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This article is about the social-evolutionary meaning of degeneration. For other uses, see Degeneration (disambiguation) and Degeneracy (disambiguation).

Degeneration theory was a widely influential concept in the social and biological sciences in the nineteenth century[1][2][3] - it attempted to find explanations for social change in physical or biological systems. The theory was associated with competitive notions of national supremacy and with fears of effeminacy, and it derived from pre-scientific concepts of genetics. Degeneration theory began with the ethnicities and the origins of the human races. From the 1850s, it became popular in psychiatry and criminology and by the 1890s became a more general concept in social commentary. The meaning of degeneration was poorly defined but can be described as an organism's change from a more complex to a simpler, less differentiated form. As the nineteenth century progressed, the increasing emphasis on degeneration reflected an anxious pessimism about the future of Western civilization and its possible decline and collapse.

Historical Summary of Degeneration Theory[edit]

The concept of degeneration arose during the industrial revolution and the European Enlightenment. Several influences were involved.

The first related to the extreme demographic upheavals, including urbanization, in the early years of the nineteenth century. The disturbing experience of social change and urban crowds, entirely unusual in the agrarian eighteenth century, was recorded in the novels of Charles Dickens and by early writers on social psychology, including Gustav Le Bon and Georg Simmel. The everyday experience of contact with the working classes gave rise to a kind of horrified fascination with their perceived reproductive energies, which seemed to threaten middle class culture.

Secondly, the proto-evolutionary biology and transformatist speculations of Buffon, Lamarck and other natural historians, taken together with the Baron von Cuvier's catastrophic theory of extinctions, played a decisive role in establishing a sense of the unsettled nature of human society.

Thirdly, the development of world trade and colonialism, the early European experience of globalization, resulted in an awareness of the unusual fragility of western civilization.

Finally, the growth of historical scholarship in the eighteenth century, exemplified by Edward Gibbon's The History of the Decline and Fall of The Roman Empire (1776-1789), excited a renewed interest in the narratives of historical decline.

Degeneration theory achieved a detailed articulation in Benedict Morel's Treatise on Degeneration (1857), a complicated piece of clinical commentary from an asylum in Normandy which coalesced (in the popular imagination at least) with de Gobineau's (1855) Essay on The Inequality of the Human Races - a bizarre pseudoscientific treatise from a romantic novelist manqué. de Gobineau's work was well-received in German translation - not least by the composer Richard Wagner - and the leading German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin later wrote extensively on the dangers posed by degeneration to the German people. Morel's concept of hereditary degeneracy was later amplified by Cesare Lombroso through the notion of atavistic retrogression in his exposition of the Italian school's concept of criminal anthropology. In England, degeneration received a scientific formulation from Ray Lankester in 1880, while the psychiatrist Henry Maudsley initially argued that degenerate family lines would die out of their own accord, but latterly became more pessimistic about the effects of supposed degeneration on the British population.[4]

In the fin-de-siècle period, Max Nordau scored an unexpected success with his bestselling Degeneration (1892). Sigmund Freud (who met Nordau while studying in Paris - and was decidedly unimpressed) was notably hostile to the degeneration concept, which fell from popular and fashionable favor around the time of the First World War, although many of its preoccupations persisted in the writings of the eugenicists and social Darwinists. Oswald Spengler's The Decline of the West (1919) captured something of the degenerationist spirit in the aftermath of the war.

"What conception of dégénérescence was produced in Morel's famous treatise of 1857? The term was applied to patterns of heredity in societies and, specifically, to deviations from the 'normal type' of humanity....Morel pulled together a bewildering array of physical conditions, moral and social habits; from hernias, goitres and pointed ears....he explored disturbances of the intellectual faculties and the noxious tendencies of certain forms of romanticism which resulted in languorous desires, effeteness, reveries, impotence, suicidal tendencies, inertia, melancholy and apathy. For Morel, the human being was a unified ensemble, composed of matter and of spirit. Physical degeneration could not but lead to intellectual and moral collapse, and vice versa. Degénéréscence was the name for a process of pathological change from one condition to another in society and in the body...." Daniel Pick (1989) Faces of Degeneration.

"...Any new set of conditions which render a species' food and safety very easily obtained, seems to lead to degeneration...." E. Ray Lankester (1880) Degeneration: A Chapter in Darwinism.

"It may well be asked whether an attribution of "degeneracy" is of any value, or adds anything to our knowledge..." Sigmund Freud (1905) Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality.

Development of the Concept[edit]

"The word degenerate, when applied to a people, means that the people no longer has the same intrinsic value as it had before, because it has no longer the same blood in its veins, continual adulterations having gradually affected the quality of that fact, the man of a decadent time, the degenerate man, properly so-called, is a different being, from the racial point of view, from the heroes of the great ages....I think I am right in concluding that the human race in all its branches has a secret repulsion from the crossing of blood...." Arthur de Gobineau (1855) Essay on The Inequality of the Human Races.

"Nordau argued that madness, suicide, crime and pathological literature symptomatized modern times - "We stand now in the midst of a severe mental epidemic; of a sort of black death of degeneration and hysteria...." Having borrowed various contemporary terms and ideas from the works of Morel, Lombroso, Maudsley, Taine, Charcot, and others, Nordau argued that modern society was witnessing a terrible crisis borne out of the growing division between the human body and social conditions...." Daniel Pick (1989) Faces of Degeneration.

"Sexual contagion: In other words, while degeneration was technically a medical term, and denoted a particular sub-category of organic disease, this disease wrought moral effects by inducing in the human organism a "morbid deviation from the original type" whose offspring were congenitally sinful behaviours. Symptoms became increasingly confused with causes...." Kelly Hurley (1996) The Gothic Body.

The earliest uses of the term degeneration are to be found in the writings of Blumenbach and Buffon at the end of the eighteenth century, when these early writers on natural history considered scientific approaches to the human species. With the taxonomic mind-set of natural historians, they drew attention to the different ethnic groupings of mankind, and raised general enquiries about their relationships, with the idea that racial groupings are to be explained by environmental insults to a common ancestral stock.

The theory of degeneration found its first real articulation in the writings of Benedict Morel (1809-1873), especially in his Traité des dégénérescences physiques, intellectuelles et morales de l'espèce humaine (1857). Morel was a highly regarded psychiatrist, the very successful superintendent of the Rouen asylum for almost twenty years and a fastidious recorder of the family histories of his variously disabled patients. Through the details of these family histories, Morel discerned an hereditary line of defective parents infected by pollutants and stimulants; a second generation liable to epilepsy, neurasthenia and hysteria; a third generation prone to insanity; and a final generation doomed to congenital idiocy and sterility. Morel (in 1857) proposed a theory of hereditary degeneracy, bringing together environmental and hereditary elements in an uncompromisingly pre-Darwinian mix. Morel's contribution was further developed by Valentin Magnan (1835-1916), who stressed the role of alcohol - particularly absinthe - in the generation of psychiatric disorders.

Morel's work was taken up and greatly expanded by the Italian medical scientist Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909). In his L'uomo delinquente (1876), Lombroso outlined a comprehensive natural history of the socially deviant person and detailed the stigmata of the person who was born to be criminally insane. These included a low, sloping forehead; hard and shifty eyes; large, handle-shaped ears; a flattened or upturned nose; a forward projection of the jaw; irregular teeth; prehensile toes and feet and long simian arms; and a scanty beard and baldness. Lombroso also listed the features of the degenerate mentality, supposedly released by the disinhibition of the primitive neurological centres. These included apathy, the loss of moral sense, a tendency to impulsiveness (or to self-doubt), an unevenness of mental qualities such as unusual memory or aesthetic abilities, a tendency to mutism or to verbosity, excessive originality, preoccupation with the self, mystical interpretations placed on simple facts or perceptions, the abuse of symbolic meanings and the magical use of words, or "mantras". Lombroso, with his concept of atavistic retrogression, suggested an evolutionary reversion, complementing hereditary degeneracy, and his work in the medical examination of criminals in Turin resulted in his theory of criminal anthropology - a constitutional notion of abnormal personality, actually unsupported by his own scientific investigations.

In 1896, Max Nordau, an expatriate Hungarian living in Paris, published his extraordinary bestseller Degeneration (Entartung), which greatly extended the concepts of Benedict Morel and Cesare Lombroso (to whom he dedicated the book) to the entire civilization of western Europe and transformed the medical connotations of degeneration to a generalized cultural criticism. Adopting some of Charcot's neurological jargon, Nordau identified a number of weaknesses in contemporary western culture which he characterized in terms of ego-mania, i.e., narcissism and hysteria. He also emphasized the importance of fatigue, enervation and ennui. Degeneration theory fell from favour around the time of the First World War, partly because of the increasing vogue for psychoanalysis - and psychoanalytic styles of interpretation - though many of its preoccupations lived on in the world of eugenics and social Darwinism.

Fin de Siècle Degenerationist Devices[edit]

Pornocrates by Félicien Rops. Etching and aquatint

Towards the close of the nineteenth century, in the fin-de-siècle, something of an obsession with decline, descent and degeneration invaded the European creative imagination, partly fuelled by a widespread miscomprehension of Darwinian evolutionary theory. Among the main literary examples are Robert Louis Stevenson's Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde - published in the same year (1886) as Richard von Krafft-Ebing's Psychopathia Sexualis - and, subsequently, Oscar Wilde's only novel (containing his aesthetic manifesto) The Picture of Dorian Gray in 1891. A scientific twist was added by H.G. Wells in The Time Machine (1895) in which Wells prophesied the splitting of the human race into differently degenerate forms, and again, a little later, in his The Island of Doctor Moreau (1896).

In her influential study The Gothic Body,[5] Kelly Hurley draws attention to the literary device of the abhuman, and to lesser-known authors in the field, including Richard Marsh (1857-1915), author of The Beetle (1897), and William Hope Hodgson (1877-1918), author of The Boats of the Glen Carrig, The House on the Borderland and The Night Land. In 1897, Bram Stoker published Dracula, an enormously influential Gothic novel featuring the immortal vampire Count Dracula. Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes stories included a host of degenerationist tropes, perhaps best illustrated in The Creeping Man.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Herman, Arthur (1997) The Idea of Decline in Western History New York, London etc.: The Free Press
  2. ^ Pick, Daniel (1989) Faces of Degeneration: A European Disorder, c.1848 - c.1918 Cambridge, London etc.: Cambridge University Press
  3. ^ Dowbiggin, Ian (1985) Degeneration and hereditarianism in French mental medicine 1840-1890: psychiatric theory as ideological adaptation (in) The Anatomy of Madness, Vol. One: People and Ideas edited by Bynum William F., Porter, Roy and Shepherd, Michael, London and New York: Tavistock Publications, pp 188-232
  4. ^ Keeping America Sane: Psychiatry and Eugenics in the United States and Canada, 1880-1940 Pg 81-
  5. ^ Hurley, Kelly (1996) The Gothic Body: Sexuality, Materialism and Degeneration at the Fin-de-siècle Cambridge and London: Cambridge University Press

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