Deir ez-Zor Governorate (Arabic: مُحافظة دير الزور / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Dayr az-Zawr) is one of the fourteen governorates of Syria. It is situated in eastern Syria, bordering Iraq. It has an area of 33,060 km² and a population of 1,202,000 (2010 estimate). The capital is Deir ez-Zor.
Deir ez-Zor was also the location of Israel's execution of Operation Orchard on September 6, 2007. Israel bombed a northern Syrian complex near which was suspected of holding nuclear materials from North Korea.
In 2014 Islamic State forces massacred an estimated 900 members of the Al-Shaitat tribe in the governorate, following resistance to the Islamic State's occupation of the area.