Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire
The Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire (Spanish: Acta de Independencia del Imperio Mexicano) is the foundational document of the empire, and therefore, of the Mexican nation. The morning after the Army of the Three Guarantees entered Mexico City on September 28, 1821, Agustín de Iturbide ordered the Supreme Provisional Governmental Junta (September 1821-February 1822) to meet to elect a president of the Imperial Regency and to issue a declaration of independence for the new nation. Iturbide was elected president of the Regency, and that afternoon the members of the Regency and the Supreme Junta signed the Declaration.
Declaration of the Independence of Mexican Empire
Text of the Declaration
Declaration of the independence of the Mexican Empire, issued by its Sovereign Junta, assembled in the Capital on September 28, 1821.
The Mexican Nation, which for three hundred years had neither had its own will, nor free use of its voice, leaves today the oppression in which it has lived.
The heroic efforts of its sons have been crowned today, and consummated is an eternal and memorable enterprise, which a spirit superior to all admiration and praise, out of love and for the glory of its Country started in Iguala, continued, and brought to fruition, overcoming almost insurmountable obstacles.
Restored then this part of the North to the exercise of all the rights given by the Author of Nature and recognized as unalienable and sacred by the civilized nations of the Earth, in liberty to constitute itself in the manner which best suits its happiness and through representatives who can manifest its will and plans, it begins to make use of such precious gifts and solemnly declares by means of the Supreme Junta of the Empire that it is a Sovereign nation and independent of old Spain with which henceforth it will maintain no other union besides a close friendship in the terms prescribed by the treaties; that it will establish friendly relationships with other powers, executing regarding them whatever declarations the other sovereign nations can execute; that it will constitute itself in accordance to the bases which in the Plan of Iguala and the Treaty of Córdoba the First Chief of the Imperial Army of the Three Guarantees wisely established and which it will uphold at all costs and with all sacrifice of the means and lives of its members (if necessary); this solemn declaration, is made in the capital of the Empire on the twenty-eighth of September of the year one thousand eight hundred and twenty-one, first of Mexican Independence.
Biographical information is given along with their names.
Members of the Supreme Provisional Governmental Junta
- Antonio Joaquín Pérez Martínez, bishop of Puebla de los Ángeles.
- Juan O'Donojú, lieutenant general of the Spanish armies, Great Cross of the Orders of Charles III y San Hermenegildo.
- José Mariano de Almanza, counsel of State.
- Manuel de la Bárcena, archdeacon of the Holy Cathedral Church of Valladolid and governor of said bishopric.
- Matías Monteagudo, rector of the National University, canon of the Holy Metropolitan Church of Mexico and presbyter of the Oratory of Saint Philip Neri.
- José Isidro Yáñez, oidor of the Audiencia of Mexico.
- Juan Francisco Azcárate y Lezama, lawyer before the Audiencia of Mexico and Second Syndic of the Constitutional Ayuntamiento.
- Juan José Espinosa de los Monteros, lawyer before the Audiencia of Mexico and civil prosecutor.
- José María Fagoaga, honorary oidor of the Audiencia of Mexico.
- Miguel Guridi y Alcocer, parish priest of the Holy Church of the Tabernacle of Mexico City.
- Francisco Severo Maldonado, former parish priest of Mascota and Jalostotitlán in the Bishopric of Guadalajara.
- Miguel Cervantes y Velasco, Marqués de Salvatierra and Armory Knight of Ronda.
- Manuel de Heras Soto, Conde de Casa de Heras, lieutenant colonel.
- Juan Lobo, merchant and former regidor of the City of Veracruz.
- Francisco Manuel Sánchez de Tagle, regidor of the Ayuntamiento and secretary of the Academy of San Carlos.
- Antonio Gama, lawyer before the Audiencia and major collegiate of Santa María de Todos los Santos of Mexico City.
- José Manuel Sartorio, bachelor presbyter cleric of the Archbishopric.
- Manuel Velázquez de León, former secretary of the viceroyalty, honorary intendant of the province and treasurer of bulls, named in Spain as director of the Public Treasury of Mexico and counsel of State.
- Manuel Montes Argüelles, hacendado of Orizaba.
- Manuel Sotarriva, brigadier of the national armies, colonel of the infantry regiment of the Crown and Knight of the Order of San Hermenegildo.
- José Mariano Sandaneta, Marqués de San Juan de Rayas, Knight of the Order of Charles III and member of the Censory Board of the Freedom of the Press.
- Ignacio García Illueca, lawyer before the Audiencia of Mexico, retired sergeant major and substitute in the provincial deputation.
- José Domingo Rus y Ortega, oidor of the Audiencia of Guadalajara, native of Maracaibo, Venezuela.
- José María Bustamante, retired lieutenant colonel.
- José María Cervantes y Velasco, retired colonel, former Conde de Santiago Calimaya, title which he granted to his son, José Juan Cervantes, because it was incompatible with other majorats.
- Juan María Cervantes y Padilla, retired colonel, uncle of José María Cervantes y Velasco.
- José Manuel Velázquez de la Cadena, retired captain, lord of the Villa de Yecla, Spain, and regidor of the Ayuntamiento of Mexico City.
- Juan Horbegoso, colonel of the national armies.
- Nicolás Campero, retired lieutenant colonel.
- Pedro José Romero de Terreros, Conde de Jala y Regla, Marqués de San Cristóbal y de Villa Hermosa de Alfaro, gentil hombre de cámara con entrada y capitán de albarderos de la guardia del Virrey.
- José María Echevers Valdivieso Vidal de Lorca, Marqués de San Miguel de Aguayo y Santa Olaya.
- Manuel Martínez Mancilla, oidor of the Audiencia of Mexico.
- Juan B. Raz y Guzmán, lawyer before and prosecutor of the Audiencia of Mexico.
- José María Jáuregui, lawyer before the Audiencia of Mexico.
- Rafael Suárez Pereda, lawyer before the Audiencia of Mexico and juez de letras.
- Anastasio Bustamante, colonel of the Army of Dragoons of San Luis.
- Ignacio Icaza, former Jesuit.
- Manuel Sánchez Enciso.
Members of the Regency of the Empire
- Agustín de Iturbide, First regent.
- Juan O'Donojú, Second regent.
- Manuel de la Bárcena, Third regent.
- José Isidro Yañez, Fourth regent.
- Manuel Velásquez de León, Fifth regent.
- Riva Palacio, Vicente México Independiente. p.11-12
- Vicente Riva Palacio (1880) México a través de los siglos Volume IV: "México Independiente". Mexico City, Cumbre.
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- México in documents Photograph of the original Act of Independence of the Mexican Empire of the Nation's General Archive
- Acta de Independencia del Imperio mexicano. 500 años de México en documentos. Consulted on 4 November 2009.