Deinococcus-Thermus

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Deinococcus-Thermus
Scientific classification
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Deinococcus-Thermus
Class: Deinococci
Garrity and Holt 2002
Orders & Genera
Synonyms
  • Hadobacteria Cavalier-Smith 1992 emend. Cavalier-Smith 1998
  • Xenobacteria

The Deinococcus-Thermus are a small group of bacteria that are highly resistant to environmental hazards.[1]

There are two main groups.

  • The Deinococcales include two families, with three genera, Deinococcus and Truepera, the former with several species that are resistant to radiation; they have become famous for their ability to eat nuclear waste and other toxic materials, survive in the vacuum of space and survive extremes of heat and cold.
  • The Thermales include several genera resistant to heat (Marinithermus, Meiothermus, Oceanithermus, Thermus, Vulcanithermus).[2] Thermus aquaticus was important in the development of the polymerase chain reaction where repeated cycles of heating DNA to near boiling make it advantageous to use a thermo-stable DNA polymerase enzyme.

Though these two groups evolved from a common ancestor, the two mechanisms of resistance appear to be largely independent.[3]

These bacteria have thick cell walls that give them gram-positive stains, but they include a second membrane and so are closer in structure to those of gram-negative bacteria.

Cavalier-Smith calls this clade Hadobacteria[4] (from Hades, the Greek underworld).

Phylogeny[edit]

The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN) [5] and National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)[6] and the phylogeny is based on 16S rRNA-based LTP release 111 by 'The All-Species Living Tree' Project [7]

Thermaceae


Rhabdothermus arcticus Steinsbu et al. 2011



Vulcanithermus mediatlanticus Miroshnichenko et al. 2003




Oceanithermus

O. desulfurans Mori et al. 2004



O. profundus Miroshnichenko et al. 2003 (type sp.)





Marinithermus hydrothermalis Sako et al. 2003




Meiothermus



Thermus






Deinococcales

Truepera radiovictrix Albuquerque et al. 2005


Deinococcaceae

Deinobacterium chartae Ekman et al. 2011



Deinococcus




Note:
♠ Strains found at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) but not listed in the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LSPN)

Sequenced genomes[edit]

Currently there are 10 sequenced genomes of strains in this phylum.[8]

  • Deinococcus radiodurans R1
  • Thermus thermophilus HB27
  • Thermus thermophilus HB8
  • Deinococcus geothermalis DSM 11300
  • Deinococcus deserti VCD115
  • Meiothermus ruber DSM 1279
  • Meiothermus silvanus DSM 9946
  • Truepera radiovictrix DSM 17093
  • Oceanithermus profundus DSM 14977

The two Meiothermus sp. were sequenced under the auspices of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project (GEBA), which aims at sequencing organisms based on phylogenetic novelty and not on pathologenicity or notoriety.[9] Currently, the genome of Thermus aquaticus Y51MC23 is in the final stages of assembly by the DOE Joint Genome Institute [10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Griffiths E, Gupta RS (September 2007). "Identification of signature proteins that are distinctive of the Deinococcus-Thermus phylum". Int. Microbiol. 10 (3): 201–8. PMID 18076002. 
  2. ^ http://www.bacterio.cict.fr/classifphyla.html#DeinococcusThermus
  3. ^ Omelchenko MV, Wolf YI, Gaidamakova EK, et al. (2005). "Comparative genomics of Thermus thermophilus and Deinococcus radiodurans: divergent routes of adaptation to thermophily and radiation resistance". BMC Evol. Biol. 5: 57. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-5-57. PMC 1274311. PMID 16242020. 
  4. ^ Cavalier-Smith T (2006). "Rooting the tree of life by transition analyses". Biol. Direct 1: 19. doi:10.1186/1745-6150-1-19. PMC 1586193. PMID 16834776. 
  5. ^ J.P. Euzéby. "Deinococcus-Thermus". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN) [1]. Retrieved 2013-03-20. 
  6. ^ Sayers et al. "Deinococcus-Thermus". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) taxonomy database [2]. Retrieved 2013-03-20. 
  7. ^ 'The All-Species Living Tree' Project."16S rRNA-based LTP release 111 (full tree)". Silva Comprehensive Ribosomal RNA Database [3]. Retrieved 2013-03-20. 
  8. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genomes/MICROBES/microbial_taxtree.html
  9. ^ Wu, D.; Hugenholtz, P.; Mavromatis, K.; Pukall, R. D.; Dalin, E.; Ivanova, N. N.; Kunin, V.; Goodwin, L.; Wu, M.; Tindall, B. J.; Hooper, S. D.; Pati, A.; Lykidis, A.; Spring, S.; Anderson, I. J.; d'Haeseleer, P.; Zemla, A.; Singer, M.; Lapidus, A.; Nolan, M.; Copeland, A.; Han, C.; Chen, F.; Cheng, J. F.; Lucas, S.; Kerfeld, C.; Lang, E.; Gronow, S.; Chain, P.; Bruce, D. (2009). "A phylogeny-driven genomic encyclopaedia of Bacteria and Archaea". Nature 462 (7276): 1056–1060. Bibcode:2009Natur.462.1056W. doi:10.1038/nature08656. PMC 3073058. PMID 20033048.  edit
  10. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genomeprj/55053