In mathematics, a deformation ring is a ring that controls liftings of a representation of a Galois group from a finite field to a local field. In particular for any such lifting problem there is often a universal deformation ring that classifies all such liftings, and whose spectrum is the universal deformation space.
- Cornell, Gary; Silverman, Joseph H.; Stevens, Glenn, eds. (1997), Modular forms and Fermat's last theorem, Berlin, New York: Springer-Verlag, ISBN 978-0-387-94609-2, MR 1638473
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