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|— County —|
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|Time zone||China Standard (UTC+8)|
Dehua (help·info) (Chinese: 德化; pinyin: Déhuà; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tek-hòa) is a county located in central Fujian province, People's Republic of China. It is under the administration of Quanzhou City and covers an area of 2,232 square kilometres (862 sq mi) with a total population of 300,000.
Dehua is rich in kaolin and famous for ceramic products, especially crafts and dinnerware, including candle holders, Piggy banks, photo frames, jewel boxes, flower baskets, jars, vases, plaques, wall plaques, garden decorations, figurines, statues; animals, birds, pets and many other items.
In 2006 Dehua's GDP amounted to 6.036 billion Yuan.
See also 
Firing techniques First, the carved decoration
(A) bamboo program
Department of bamboo strips for the pen, directly on the body divided into practices brisk concise, freely, uninhibited. Designated pattern darker glaze glaze after firing, obvious patterns.
Instantly synchronized patterns mold body one-time printing press, tricks, specifications, quick and easy, and can be mass-produced. Printing to make molds, product modeling clay and made a female mold, mold engraving predetermined pattern pattern incised pottery mold having water-absorbing, after calcination. Relief techniques made molds mode, turned repeatedly made the mold for production, said the sub-modules. Use, as long as the amount of porcelain clay into the mold evenly push hard molding. After ejection, a little trimming the sticky table Serve artifacts. The glaze firing Serve decorative pattern products.
Department of relief sculptural techniques produced, the tread pattern high a decorative floating on the surface of objects. Ming Dynasty ivory, plum cup of white lard created a variety of styles, pen holder, incense burners, vases, 0.08 teapot imitation white jade products are used relief decoration. Since the Qing Dynasty, the the Dehua porcelain relief decoration.
Also known as heap paste, is a traditional decoration of Dehua porcelain early, most used artistic porcelain, pen, pen wash, tea, sugar bowl. The first mold or shaped by hand into the desired flowers, Shoutou and other parts, after trimming, mud paste objects on the body has been repaired. Not printed in small branches, should be supplemented push engraved. Heap paste, the paste concentration of mud heap paste pieces should be consistent with the body dry and humidity, to prevent the adhesive at cracking. This decals, for symmetric decoration and decorative patterns. Can reach a decorative pattern shape, the same specifications, with approximate relief of Art Deco effect.
Yuan and Ming dynasties, Dehua white porcelain carving lion first, like a top binaural incense burner, vase, sugar bowl, tea pot and other types of products are used in the production of the traditional practices. So far where the with dough porcelain spent products, a variety of flowers wall flower, foliage produced using the paste method, flower-shaped changeable, Motif like silk, realistic shape.
(E) through flower
Through flower, also known as engraved, engraving, is mainly carved decorative techniques. Dehua which had been used as early as the Ming Dynasty the Boshan smoked furnace, imitation bronze incense burner, pen products. The censer is mainly used the patterns cover part of the decorative flowers and leaving only lines, carved hollow in the middle. Boshan smoked furnace carved exquisitely carved stones, the furnace burning incense, strands of flue gas from the hole emitting shrouded Shengteng, scented. Pen overall cross flowers, flowers, branches, leaves hollow, become a feature in the Ming Dynasty ivory porcelain. Since the Qing Dynasty, the Boshan smoked furnace, gossip censer, lion censer decoration still through flowers practices for production. 1957, the Dehua porcelain sculptures division Su Qin Ming creation through flower carp flowers into a carp leaping from the waves splashing mouth Exhibition fin piece of fish scales all hollow, Shenzhen through the whole body, plus gold color, the whole fish golden light. Creation of new porcelain the celestial flower lamp, shade, spherical, cross network, decorated with flowers, small squares of each network hollow, the system works extremely fine.
Carved floral incised lines. Floral and the body of the plane is consistent. Glaze after firing, striated glaze surfaces easy to wash, no accumulation of dirt, a clear pattern. Its wide applicability, especially utensils and other daily-use porcelain with related parties, hook grass, flower pattern decoration Sheng applicable. The Song Dynasty Dehua porcelain engraved with engraving techniques edges, the bottom line, and a variety of simple serial trim. Southern Song Dynasty the Taiping Palace kilns have carved small vase of orchids. Since the ancient works of Cidiao, dining utensils, stationery and other products, alone or in a combination of engraving techniques produced.
Carved decorative window performance, circular, fan-shaped, heart-shaped, rectangular, diamond and other diverse open my body. Carved painted window decorative pattern, engraved pattern within the first window, and then shallow addition to the the porcelain body other than the pattern, the pattern, the shape of the relief. The excluded level must be the same depth, and then use a pointed tool for fine plus point cut, it seems paved with sand particles. Glazed, coated with wax cover removed part, the Ran overall dip glaze formed after firing unglazed removed, exposing the a matt white sandy prime tire. With glaze pattern and overall crystal bright glazed contrast, generated do not have the charm of the Art Deco effect.
Second, the painting
(A) blue and white
Also known as underglaze blue and white. Its production method: drill with oxide-based pigments prepared, depicted in porcelain bodies muddy dye. Painting a variety of decorative pattern, then a layer of transparent glaze after into the kiln firing at high temperature porcelain glaze decoration showing a green prison color pigment is slightly different, the colors slightly different, blue with blue, blue with purple, blue with black variety, rich and gaudy Ya, never change, will not produce harmful substances such as lead, cadmium, daily-use porcelain decorative color.
The Dehua porcelain blue and white decoration, the Ming Zhengde 14 years (1519) before had been adopted, blue with black, flowers, techniques concise, simple and extensive. Qing Dynasty blue and white blue with purple with blue depicted in fine shades of seasons. Republic of blue and white, pale colors, simple painting or figure landscape, or Dutch bamboo flowers.
Contemporary blue and white decorative and more used in high-end porcelain products, Dehua porcelain, Dehua porcelain vase of flowers and birds, fresh and elegant.
(B) the old color
Also known as colorful. Qing Dynasty to the Republic of applications accounted color decoration, red, yellow, green, blue, purple the unite in color and black lines. The toner colorant generally metal oxides such as copper, iron, tin, manganese, cobalt, lead powder, quartz powder, synthetic silicate lead glass as a main solvent. Painted, single - Ping Tu, with concise bold lines hook into the ornamentation outline. Then wireframe, sub-shades of an imposing various suitable flutter materials, people furnace grilling, bright.
Also known as the glaze soft-color. Described a good outline, porcelain filling in a layer of white glass, frankincense oil or water and mix thoroughly pigment, depicted in glass white rendering, and finally into the furnace grilled. Ming and Qing works handed down this process, the existing vases, canopic jars are very beautiful. l956, the the Dehua porcelain painting artists Zhangpei Yu. Successfully produced the Black Lands flowers full color cups, hook grass full of Choi Han soup and other pastel works. In 1958, the plant painting artist Lin Zhi Bin pastels techniques to create a variety of high-white porcelain vases and other products.
(D) new color
Qing Dynasty to the contemporary, the new color is the Dehua porcelain Following underglaze blue and white, glaze decoration means. Pen dipped in pigment in paint on the porcelain surface, close to the Chinese ink painting techniques and styles of their performance. With trembling hand grinding synthetic material, hereinafter referred to as "frankincense with oil paint, water transfer watercolor. Due to a stroke into a new color, and shades of the flowers form, without hook line coloring, decorating a wide temperature range, and lower cost.
With a soft lead sheet and by pattern color levels, respectively frosting made of template matching. At the level set in the porcelain surface, air compressor gun power, according to the requirements of different color, pigment loaded gun, operating according to the color of the screen and gradation on sub-version of color separation, followed by sub-spray combination made. Glaze, underglaze decoration can be used. 1956, Dehua porcelain has been adopted, with the hand-the outlined the Mosaic context, branches and Fa small part to make the picture more attractive.
Glaze color flowers, unlike the early days of white porcelain body mold printing, instead of using the rubber skin engraving pattern impression of the middle fill in the sticky layer of elastic sponge, plus a layer of the force holding the wood care impression evenly coated with a good tune pigment printed porcelain flower-shaped pattern. Printed pattern monochrome lines, suitable for lace trim. Other screen should be added to fill in the color of various pigment, increase the color of the screen, said printed color combined with decorative. In 1958, Dehua porcelain factory successfully developed a semi-automatic printing machine, printed, sprayed, color decorative craft cattle production for export daily-use porcelain.
Contemporary decorative decals are glaze paper flower stickers. Paper flower by flower paper mills based on a variety of porcelain shape and design specifications, variety, landscapes, figures, flowers, birds, insects, fruits, a variety of patterns ready opted for different products, but also can design their own customized to flower mill. Production crystal decoration is unique, since 1982, Dehua printing paper flower shop, has produced the underglaze blue and white decals, decal glaze colors. Dehua Ming Feng Hua Paper Co., Ltd. to develop and produce the Golden Flower paper.
(8) glaze painting
Glaze painting, unique Dehua porcelain decorative features. Based on a variety of color glaze painting pigment pen dipped in paint directly on the porcelain painting. Glaze painting, the operator must have skilled painting skills to fully grasp the characteristics of the pigment with ease, shades, structured. Using the the ancient decals method and glaze painting application works, such as plum blossom flowers, traditional methods of printing paste production, stems and buds with concentrated glaze depicting to become the broken branches Mei the higher surface to form three-dimensional approximate half relief reactor flowers.
(9) point glaze
Point glaze enough dehua the porcelain in a unique decorative. Unglazed biscuit left blank regular heart-shaped, fan-shaped design window, high temperature glaze pigment paint in the space, or high-temperature glaze vase green painting, and then in the open outside the window blank or point around the screen glaze beads. Point glaze, you must strictly adhere to the concentration of the glaze, glaze bead size, dot pitch interval uniform. After firing, exposed snow-white porcelain, shiny glaze point as if the, matte cable the porcelain on Qianman crystal pearls.
(10) corrosion gold color
Mainly used in porcelain furnishings and high-grade daily-use porcelain decoration. Dehua porcelain, porcelain has for the decoration of vases, coffee pots and other products. Glazed porcelain coated with a layer of paraffin, dry, wax tools made of metal or bamboo carved out of a predetermined pattern, pattern, and then hydrofluoric acid to a certain degree, after washing, a pen dipped in ceramic coating, Goldwater described the Arts, to achieve the desired effect of water into the furnace barbecue.
(11) electric glory
Also known as the glossy color, electricity light water as a pigment, the color yellow, red, blue variety, brushing or painting purposes, generally used for the export fine china tea set, cover the cup rim of the mid-range products, neck, feet and overall decoration. BBQ, bright colors.
In 1987, the introduction of labor service company in Dehua ceramics factory titanium processing equipment, such as vacuum the ion magnetic Majesty sputtering technology, the porcelain surface to form titanium nitride film, after firing gold color, variability become gorgeous colors of purple, sky blue, and has a wear-resistant, acid and alkali resistant and non-toxic, easily contaminated with oil and other features. Rutile type titanium oxide can be applied to light interference film, made with a sense of rainbow color changing decorative vacuum coating technology.
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