Declaration of independence

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A declaration of independence or declaration of statehood is an assertion by a defined territory that it is independent and constitutes a state. Such places are usually declared from part or all of the territory of another nation or failed nation, or are breakaway territories from within the larger state. In 2010, UN's International Court of Justice ruled in the an advisory opinion in Kosovo that "International law contains no prohibition on declarations of independence",[1] though the state from which the territory wishes to secede may regard the declaration as rebellion, which may lead to a war of independence or a constitutional settlement to resolve the crisis. Not all declarations of independence succeed in the formation of an independent state.

Such declarations are typically made without the consent of the associated state or union, and hence are sometimes called unilateral declarations of independence (UDIs), particularly by those who question the declarations' validity.[citation needed]

List of declarations of independence[edit]

Region Declaration Date Year Association Signatories First recognising state
Albania Albanian Declaration of Independence November 28 1912 Ottoman Empire Assembly of Vlorë
United Provinces of South America
(present day Argentina, Uruguay and Bolivia)
Argentine Declaration of Independence July 9 1816 Spain Congress of Tucumán Kingdom of Hawaii
Armenia Democratic Republic of Armenia May 28 1918 Russian Empire Armenian Congress of Eastern Armenians Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF Dashnak) Russia
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan Democratic Republic May 28 1918 Russian Empire Azerbaijani National Council (Hasan bey Aghayev, Fatali Khan Khoyski, Nasib Yusifbeyli, Jamo bey Hajinski, Şefi bey Rustambeyli, Nariman bey Narimanbeyov, Javad Malik-Yeganov, Mustafa Mahmudov) Ottoman Empire
Azawad Azawadi declaration of independence April 6 2012 Mali National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad
Bangladesh Bangladeshi Declaration of Independence March 26 1971 Pakistan Bhutan
Belarus Belavezha Accords December 8 1991 Soviet Union Presidents of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus Turkey
Belgium Belgian Declaration of Independence October 4 1830 Netherlands Provisional Government of Belgium
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian Declaration of Independence March 1 1992 Yugoslavia Bulgaria
Brazil Independence of Brazil September 7 1822 Portugal Pedro I of Brazil United States
Bulgaria Bulgarian Declaration of Independence September 22 1908 Ottoman Empire Ferdinand of Bulgaria and the Government of Bulgaria Russian Empire (5 February 1909)
Republic of Carpathian Ruthenia Carpathian Ruthenia Declaration of Independence October 25 2008 Ukraine Congress of Carpathian Ruthenians
Catalonia Declaration of the Catalan Republic as a state of the Iberian Federation April 14 1931 Spain Francesc Macià, Generalitat Government of Catalonia
Catalonia Declaration of the Catalan state within the Federal Republic of Spain October 6 1934 Spain Lluis Companys, Generalitat Government of Catalonia
Central America Act of Independence of Central America September 15 1821 Spain
Chile Chilean Declaration of Independence February 12 1818 Spain National Congress Portugal
Colombia Colombian Declaration of Independence July 20 1810 Spain
Republic of Crimea Declaration of Independence of the Republic of Crimea March 11 2014 Ukraine Supreme Council of Crimea Russia
Croatia Independence of Croatia June 25 1991 Yugoslavia Iceland
Dominican Republic Dominican Declaration of Independence February 27 1844 Haiti United Kingdom
East Timor East Timorese declaration of independence November 28 1975 Portugal Morocco
Egypt Unilateral Declaration of Egyptian Independence February 28 1922 United Kingdom Unilateral grant of independence by the British government United Kingdom
Estonia Estonian Declaration of Independence February 24 1918 Russia Salvation Committee Russian SFSR
Estonia Estonian Reconfirmation of Independence August 20 1991 Soviet Union Congress of Estonia Iceland (reconfirmed earlier recognition)
Finland Finnish Declaration of Independence December 6 1917 Russia Parliament of Finland Russian SFSR
Florida Florida's Constitution of 1861 January 10 1861 United States Florida State Legislature
Georgia Democratic Republic of Georgia May 26 1918 Russian Empire Germany
Georgia (U.S. state) Georgia's secession declaration January 29 1861 United States
Greece Greek Declaration of Independence January 1 OS 1822 Ottoman Empire First National Assembly Haiti (1822)
Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau Declaration of Independence September 24 1973 Portugal
Haiti Haitian Declaration of Independence January 1 1804 France Jean-Jacques Dessalines
Hungary Hungarian Declaration of Independence April 14 1849 Austrian Empire
Iceland Icelandic Declaration of Independence June 17 1944 Denmark United States
Iraq Iraq Declaration of Independence October 3 1932 United Kingdom United Kingdom
India Indian Independence Act 1947 August 15 1947 United Kingdom
Indonesia Proclamation of Indonesian Independence August 17 1945 Netherlands Sukarno & Mohammad Hatta Egypt
Ireland Proclamation of the Irish Republic April 24 1916 United Kingdom Irish Volunteers
Irish Citizen Army
Irish Republic Irish Declaration of Independence January 21 1919 United Kingdom Dáil Éireann Russian SFSR
Israel Israeli Declaration of Independence May 14 1948 United Kingdom Jewish People's Council United States
Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus Northern Epirote Declaration of Independence February 28 1914 Principality of Albania Provisional Government of Northern Epirus
Katanga Katangan Declaration of Independence 1960 Congo (Léopoldville)
Korea Korean Declaration of Independence March 1 1919 Japan
Republic of Kosovo Kosovo declaration of independence February 17 2008 Serbia Assembly of Kosovo Afghanistan
Republic of Kosova Proclamation of the Republic of Kosova September 22 1992 Serbia Provincial Assembly of Kosovo Albania
Republic of Lakotah Republic of Lakotah declaration of independence December 19 2007 United States of America Lakota Freedom Delegation
Latvia On the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia May 4 1990 Soviet Union Supreme Soviet of the Latvian SSR Iceland
Liberia Liberian Declaration of Independence July 16 1847 American Colonization Society Liberian Constitutional Convention United Kingdom
Lithuania Act of Independence of Lithuania February 16 1918 Germany, Russia Council of Lithuania Germany
Lithuania Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania March 11 1990 Soviet Union Supreme Council of Lithuania Iceland
Republic of Macedonia Independence of the Republic of Macedonia September 8 1991 Yugoslavia Bulgaria
Federation of Malaya
(present day Malaysia)
Federation of Malaya Independence Act 1957 August 31 1957 United Kingdom Tunku Abdul Rahman, Prime Minister of Malaysia United Kingdom[2]
Mississippi A Declaration of the Immediate Causes which Induce and Justify the Secession of the State of Mississippi from the Federal Union January 9 1861 United States
First Mexican Empire
(present day Mexico)
Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire
(real independence)
September 28 1821 Spain Supreme Provisional Governmental Board United Kingdom (January 4, 1825)[3]
Moldova Declaration of Independence of the Republic of Moldova August 27 1991 Soviet Union Parliament of the Republic of Moldova Romania
Morocco Moroccan Declaration of Independence January 11 1944 France Istiqlal Party
Montenegro Montenegro declaration of independence June 3 2006 Serbia and Montenegro Assembly of the Republic of Montenegro Iceland
Moskitia Moskitia declaration of independence August 2009 Nicaragua
Netherlands Act of Abjuration July 26 1581 Spanish Empire Union of Utrecht
New Zealand Declaration of the Independence of New Zealand October 28 1835 Māori chiefs United Kingdom[4]
Northern America
(present day Mexico)
Solemn Act of the Declaration of Independence of Northern America November 6 1813 Spain Congress of Anáhuac
Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus Declaration of Independence of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus November 15 1983 Cyprus Turkey
Norway Constitution of Norway May 17 1814 Union according to Treaty of Kiel Constitutional assembly
Padania Padanian Declaration of Independence September 15 1996 Italy
Pakistan Indian Independence Act 1947 August 14 1947 United Kingdom, British India Muslim League (Pakistan)
Palestine Palestinian Declaration of Independence November 15 1988 Palestinian territories Palestinian National Council Arab League
Peru Act of the Declaration of Independence of Peru July 28 1821 Spain José de San Martín
Philippines Philippine Declaration of Independence June 12 1898 Spain Emilio Aguinaldo, Katipunan none
Rhodesia Rhodesian Unilateral Declaration of Independence November 11 1965 United Kingdom Ian Smith and the rest of the Cabinet none
Romania Romanian Declaration of Independence May 22 1877 Ottoman Empire King Carol I
Russia Belavezha Accords (de facto)
Officially never declared "independence", to become successor to the Soviet Union.
December 8 1991 Soviet Union Presidents of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Bir Lehlou declaration February 27 1976 Spanish Sahara Polisario Front Madagascar
Kingdom of Scotland Declaration of Arbroath April 6 1320 Kingdom of England Scottish leaders
Serbia The Proclamation (Proglašenije/Проглашеније) February 1809 Ottoman Empire Karađorđe Petrović and Serbian MPs
Singapore Proclamation of Singapore[5] August 9 1965 Malaysia[6][7] Lee Kuan Yew, Prime Minister of Singapore United Kingdom (confirmed earlier recognition)[8]
Slovakia Slovak National Council's Declaration of Independence of the Slovak Nation July 17 1992 Czechoslovakia Slovak National Council
Slovenia Slovenian Declaration of Independence June 25 1991 Yugoslavia Croatia
Somaliland Somaliland Declaration of Independence May 18 1991 Somalia none
South Carolina Declaration of the Immediate Causes Which Induce and Justify the Secession of South Carolina from the Federal Union December 24 1860 United States South Carolinians in Charleston
Southern Cameroons Southern Cameroons Declaration of Independence December 31 1999 Cameroon none
Sri Lanka Declaration of Independence of Sri Lanka (Then known as "Ceylon") February 4 1948 United Kingdom none
Texas, Republic of Texas Declaration of Independence March 2 1836 Mexico France
Texas A Declaration of the Causes which Impel the State of Texas to Secede from the Federal Union February 1 1861 United States Texas Legislature
Tibet Tibet's Declaration of Independence   1913 China 13th Dalai Lama none
Turkmenistan Declaration of independence   1991 Soviet Union none Turkey
Ukraine Declaration of Independence of Ukraine August 24 1991 Soviet Union Verkhovna Rada Poland/Canada[9]
United States United States Declaration of Independence July 4 1776 Great Britain Second Continental Congress France 1778
Uzbekistan Declaration of Independence August 31 1991 Soviet Union Supreme Council of Uzbekistan Turkey
Venezuela Venezuelan Declaration of Independence July 5 1811 Kingdom of Spain Representatives of the States of Venezuela
Vietnam Proclamation of Independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam September 2 1945 France Hồ Chí Minh Soviet Union
Lower Canada Declaration of Independence of Lower Canada February 22 1838 Great Britain Robert Nelson none

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References[edit]