Borders of Canada

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The international border between Canada and the United States, with Yukon on one side and Alaska on the other, circa 1900-1923[1]

The borders of Canada include the longest shared border in the world, 8,893 km (5,526 mi) with the United States[2] as well as a long maritime boundary with the autonomous Danish territory of Greenland, and a short maritime border with the autonomous French overseas islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon.

United States[edit]

Canada shares borders with the United States in 8 out of 13 provinces and territories. The provinces and territories that do not share a border with the United States share a provincial border with at least one that does except for Prince Edward Island.

Yukon[edit]

The border begins at the Beaufort Sea at 69°39′N, 141°00′W and proceeds southwards along the 141st meridian west. At 60°18′N, the border proceeds away from the 141st meridian west in a southeastwardly direction and follows the St. Elias Mountains. South of the 60th parallel north, the border continues into British Columbia. The entire Canada–U.S. border in Yukon is shared with the U.S. state of Alaska.

British Columbia[edit]

British Columbia has two international borders with the United States; one with the state of Alaska, and one at the southern end with the northwestern continental United States.

The former, continuing from the Yukon-Alaska border, proceeds through the St. Elias Mountains. Afterwards, at Mt. Fairweather at 58°54′N, 137°31′W, the border heads northwestwards towards the Coast Mountains. Afterwards, at 59°48′N, 135°28′W, the border heads in a generally southeastwardly direction along the Coast Mountains. The border eventually reaches the Portland Canal, and follows it outward to the Dixon Entrance. The border then follows the Dixon Entrance out into the Pacific Ocean, and terminates upon reaching international waters.

The latter begins at the terminus of international waters in the Pacific Ocean southwest of Vancouver Island and northwest of the Olympic Peninsula. It follows the Strait of Juan de Fuca eastward and then turns northeastward to enter Haro Strait. The border follows this strait in a northerly direction and turns sharply in an easterly direction through Boundary Pass, separating the Canadian Gulf Islands from the American San Juan Islands. Upon reaching the Strait of Georgia, the border turns due north and then to a northwesterly direction, bisecting this strait until the 49th parallel north. At this parallel, the border makes a sharp turn to a due eastbound direction, and follows the parallel into land, and continues into Alberta. This border, going from west to east, is shared with the U.S. states of Washington, Idaho, and Montana.

Alberta[edit]

The entire Canada-U.S. border in the Canadian province of Alberta lies on the 49th parallel north. This border, going from west to east, is shared with the U.S. state of Montana.

Saskatchewan[edit]

The entire Canada-U.S. border in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan lies on the 49th parallel north. This border, going from west to east, is shared with the U.S. states of Montana and North Dakota.

Manitoba[edit]

Nearly the entire Canada-U.S. border in the Canadian province of Manitoba lies on the 49th parallel north. At the eastern end, however, the border briefly enters the Lake of the Woods, turns north at 48°59′N, 95°09′W, continues into land along the western end of Minnesota's Northwest Angle, and continues into Ontario at 49°23′N, 95°09′W. This border, going from west to east, is shared with the U.S. states of North Dakota and Minnesota.

Ontario[edit]

The border begins at the northwesternmost point of Minnesota's Northwest Angle 49°23′N, 95°09′W, and proceeds in an easterly direction through the Angle Inlet into the Lake of the Woods. At 41°19′N, 94°48′W in the Lake of the Woods, the border turns to a southerly direction, and continues into the Rainy River. The border then follows the Rainy River to Rainy Lake, then subsequently through a numerous amount of small lakes, including Lake Namakan, Lac la Croix, and Sea Gull Lake, until reaching the Pigeon River, which leads it out into Lake Superior. The border continues through Lake Superior and reaches Whitefish Bay. The border then proceeds through Whitefish Bay into the St. Mary's River, then into Lake St. Mary's, into the North Channel, then, at 45°59′N 83°26′N, turns to a southerly direction into the False Detour Channel, and reaches Lake Huron. The border then heads in a southerly direction through Lake Huron until reaching the St. Clair River, which subsequently leads it to Lake St. Clair. The border then proceeds through Lake St. Clair, reaching the Detroit River, which leads it to Lake Erie. The border then proceeds through Lake Erie into the Niagara River, which subsequently leads in into Lake Ontario. The border then proceeds in a northwesterly direction in Lake Ontario, then at 43°27′N, 79°12′W, the border makes a sharp turn to a north easterly direction. The border then reaches and proceeds through the St. Lawrence River. Finally, at 45°00′N, 74°40′E, the border splits from the St. Lawrence River and continues into Quebec. This border, going from west to east, is shared with the U.S. states of Minnesota, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York.

Quebec[edit]

The border begins in the St. Lawrence River, continuing from the Ontario-New York border, at the 45th parallel north, the border heads inland in an easterly direction, remaining on or near the parallel. At 45°00′N, 71°30′W, the border begins to follow various natural features of the Appalachian Mountains. It continues to do so until 46°25′N, 70°03′W, where it begins to follow a northerly direction, followed by a northeasterly direction at 46°41′N, 69°59′W. Afterwards, at 47°27′N, 69°13′E the border heads toward Beau Lake. Finally, after the border proceeds through Beau Lake, it continues into New Brunswick. This border, going from west to east, is shared with the U.S. states of New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine.

New Brunswick[edit]

The border begins at the southern tip of Beau Lake at 47°18′N, 69°03′W and proceeds to the Saint John River. The border then proceeds through the Saint John River until 47°04′N, 67°47′W, where it splits from the river and heads southward. Then, at 45°56′N, 67°47′W heads into the Chiputneticook Lakes, which subsequently lead it to the St. Croix River. The border then proceeds through the St. Croix River to Passamaquoddy Bay, which in turn leads it past Grand Manan Island into the middle of the Bay of Fundy, where it turns in a southerly direction and then terminates upon reaching international waters. This border is shared entirely with the U.S. state of Maine.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Alaska-Yukon boundary". Library of Congress. 
  2. ^ "FIELD LISTING :: LAND BOUNDARIES". The World Factbook. CIA.