Deinococcus

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Deinococcus
A tetrad of D. radiodurans
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Deinococcus-Thermus
Class: Deinococci
Order: Deinococcales
Family: Deinococcaceae
Genus: Deinococcus
Brooks and Murray 1981 emend. Rainey et al. 1997

Deinococcus (from the Greek: δεινός, deinos, "dreadful, strange" and κόκκος, kókkos, "granule"[1]) is one genus[2] of three in the Deinococcales group[3][4] of the Deinococcus-Thermus phylum of bacteria highly resistant to environmental hazards. These bacteria have thick cell walls that give them Gram-positive stains, but they include a second membrane and so are closer in structure to Gram-negative bacteria. They are also characterised by the presence of the carotenoid pigment deinoxanthin that give them their pink color, as well as a high resistance to gamma and UV radiation; they are usually isolated according to these two criteria.

Species[edit]

As of August 2011, there were 47 species of Deinococcus described according to the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI):

  • D. aerius[5]
  • D. aerolatus[6]
  • D. aerophilus[6]
  • D. aetherius[7]
  • D. alpinitundrae[8]
  • D. altitudinis[8]
  • D. apachensis[9]
  • D. aquaticus[10]
  • D. aquatilis[11]
  • D. aquiradiocola[12]
  • D. caeni[10]
  • D. cellulosilyticus[13]
  • D. claudionis[8]
  • D. daejeonensis[14]
  • D. depolymerans[15]
  • D. deserti[16]
  • D. ficus[17]
  • D. frigens[18]
  • D. geothermalis[19]
  • D. gobiensis[20]
  • D. grandis (originally Deinobacter grandis,[21] but then transferred[22])
  • D. hohokamensis[9]
  • D. hopiensis[9]
  • D. indicus[23]
  • D. maricopensis[9]
  • D. marmoris[18]
  • D. misasensis[24]
  • D. murrayi[19]
  • D. navajonensis[9]
  • D. papagonensis[9]
  • D. peraridilitoris[25]
  • D. pimensis[9]

Phylogeny[edit]

The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN) [35] and NCBI[36] and the phylogeny is based on 16S rRNA-based LTP release 115 by 'The All-Species Living Tree' Project.[37]


?D. aquivivus [note 1] Kaempferet al. 2008



?D. soli [note 1] Zhang et al. 2011



?D. xibeiensis Wang et al. 2010




D. pimensis Rainey and da Costa 2005




D. peraridilitoris Rainey et al. 2007




D. papagonensis Rainey and da Costa 2005



D. yavapaiensis Rainey and da Costa 2005








D. misasensis Asker et al. 2008




D. cellulosilyticus Weon et al. 2007



D. roseus Asker et al. 2008






D. maricopensis Rainey and da Costa 2005





D. sonorensis Rainey and da Costa 2005




D. radiomollis Callegan et al. 2008




D. altitudinis Callegan et al. 2008




D. aquiradiocola Asker et al. 2009



D. claudionis Callegan et al. 2008








D. alpinitundrae Callegan et al. 2008





D. radiophilus (ex Lewis 1973) Books and Murray 1981




D. piscis Shashidhar and Bandekar 2009



D. proteolyticus Brooks and Murray 1981






D. xinjiangensis Peng et al. 2009





D. gobiensis Yuan et al. 2009



D. reticulitermitis Chen et al. 2012







D. aquatilis Kämpfer et al. 2008



D. ficus Lai et al. 2006 emend. Kämpfer 2009





D. deserti de Groot et al. 2005




D. hohokamensis Rainey and da Costa 2005



D. navajonensis Rainey and da Costa 2005









D. daejeonensis Srinivasan et al. 2012



D. grandis (Oyaizu et al. 1987) Rainey et al. 1997






D. indicus Suresh et al. 2004




D. radiodurans (ex Raj et al. 1960) Brooks and Murray 1981 (type sp.)



D. wulumuqiensis Wang et al. 2010






D. caeni Im et al. 2008




D. aquaticus Im et al. 2008



D. depolymerans Asker et al. 2011








D. yunweiensis Zhang et al. 2007





D. hopiensis Rainey and da Costa 2005





D. murrayi Ferreira et al. 1997




D. geothermalis Ferreira et al. 1997




D. apachensis Rainey and da Costa 2005




D. aerius Yang et al. 2009



D. aetherius Yang et al. 2010










D. aerophilus Yoo et al. 2010




D. humi Srinivasan et al. 2012




D. aerolatus Yoo et al. 2010




D. radiopugnans Brooks and Murray 1981




D. marmoris Hirsch et al. 2006




D. saxicola Hirsch et al. 2006



D. frigens Hirsch et al. 2006



















Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Deinococcus entry in LPSN [Euzéby, J.P. (1997). "List of Bacterial Names with Standing in Nomenclature: a folder available on the Internet". Int J Syst Bacteriol 47 (2): 590–2. doi:10.1099/00207713-47-2-590. ISSN 0020-7713. PMID 9103655. ]
  2. ^ Brooks BW, Murray RGE (1981) Nomenclature for" Micrococcus radiodurans" and other radiation-resistant cocci: Deinococcaceae fam. nov. and Deinococcus gen. nov., including five species. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 31: 353.
  3. ^ Ekman JV, Raulio M, Busse HJ, Fewer DP, Salkinoja-Salonen M (2010) Deinobacterium chartae gen. nov., sp. nov., an extremely radiation resistant biofilm-forming bacterium isolated from a Finnish paper mill. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology.
  4. ^ Albuquerque L, Sims C, Nobre MF, Pino NM, Battista JR, et al. (2005) Truepera radiovictrix gen. nov., sp. nov., a new radiation-resistant species and the proposal of Trueperaceae fam. nov. FEMS microbiology letters 247: 161-169.
  5. ^ Yang Y, Itoh T, Yokobori S, Itahashi S, Shimada H, Satoh K, Ohba H, Narumi I, Yamagishi A. Deinococcus aerius sp. nov., isolated from the high atmosphere. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2009 Aug;59(Pt 8):1862-6.
  6. ^ a b Yoo SH, Weon HY, Kim SJ, Kim YS, Kim BY, Kwon SW. Deinococcus aerolatus sp. nov. and Deinococcus aerophilus sp. nov., isolated from air samples. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2010 May;60(Pt 5):1191-5.
  7. ^ Yang Y, Itoh T, Yokobori S, Shimada H, Itahashi S, Satoh K, Ohba H, Narumi I, Yamagishi A. Deinococcus aetherius sp. nov., isolated from the stratosphere. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2010 Apr;60(Pt 4):776-9
  8. ^ a b c d Callegan RP, Nobre MF, McTernan PM, Battista JR, Navarro-González R, McKay CP, da Costa MS, Rainey FA. Description of four novel psychrophilic, ionizing radiation-sensitive Deinococcus species from alpine environments. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2008 May;58(Pt 5):1252-8.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i Rainey FA, Ray K, Ferreira M, Gatz BZ, Nobre MF, Bagaley D, Rash BA, Park MJ, Earl AM, Shank NC, Small AM, Henk MC, Battista JR, Kämpfer P, da Costa MS. Extensive diversity of ionizing-radiation-resistant bacteria recovered from Sonoran Desert soil and description of nine new species of the genus Deinococcus obtained from a single soil sample. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005 Sep;71(9):5225-35. Erratum in: Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005 Nov;71(11):7630.
  10. ^ a b Im WT, Jung HM, Ten LN, Kim MK, Bora N, Goodfellow M, Lim S, Jung J, Lee ST. Deinococcus aquaticus sp. nov., isolated from fresh water, and Deinococcus caeni sp. nov., isolated from activated sludge. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2008 Oct;58(Pt 10):2348-53.
  11. ^ Kämpfer P, Lodders N, Huber B, Falsen E, Busse HJ. Deinococcus aquatilis sp. nov., isolated from water. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2008 Dec;58(Pt 12):2803-6.
  12. ^ Asker D, Awad TS, Beppu T, Ueda K. Deinococcus aquiradiocola sp. nov., isolated from a radioactive site in Japan. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2009 Jan;59(Pt 1):144-9.
  13. ^ Weon HY, Kim BY, Schumann P, Son JA, Jang J, Go SJ, Kwon SW. Deinococcus cellulosilyticus sp. nov., isolated from air. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2007 Aug;57(Pt 8):1685-8.
  14. ^ Srinivasan S, Kim MK, Lim S, Joe M, Lee M. Deinococcus daejeonensis sp. nov., isolated from sludge in a sewage disposal plant. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2011 Jul 15
  15. ^ Asker D, Awad TS, McLandsborough L, Beppu T, Ueda K. Deinococcus depolymerans sp. nov., a gamma- and UV-radiation-resistant bacterium, isolated from a naturally radioactive site. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2011 Jun;61(Pt 6):1448-53
  16. ^ de Groot A, Chapon V, Servant P, Christen R, Saux MF, Sommer S, Heulin T. Deinococcus deserti sp. nov., a gamma-radiation-tolerant bacterium isolated from the Sahara Desert. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2005 Nov;55(Pt 6):2441-6.
  17. ^ Lai WA, Kämpfer P, Arun AB, Shen FT, Huber B, Rekha PD, Young CC. Deinococcus ficus sp. nov., isolated from the rhizosphere of Ficus religiosa L. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2006 Apr;56(Pt 4):787-91
  18. ^ a b c Hirsch P, Gallikowski CA, Siebert J, Peissl K, Kroppenstedt R, Schumann P, Stackebrandt E, Anderson R. Deinococcus frigens sp. nov., Deinococcus saxicola sp. nov., and Deinococcus marmoris sp. nov., low temperature and draught-tolerating, UV-resistant bacteria from continental Antarctica. Syst Appl Microbiol. 2004 Nov;27(6):636-45.
  19. ^ a b Ferreira AC, Nobre MF, Rainey FA, Silva MT, Wait R, Burghardt J, Chung AP, da Costa MS. Deinococcus geothermalis sp. nov. and Deinococcus murrayi sp. nov., two extremely radiation-resistant and slightly thermophilic species from hot springs. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1997 Oct;47(4):939-47.
  20. ^ Yuan M, Zhang W, Dai S, Wu J, Wang Y, Tao T, Chen M, Lin M. Deinococcus gobiensis sp. nov., an extremely radiation-resistant bacterium. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2009 Jun;59(Pt 6):1513-7
  21. ^ Oyaizu H, Stackebrandt E, Schleifer KH, Ludwig W, Pohla H, Ito H, Hirata A, Oyaizu Y, Komagata K. A radiation-resistant rod-shaped bacterium, Deinobacter grandis gen. nov., sp. nov., with peptidoglycan containing ornithine. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1987, 37, 62-67.
  22. ^ Rainey FA, Nobre MF, Schumann P, Stackebrandt E, Da Costa MS. Phylogenetic diversity of the deinococci as determined by 16S ribosomal DNA sequence comparison. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1997, 47, 510-514
  23. ^ Suresh K, Reddy GS, Sengupta S, Shivaji S. Deinococcus indicus sp. nov., an arsenic-resistant bacterium from an aquifer in West Bengal, India. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2004 Mar;54(Pt 2):457-61.
  24. ^ a b Asker D, Awad TS, Beppu T, Ueda K. Deinococcus misasensis and Deinococcus roseus, novel members of the genus Deinococcus, isolated from a radioactive site in Japan. Syst Appl Microbiol. 2008 Mar;31(1):43-9.
  25. ^ Rainey FA, Ferreira M, Nobre MF, Ray K, Bagaley D, Earl AM, Battista JR, Gómez-Silva B, McKay CP, da Costa MS. Deinococcus peraridilitoris sp. nov., isolated from a coastal desert. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2007 Jul;57(Pt 7):1408-12.
  26. ^ Shashidhar R, Bandekar JR. Deinococcus piscis sp. nov., a radiation-resistant bacterium isolated from a marine fish. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2009 Nov;59(Pt 11):2714-7
  27. ^ Kobatake, M., Tanabe, S., Hasegawa, S. Nouveau micrococcus radioresistant a pigment rouge, isole de feces de Lama glama, et son utilisation comme indicateur microbiologique de la radiosterilisation. C.R. Seances Soc. Biol. Fil. (1973)167, 1506–1510.
  28. ^ Anderson, A W; H C Nordan, R F Cain, G Parrish, D Duggan (1956). "Studies on a radio-resistant micrococcus. I. Isolation, morphology, cultural characteristics, and resistance to gamma radiation". Food Technol. 10 (1): 575–577.
  29. ^ Lewis NF. Radio-resistant Micrococcus radiophilus sp. nov. isolated from irradiated Bombay duck (Harpodon nehereus). Curr. Sci. (India)1976, v. 42, no. 14, p. 504
  30. ^ Davis, N.S., Silverman, G.J., Mausurosky, E.B. Radiation-resistant, pigmented coccus isolated from haddock tissue. J. Bacteriol. 1963;86, 294–298.
  31. ^ Chen W, Wang B, Hong H, Yang H, Liu SJ. Deinococcus reticulitermitis sp. nov., isolated from a termite gut.Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2011 Feb 18
  32. ^ a b Wang W, Mao J, Zhang Z, Tang Q, Xie Y, Zhu J, Zhang L, Liu Z, Shi Y, Goodfellow M. Deinococcus wulumuqiensis sp. nov., and Deinococcus xibeiensis sp. nov., isolated from radiation-polluted soil. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2010 Sep;60(Pt 9):2006-10
  33. ^ Peng F, Zhang L, Luo X, Dai J, An H, Tang Y, Fang C. Deinococcus xinjiangensis sp. nov., isolated from desert soil. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2009 Apr;59(Pt 4):709-13.
  34. ^ Zhang YQ, Sun CH, Li WJ, Yu LY, Zhou JQ, Zhang YQ, Xu LH, Jiang CL. Deinococcus yunweiensis sp. nov., a gamma- and UV-radiation-resistant bacterium from China. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2007 Feb;57(Pt 2):370-5.
  35. ^ J.P. Euzéby. "Deinococcus-Thermus". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN) [1]. Retrieved 2014-03-20. 
  36. ^ Sayers et al. "Deinococcus-Thermus". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) taxonomy database [2]. Retrieved 2014-03-20. 
  37. ^ 'The All-Species Living Tree' Project."16S rRNA-based LTP release 115 (full tree)". Silva Comprehensive Ribosomal RNA Database [3]. Retrieved 2014-03-20.