Deep Blue versus Kasparov, 1996, Game 1

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IBM's Deep Blue
World Champion Garry Kasparov

Deep Blue–Kasparov, 1996, Game 1 is a famous chess game in which a computer played against a human being. It was the first game played in the 1996 Deep Blue versus Garry Kasparov match, and the first time that a chess-playing computer defeated a reigning world champion under normal chess tournament conditions (in particular, standard time control; in this case 40 moves in two hours).


Overview[edit]

Deep Blue was a computer developed by IBM to beat grandmaster Garry Kasparov, the top chess player in the world at the time according to Elo ratings. Playing White, Deep Blue won this first game in the match on February 10, 1996 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Kasparov rebounded over the next five games, winning three and drawing two, to soundly beat the machine in the 1996 match.

The game[edit]

White: Deep Blue   Black: Garry Kasparov   Opening: Sicilian Defense (ECO B22)

a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
a8 black rook
e8 black king
h8 black rook
a7 black pawn
b7 black pawn
f7 black pawn
g7 black pawn
h7 black pawn
c6 black knight
e6 black pawn
f6 black knight
d5 black queen
h5 black bishop
b4 black bishop
d4 white pawn
e3 white bishop
f3 white knight
h3 white pawn
a2 white pawn
b2 white pawn
e2 white bishop
f2 white pawn
g2 white pawn
a1 white rook
b1 white knight
d1 white queen
f1 white rook
g1 white king
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
Position after 10...Bb4

1. e4 c5 2. c3

It is more common to play 2.Nf3, but Kasparov has deep experience with that line, so White's opening book goes in a different direction. The IBM team determined the opening moves played by Deep Blue.

2... d5 3. exd5 Qxd5 4. d4 Nf6 5. Nf3 Bg4 6. Be2 e6 7. h3 Bh5 8. 0-0 Nc6 9. Be3 cxd4 10. cxd4 Bb4 (see diagram)

A more common move here is Be7. This was a new approach by Kasparov, developing the bishop in an unusual way. If 11.Nc3 Qa5 12.Qb3 then the game transposes into a game Kasparov previously played against Kramnik. The merit of the new move is debated. After this move, the computer left its opening book and began calculating its moves.

11. a3 Ba5 12. Nc3 Qd6 13. Nb5 Qe7 14. Ne5! Bxe2 15. Qxe2 0-0 16. Rac1 Rac8 17. Bg5

Black now has a problem with the pinned knight on f6.

17... Bb6 18. Bxf6 gxf6

Kasparov avoids ...Qxf6? because White would gain material with 19.Nd7. Note that Kasparov's king is now far more exposed.
a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
c8 black rook
d8 black rook
g8 black king
b7 black pawn
f7 black pawn
h7 black pawn
b6 black pawn
c6 black knight
e6 black pawn
f6 black queen
b5 white knight
f5 black pawn
d4 white pawn
a3 white pawn
e3 white queen
h3 white pawn
b2 white pawn
f2 white pawn
g2 white pawn
c1 white rook
d1 white rook
g1 white king
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7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
Position after 22...Qf6

19. Nc4!

Black cannot take the d4-pawn due to Qg4+.
a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
g8 black rook
h8 black king
b7 white knight
f7 black pawn
h7 black pawn
f6 black queen
d5 white queen
e5 black knight
d4 black pawn
a3 white pawn
b3 white pawn
f3 black pawn
g3 white pawn
h3 white pawn
f2 white pawn
c1 white rook
g1 white king
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
Position after 31.g3. The seemingly crushing move 31...Qf4 doesn't work, so Kasparov plays 31...Nd3 instead.

19... Rfd8 20. Nxb6! axb6 21. Rfd1 f5 22. Qe3!

This is an excellent square for White's queen.

22... Qf6 (see diagram) 23. d5!

This type of pawn sacrifice is typical of Kasparov's style of play. Kasparov commented that he might have played 23.d5 himself in this position, since it hurts Black's pawn structure and opens up the board, and Black's exposed king suggests that there is probably a way to exploit the result.[citation needed] Kasparov has been attacking White's d-pawn, and the computer wisely decides to advance it for an attack instead of trying to defend it.

23... Rxd5 24. Rxd5 exd5 25. b3! Kh8?

Kasparov attempts to prepare a counterattack by preparing to move his rook to the g-file, but it will not work. Burgess suggests that 25...Ne7 26.Rxc8+ would have been better, though White would still have some advantage.[1] Keene suggests that 25...Rd8! 26.Qxb6 Rd7 was Black's best try, strengthening his passed d-pawn and queenside.[2]

26. Qxb6 Rg8 27. Qc5

Black was threatening 27...Qg5 forking g2 and the white rook.

27... d4 28. Nd6 f4 29. Nxb7

This is a very materialistic move, typical of computers; White grabs an undeveloped pawn for a small gain in material. However, Deep Blue has not identified any threat of checkmate from Black, so it simply acquires the material.

29... Ne5 30. Qd5

30.Qxd4?? would lose to 30...Nf3+. If White tries 30.Nd6 with the idea of 31.Qxe5 winning the knight, Black gets decisive pressure on the g-file after 30...Nf3+ 31.Kh1 Qg6. Kasparov later commented on his opponent: "My late game attack would intimidate many players into making a mistake or two, but not this one."
a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
h7 white rook
f6 black queen
h6 black king
d5 white queen
g5 white knight
d4 black pawn
a3 white pawn
b3 white pawn
f3 black pawn
g3 white pawn
h3 white pawn
f2 black knight
h2 white king
e1 black rook
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7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
Final position after 37.Rxh7+

30... f3 31. g3 (see diagram) Nd3

It seems as though Black could annihilate White with 31...Qf4, threatening both ...Qxc1+ and 32.Kh2 Rxg3!! winning. But instead White could play 32.Rc8!! and turn the tables on Black. Kasparov may have seen this and planned 32...Qg5 33.h4 Rxc8!! 34.hxg5 Rc1+ 35.Kh2 Ng4+ 36.Kh3 Nxf2+ and mate next move, however Deep Blue could then spoil everything with 33.Rc5.[3]

32. Rc7 Re8

Kasparov is attacking, but the computer has correctly determined that the attack is not a real threat.

33. Nd6 Re1+ 34. Kh2 Nxf2 35. Nxf7+ Kg7

35...Qxf7 36.Qd8+ and White wins.

36. Ng5+ Kh6 37. Rxh7+ 1–0

After 37...Kg6 38.Qg8+ Kf5 39.Nxf3, Black cannot meet the simultaneous threats of 40.Nxe1, 40.Rf7 and 40.Qd5+. Kasparov resigned.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Burgess, Nunn, & Emms, 2004, p. 539
  2. ^ Keene (2005), p. 112
  3. ^ Keene (2005), pp. 112–13

References[edit]