Press. 165 4th ed. p.169-170
- Morgenstern, Julius (1927), The Oldest Document of the Hexateuch IV, HUAC
- Bright, John, 2000, ''A History of Israel'' 4th ed. p.173. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-12-09.
- John Bright 1972 A History of Israel Second Edition. Philadelphia: the Westminster Press. 166 4th ed. p.170+
- "The point here being underscored is that the Decalogue represents an earlier stage in the development of this tradition, and the Ten Commandments, when critically viewed, do not only NOT demand a monotheistic adherence, they clearly presuppose and affirm a polytheistic reality! Those who attempt to impose a principle of monotheism on the Ten Commandments are simply anticipating the historical development of the tradition ahead of its time and are thus already assuming what they pretend to discover." ("Tyranny, Taboo, and the Ten Commandments - The Decalogue Decoded And Its Impact on Civil Society", Hilton J. Bik, Xlibris Corporation 2008, p.199).
- Israel Finkelstein, Neil Asher Silberman (2002). The Bible Unearthed. p 63. ISBN 0-7432-2338-1
- Israel Finkelstein, Neil Asher Silberman (2002). The Bible Unearthed, p. 70.
- Yehezkal Kaufmann 1960 The Religion of Israel: From its beginnings to the Babylonian Exile trans. and Abridged by Moshe Greenberg. New York: Schocken Books 174-175.
- PDF (99.8 KB), The Chronicle, Hebrew Union College - Jewish Institute of Religion, Issue 68, 2006, p. 42. "a critical survey of biblical literature demonstrates no cognizance of the ten commandments prior to the post-exilic period (after 586 B.C.E.)"
- Exodus 34:28
- Exodus 34:11–27
- The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha. Augmented Third Edition, New Revised Standard Version, 2007
- The Hebrew Bible: A Brief Socio-Literary Introduction. Norman Gottwald, 2008
- Dictionary of the Old Testament: Pentateuch. T. Desmond Alexander and David Weston Baker, 2003
- Commentary on the Torah. Richard Elliott Friedman, 2003
- Friedman, Richard Elliott The Bible with Sources Revealed 2003 p 7
- Friedman, Richard Elliott The Bible with Sources Revealed 2003 page 153
- Friedman, Richard Elliott "The Bible with Sources Revealed 2003 page 177
- Friedman, Richard Elliott The Bible with Sources Revealed 2003 page 179
- Friedman, Richard Elliott "Who Wrote The Bible?" 1987 pp 73-4
- "MPR: The Ten Commandments: Religious or historical symbol?". News.minnesota.publicradio.org. 2001-09-10. Retrieved 2012-12-09.
- The Ten (2007) - IMDb
- Aaron, David H (2006). Etched in Stone: The Emergence of the Decalogue. Continuum. ISBN 0-567-02791-0.
- Abdrushin (2009). The Ten Commandments of God and the Lord's Prayer. Grail Foundation Press. ISBN 1-57461-004-X. http://the10com.org/index.html
- Barenboim, Peter (2005), Biblical Roots of Separation of Powers, Moscow: Letny Sad, ISBN 5-94381-123-0.
- Freedman, David Noel (2000). The Nine Commandments. Uncovering a Hidden Pattern of Crime and Punishment in the Hebrew Bible. Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-49986-8.
- Friedman, Richard Elliott (1987). Who Wrote the Bible?. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-671-63161-6.
- Hazony, David (2010). The Ten Commandments: How Our Most Ancient Moral Text Can Renew Modern Life. New York: Scribner. ISBN 1-4165-6235-4.
- Kaufmann, Yehezkel (1960). The Religion of Israel, From Its Beginnings To the Babylonian Exile. trans. Moshe Greenberg. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
- Kuntz, Paul Grimley (2004). The Ten Commandments in History: Mosaic Paradigms for a Well-Ordered Society. Wm B Eerdmans Publishing, Emory University Studies in Law and Religion. ISBN 0-8028-2660-1.
- Markl, Dominik (2012): "The Decalogue in History: A Preliminary Survey of the Fields and Genres of its Reception", in: Zeitschrift für Altorientalische und Biblische Rechtsgeschichte - vol. 18, nº., pp. 279–293. (pdf)
- Markl, Dominik (ed.) (2013). The Decalogue and its Cultural Influence. Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix Press. ISBN 978-1-909697-06-5.
- Mendenhall, George E (2001). Ancient Israel's Faith and History: An Introduction To the Bible In Context. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 0-664-22313-3.
- Mendenhall, George E (1973). The Tenth Generation: The Origins of the Biblical Tradition. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-1267-4.
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- Ten Commandments: Ex. 20 version (text, mp3), Deut. 5 version (text, mp3) in The Hebrew Bible in English by Jewish Publication Society, 1917 ed.