Deflagration to detonation transition
Deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) refers to a phenomenon in ignitable mixtures of a flammable gas and air (or oxygen) when a sudden transition takes place from a deflagration type of combustion to a detonation type of combustion. The effects of a detonation are usually devastating.
A deflagration is characterized by a subsonic flame propagation velocity, typically far below 100 m/s, and relatively modest overpressures, say below 0.5 bar. The main mechanism of combustion propagation is of a flame front that moves forward through the gas mixture - in technical terms the reaction zone (chemical combustion) progresses through the medium by processes of diffusion of heat and mass. In its most benign form, a deflagration may simply be a flash fire. In contrast, a detonation is characterized by supersonic flame propagation velocities, perhaps up to 2000 m/s, and substantial overpressures, up to 20 bars. The main mechanism of combustion propagation is of a powerful pressure wave that compresses the unburnt gas ahead of the wave to a temperature above the autoignition temperature. In technical terms, the reaction zone (chemical combustion) is a self-driven shock wave where the reaction zone and the shock are coincident, and the chemical reaction is initiated by the compressive heating caused by the shock wave.
Under certain conditions, mainly in terms of geometrical conditions such as partial confinement and many obstacles in the flame path that cause turbulent flame eddy currents, a subsonic flame may accelerate to supersonic speed, transitioning from deflagration to detonation. The exact mechanism is not fully understood, and while existing theories are able to explain and model both deflagrations and detonations, there is no theory at present which can predict the transition phenomenon.
A deflagration to detonation transition has been a feature of several major industrial accidents
- 1970 Propane vapour cloud explosion in Port Hudson
- The Flixborough disaster
- The 1989 Phillips Disaster in Pasadena, Texas
- The damage observed in the Buncefield fire, see the 2005 Hertfordshire Oil Storage Terminal fire
The phenomenon is exploited in pulse detonation engines because a detonation produces a more efficient combustion of the reactants than a deflagration does, i.e. giving a higher yields. Such engines typically employ a Shchelkin spiral in the combustion chamber to facilitate the deflagration to detonation transition.
The mechanism has found military use in the thermobaric weapon.
A deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) has also been proposed for thermonuclear reactions responsible for supernovae initiation; see also Carbon detonation. Apart from the name, this phenomenon is completely unrelated to the chemical combustion and flame acceleration phenomenon.
See also 
- "Gas explosion handbook". Gexcon AS, Norway.
- New, TH; PK Panicker, FK Lu, H M Tsai (2006). "Experimental Investigations on DDT Enhancements by Schelkin Spirals in a PDE". 44th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit 9–12 January 2006, Reno, Nevad.
- Schultz, E; E Wintenberger, J Shepherd (1999). "Investigation of Deflagration to Detonation Transition for Application to Pulse Detonation Engine Ignition Systems". Proceedings of the 16th JANNAF Propulsion Symposium.
- Gamezo, Vadim N.; Oran ES (2008). "Mechanisms for Detonation Initiation in Type Ia Supernovae". American Astronomical Society, AAS Meeting #211, #162.08.
- Lea, CJ; HS Ledin (2002). A Review of the State-of-the-Art in Gas Explosion Modelling, HSL/2002/02. UK Health and Safety Laboratories.