|Transit type||Rapid transit / Metro|
|Number of lines||5 colour-coded lines, plus Airport Express line|
|Number of stations||140, with 6 more Airport Express stations|
|Daily ridership||2.40 million (Highest 28,87,303 on September 8, 2014)|
|Annual ridership||799.6 million (FY2014)|
|Chief executive||Mangu Singh, MD|
|Headquarters||Metro Bhawan, Barakhamba Road, New Delhi 110001.|
|Website||Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd
|Began operation||24 December 2002|
|Operator(s)||Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd (DMRC)|
|Number of vehicles||208 trains|
|Train length||4/6/8 coaches|
|System length||193 km (120 mi)|
|Track gauge||1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) (Indian gauge)
1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) (Standard gauge)
|Electrification||Single phase 25 kV, 50 Hz AC through overhead catenary|
Delhi Metro is a metro system serving Delhi (including New Delhi and Old Delhi) and its satellite cities of Gurgaon, Noida, Faridabad and Ghaziabad in the National Capital Region of India. Delhi Metro is the world's thirteenth largest metro system in terms of length and a member of Nova Group of Metros. Delhi Metro is India's third urban mass rapid transport system, after the Kolkata Metro and Chennai MRTS. It is India's first modern rapid transit system too. As of December 2014[update], the network consists of five colour-coded lines (Red, Blue, Green, Yellow, Violet), plus a sixth Airport Express line, with a total length of 193 kilometres (120 mi), serving 140 stations (with 6 more Airport Express stations), of which 38 are underground, five are at-grade, and the rest are elevated. All stations have escalators, elevators, and tactile tiles to guide the visually impaired from station entrances to trains. It has a combination of elevated, at-grade, and underground lines, and uses both broad gauge and standard gauge rolling stock. Four types of rolling stock are used: Mitsubishi Rotem broad gauge, Bombardier Movia, Mitsubishi Rotem standard gauge, and CAF Beasain standard gauge.
Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited (DMRC), a state-owned company with equal equity participation from Government of India and Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi built and operates the Delhi Metro. However, the organisation is under administrative control of Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. Besides construction and operation of Delhi Metro, DMRC is also involved in the planning and implementation of metro rail, monorail and high-speed rail projects in India and providing consultancy services to other metro projects in the country as well as abroad.
As of November 2014, DMRC operates around 3000 trips daily between 05:30 till 00:00 running with an interval of between 3–4 minutes between trains at peak frequency. The trains are usually of four and six coaches, but due to increase in the number of passengers, eight-coach trains are added on the Yellow Line (Jahangirpuri to HUDA city centre) and Blue line (Dwarka Sector-21 to Noida City Centre/Vaishali). Yellow line being the first one with eight coach trains. The power output is supplied by 25-kilovolt, 50-hertz alternating current through overhead catenary. The metro has an average daily ridership of 2.4 million commuters, and, as of August 2010, had already carried over 1.25 billion commuters since its inception. The Delhi Metro Rail Corporation has been certified by the United Nations as the first metro rail and rail-based system in the world to get "carbon credits for reducing greenhouse gas emissions" and helping in reducing pollution levels in the city by 630,000 tonnes every year.
Planning for the metro started in 1984, when the Delhi Development Authority and the Urban Arts Commission came up with a proposal for developing a multi-modal transport system for the city. The Government of India and the Government of Delhi jointly set up the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) registered on 3 May 1995 under The Companies Act, 1956. Construction started in 1998, and the first section, on the Red Line, opened in 2002, followed by the Yellow Line in 2004, the Blue Line in 2005, its branch line in 2009, the Green and Violet Lines in 2010, and the Delhi Airport Metro Express in 2011.
The recently opened Rapid MetroRail Gurgaon, whilst linked to it by the Yellow Line is a separate metro system (with a different owner/operator than the Delhi Metro), although tickets from the Delhi Metro can be used in its network.
- 1 History
- 2 Network
- 3 Finances
- 4 Operations
- 5 Rolling stock
- 6 Signalling and telecommunication
- 7 Environment and aesthetics
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
The concept of a mass rapid transit for New Delhi first emerged from a traffic and travel characteristics study which was carried out in the city in 1969. Over the next several years, many official committees by a variety of government departments were commissioned to examine issues related to technology, route alignment, and governmental jurisdiction. In 1984, the Delhi Development Authority and the Urban Arts Commission came up with a proposal for developing a multi-modal transport system, which would consist of constructing three underground mass rapid transit corridors as well augmenting the city's existing suburban railway and road transport networks.
While extensive technical studies and the raising of finance for the project were in progress, the city expanded significantly resulting in a twofold rise in population and a fivefold rise in the number of vehicles between 1981 and 1998. Consequently, traffic congestion and pollution soared, as an increasing number of commuters took to private vehicles with the existing bus system unable to bear the load. An attempt at privatising the bus transport system in 1992 merely compounded the problem, with inexperienced operators plying poorly maintained, noisy and polluting buses on lengthy routes, resulting in long waiting times, unreliable service, extreme overcrowding, unqualified drivers, speeding and reckless driving. To rectify the situation, the Government of India and the Government of Delhi jointly set up a company called the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) on 3 May 1995, with E. Sreedharan as the managing director.
Dr. E. Sreedharan handed over the charge as MD, DMRC to Shri Mangu Singh on 31 December 2011.
Physical construction work on the Delhi Metro started on 1 October 1998. After the previous problems experienced by the Kolkata Metro, which was badly delayed and 12 times over budget due to "political meddling, technical problems and bureaucratic delays", DMRC is a special purpose organization vested with great autonomy and powers to execute this gigantic project involving many technical complexities, under a difficult urban environment and within a very limited time frame. DMRC was given full powers to hire people, decide on tenders and control funds. The DMRC then consulted the Hong Kong MTRC on rapid transit operation and construction techniques. As a result, construction proceeded smoothly, except for one major disagreement in 2000, where the Ministry of Railways forced the system to use broad gauge despite the DMRC's preference for standard gauge.
The first line of the Delhi Metro was inaugurated by Atal Behari Vajpayee, the then Prime Minister of India, on 24 December 2002, and thus, it became the second underground rapid transit system in India, after the Kolkata Metro. The first phase of the project was completed in 2006, on budget and almost three years ahead of schedule, an achievement described by Business Week as "nothing short of a miracle".
On 19 October 2008, a girder launcher and a part of the overhead Blue Line extension under construction in Laxmi Nagar, East Delhi collapsed and fell on passing vehicles underneath. Workers were using a crane to lift a 400-tonne concrete span of the bridge when the launcher collapsed along with a 34-metre (112 ft) long span of the bridge on top of a Blueline bus killing the driver and a labourer.
On 12 July 2009, a section of bridge collapsed while it was being erected at Zamrudpur, near East of Kailash, on the Central Secretariat – Badarpur corridor. Six people died and 15 were injured. The following day, on 13 July 2009, a crane that was removing the debris collapsed, and with a bowling pin effect collapsed two other nearby cranes, injuring six. On 22 July 2009, worker at Ashok Park Metro station was killed when a steel beam fell on him. Over a hundred people, including 93 workers, have died since work on the metro began in 1998.
The Delhi Metro is being built in phases. Phase I completed 58 stations and 65.0 km (40.4 mi) of route length, of which 13.0 km (8.1 mi) is underground and 52.1 km (32.4 mi) surface or elevated. The inauguration of the Dwarka–Barakhamba Road corridor of the Blue Line marked the completion of Phase I on October 2006. Phase II of the network comprises 124.6 km (77.4 mi) of route length and 85 stations, and is fully completed, with the first section opened in June 2008 and the last line opened in August 2011. Phase III (103 km, 69 stations) and Phase IV (113.2 km) are planned to be completed by 2016 and 2021 respectively, with the network spanning 413 km (257 mi) by then.
As of October 2014[update], with the completion of Phase I, Phase II and the beginning of operations on Phase III, the Delhi Metro network comprises six lines (plus the Airport Express line), serving 140 metro stations (with 6 more stations on the Airport Express line, for a total of 146), and operating on a total route length of 193 kilometres (120 mi).
|Line||First operational||Last Extension||Stations||Length
|Red Line||24 December 2002||4 June 2008||21||25.09||Dilshad Garden||Rithala||26 trains||1676 mm||25 kV OHE|
|Yellow Line||20 December 2004||3 September 2010||34||44.65||Jahangirpuri||HUDA City Centre||60 trains||1676 mm||25 kV OHE|
|Blue Line||31 December 2005||30 October 2010||44||49.93||Noida City Centre||Dwarka Sector 21||70 trains||1676 mm||25 kV OHE|
|7 January 2010||14 July 2011||7||8.74||Yamuna Bank||Vaishali||1676 mm||25 kV OHE|
|Green Line||3 April 2010||—||14||15.14||Inderlok||Mundka||15 trains||1435 mm||25 kV OHE|
|27 August 2011||—||2||3.32||Ashok Park Main||Kirti Nagar||1435 mm||25 kV OHE|
|Violet Line||3 October 2010||26 June 2014||18||23.24||Mandi House||Badarpur||30 trains||1435 mm||25 kV OHE|
|Airport Express (Orange Line)||23 February 2011||—||6||22.70||New Delhi||Dwarka Sector 21||8 trains||1435 mm||25 kV OHE|
The Red Line was first line of the Metro to be opened and connects Rithala in the west to Dilshad Garden in the east, covering a distance of 25.09 kilometres (15.59 mi). It is partly elevated and partly at grade, and crosses the Yamuna River between Kashmere Gate and Shastri Park stations. The inauguration of the first stretch between Shahdara and Tis Hazari on 24 December 2002 caused the ticketing system to collapse due to the line being crowded to four times its capacity by citizens eager to have a ride. Subsequent sections were inaugurated from Tis Hazari – Trinagar (later renamed Inderlok) on 4 October 2003, Inderlok – Rithala on 31 March 2004, and Shahdara – Dilshad Garden on 4 June 2008. The red line has two interchange stations, the first being Kashmere Gate with the yellow line and the second Inderlok with the green line.Starting from 24 November 2013 six coach trains will be inducted in a phased manner in red line.
The Yellow Line was the second line of the Metro and was the first underground line to be opened. It runs for 44.36 kilometres (27.56 mi) from north to south and connects Jahangirpuri with HUDA City Centre in Gurgaon. The northern and southern parts of the line are elevated, while the central section through some of the most congested parts of Delhi is underground. The first section between Vishwa Vidyalaya and Kashmere Gate opened on 20 December 2004, and the subsequent sections of Kashmere Gate – Central Secretariat opened on 3 July 2005, and Vishwa Vidyalaya – Jahangirpuri on 4 February 2009. This line also possesses the country's deepest Metro station (the second deepest metro station in the world) at Chawri Bazaar, situated 30 metres (98 ft) below ground level. On 21 June 2010, an additional stretch from Qutub Minar to HUDA City Centre was opened, initially operating separately from the main line. However, Chhatarpur station on this line opened on 26 August 2010. Due to delay in acquiring the land for constructing the station, it was constructed using pre-fabricated structures in a record time of nine months and is the only station in the Delhi metro network to be made completely of steel. The connecting link between Central Secretariat and Qutub Minar opened on 3 September 2010. Interchanges are available with the Red Line and Kashmere Gate ISBT at Kashmere Gate station, Blue Line at Rajiv Chowk Station, Violet Line at Central Secretariat, Rapid MetroRail Gurgaon at Sikandarpur and with the Indian Railways network at Chandni chowk Delhi Junction Railway station and New Delhi New Delhi railway stations. Yellow line is the first line of Delhi Metro which has phased out all four coach trains with six and eight coach configuration. The Metro Museum at Patel Chowk Metro station is a collection of display panels, historical photographs and exhibits, tracing the genesis of the Delhi Metro. The museum was opened on January 1, 2009.
The Blue Line was the third line of the Metro to be opened, and the first to connect areas outside Delhi. Mainly elevated and partly underground, it connects Dwarka Sub City in the west with the satellite city of Noida in the east, covering a distance of 47.4 kilometres (29.5 mi). The first section of this line between Dwarka and Barakhamba Road was inaugurated on 31 December 2005, and subsequent sections opened between Dwarka – Dwarka Sector 9 on 1 April 2006, Barakhamba Road – Indraprastha on 11 November 2006, Indraprastha – Yamuna Bank on 10 May 2009, Yamuna Bank – Noida City Centre on 12 November 2009, and Dwarka Sector 9 – Dwarka Sector 21 on 30 October 2010. This line crosses the Yamuna River between Indraprastha and Yamuna Bank stations, and has India's second extradosed bridge across the Northern Railways mainlines near Pragati Maidan. A branch of the Blue line, inaugurated on 8 January 2010, takes off from Yamuna Bank station and runs for 6.25 kilometres (3.88 mi) up to Anand Vihar in east Delhi. It was further extended up to Vaishali which was opened to public on 14 July 2011. A small stretch of 2.76 kilometres (1.71 mi) from Dwarka Sector 9 to Dwarka Sector 21 was inaugurated on 30 October 2010. Interchanges are available with the Yellow Line at Rajiv Chowk station, Green line at Kirti Nagar, Violet line at Mandi House and with the Indian Railways network at the Anand Vihar Railway Terminal and Anand Vihar ISBT.
Opened in 2010, the Green Line was the first standard-gauge corridor of the Delhi Metro. The fully elevated line connects Mundka with Inderlok, running for 15.1 kilometres (9.4 mi) mostly along Rohtak Road with a branch line connecting the line's Ashok Park Main station with Kirti Nagar station on the Blue Line. The line consists of 17 stations including an interchange station covering a total length of 18.46 km. The line was opened in two stages, with the 15.1 km Inderlok - Mundka section opening on 3 April 2010, and the 3.5 km Kirti Nagar - Ashok Park Main branch line on 27 August 2011. An interchange with the Red line is available at Inderlok station via an integrated concourse. This line also has the country's first standard-gauge maintenance depot at Mundka.
The Violet Line is the most recent line of the Metro to be opened, and the second standard-gauge corridor after the Green Line. The 23.2 km (14.4 mi) long line connects Badarpur to Mandi House, with 9 km (5.6 mi) being overhead and the rest underground. The first section between Central Secretariat and Sarita Vihar was inaugurated on 3 October 2010,that just hours before the inaugural ceremony of the 2010 Commonwealth Games, and connects the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, which was the venue for the opening and closing ceremonies of the event. Completed in just 41 months, it includes a 100 m (330 ft) long bridge over the Indian Railways mainlines and a 167.5 m (550 ft) long cable-stayed bridge across an operational road flyover, and connects several hospitals, tourist attractions, and a major industrial estate along its route. Services are provided at intervals of 5 min. An interchange with the Yellow Line is available at Central Secretariat through an integrated concourse. On 14 January 2011, the remaining portion from Sarita Vihar to Badarpur was opened for commercial service, adding three new stations to the network and marking the completion of the line. The most recent section, between Mandi House and Central Secretariat, was opened on 26 June 2014.
The Airport Express line runs for 22.7 km (14.1 mi) from New Delhi Railway Station to Dwarka Sector 21, linking the Indira Gandhi International Airport. The line was operated by Delhi Airport Metro Express Pvt. Limited (DAMEL), a subsidiary of Reliance Infrastructure, the concessionaire of the line till 30 June 2013 and is now being operated by DMRC. The line was constructed at a cost of 57 billion (US$890 million), of which Reliance Infrastructure invested 28.85 billion (US$450 million) and will pay fees on a revenue-share model. The line has six stations (Dhaula Kuan and Delhi Aerocity became operational on 15 August 2011), with some featuring check-in facilities, parking, and eateries. Rolling stock consists of six-coach trains operating at intervals of ten minutes and having a maximum speed of 135 km/h (84 mph). Originally scheduled to open before the 2010 Commonwealth Games, the line failed to obtain the mandatory safety clearance, and was opened on 24 February 2011, after a delay of around 5 months. After 16 months of commencement of operations, the line was shut down for repairs of the viaducts on 8 July 2012. The line reopened on 22 January 2013. On 27 June 2013 Reliance Infrastructure Ltd intimated DMRC that they are unable to operate the line beyond 30 June 2013. Following this DMRC took over operations of Airport Express line from 1 July 2013 with an Operations and Maintenance team of 100 officials to handle the line. In Jan 2015, DMRC reported that Airport Metro has recorded about 30 per cent rise in its ridership following the fare reduction of up to 40 per cent in July last year 
Delhi Metro was planned to be built in phases spread over around 20 years as with each phase having a target of five years and end of one phase marking the beginning of another. Phase I (65 km) and Phase II (125 km) were completed in 2006 and 2011, respectively, and Phase III and Phase IV are scheduled for completion in 2016 and 2021, respectively. Work on Phase III started in 2011 while planning for Phase IV has begun. Ex-chief of DMRC hinted that by the time Phase IV is completed, the city will need Phase V to cope with rising population and transport needs.
Out of 2 new lines and 11 route extensions proposed for Phase III, cabinet approvals have been obtained for 2 new lines and 10 route extensions totaling 167.27 km, with an estimated cost of 350 billion (US$5.5 billion). Construction has already begun on many of these. In April 2014 the Delhi governor gave approval for two further extensions. All the approved lines are:
|Terminals||No. of interchanges
|Yellow Line extension||3||4.48||Jahangirpuri||Badli||0|
|Violet Line extension||7||9.36||Central Secretariat||Kashmere Gate||2|
|Blue Line extension||4||5.5||Dwarka||Najafgarh||1|
|5||6||Noida City Centre||Noida Sector 62||0|
|Green Line extension||6||11.182||Mundka||Bahadurgarh||0|
|Brown also called Inner Ring Road Line (Line 7)||38||58.59||Mukundpur||Shiv Vihar||11|
|Magenta Line also called Outer Ring Road Line (Line 8)||26||37.25||Janakpuri West||Botanical Garden||4|
|Red Line extension||6||9.6||Dilshad Garden||New Bus Stand, Ghaziabad||0|
|Airport Express extension||5||11.63||Dwarka Sector 21||IFFCO Chowk||1|
Other than these approved lines, there are several other proposed lines which are awaiting approval for inclusion in Phase III. These line extensions are:
|Terminals||No. of interchanges
Phase III will have 28 underground stations covering 41 km. More than 20 tunnel boring machines are expected to be simultaneously used during construction of Phase III. Delhi Metro is expecting a ridership of 4 million after completion of Phase III. DMRC has decided to use communication based train control (CBTC) for signaling which will allow trains to run at a short headway of 90 seconds. Keeping this in mind and other constraints, DMRC changed its decision to build 9 car long stations for new lines and instead opting for shorter stations which can accommodate 6 car trains.
For the first time Delhi Metro will construct ring lines in Phase III. Till Phase II, Delhi Metro focused on expanding the reach of metro and thus built long radial lines. However, in Phase III, Delhi Metro is aiming to interconnect existing lines by ring lines to improve connectivity. This will not only help in reducing distances but will also relieve radial lines of some congestion.
Phase IV has a 2021 deadline, and tentatively includes further extensions to Sonia Vihar, Burari, Mukundpur, Reola Khanpur, Palam, Najafgarh, Narela, Ghazipur, Noida sector 62, extensions of Violet line, Green line, Line 8, having a total length of over 100 km. There might be some changes in plan before actual construction starts on these lines.
Apart from these lines in Phases I to IV, plans have been mooted to construct a new line from Noida Sector 62 to Greater Noida which will intersect Indraprastha – Noida Sector 32 line. The Ghaziabad Development Authority is planning to extend Delhi Metro lines deeper into Ghaziabad through extension of the Blue Line from Vaishali to Mehrauli via Indirapuram. The independently operated Gurgaon Metro, opened in November 2013, will also interchange with the Delhi Metro at Sikandarpur station on Yellow line. For the year 2012-13, Noida development Authority has allocated Rs 5 billion for Metro extension, with City Center Metro line being extended till the crossing of Sector 71 and 72.
The table below is based on the 2013-14 Annual Report.
- EBITDA stands for "Earnings before Interest Taxes Depreciation & Amortization"
- EBT stands for "Earnings Before Tax"
Of note, Delhi Metro has been operating with a loss on an EBT basis for the past few years. EBITDA margin declined from 73% in Fiscal 2007 to 33% in Fiscal 2014. That said, Debt to Equity improved from 1.43 in FY07 to 1.16 in FY14.
Funding and Capitalization
DMRC is owned equally by the Delhi government and the Government of India.
Cost of the debt is 0% for Govt of India and Delhi government loans, and between 0.01% and 2.3% for Japan International Cooperation Agency loans. Of the equity capital, 152 billion (US$2.4 billion) is paid-up capital and rest is reserves and surplus.
Trains operate at a frequency of 2 minutes 40 seconds to 5–10 minutes between 6:00 and 23:00 depending peak and off-peak time. Trains operating within the network typically travel at speed up to 40 km/h (25 mph), and stop for about 20 seconds at each station. Automated station announcements are recorded in Hindi and English. Many stations have services such as ATMs, food outlets, cafés, convenience stores and mobile recharge. Eating, drinking, smoking, and chewing of gum are prohibited in the entire system. The Metro also has a sophisticated fire alarm system for advance warning in emergencies, and fire retardant material is used in trains as well as on the premises of stations. Navigation information is available on Google Transit. The first coach of every train is reserved for women. To make travelling by metro easier Delhi metro has launched an app for smartphones(iPhone and Android) that will provide information on various facilities like nearest metro station,fare,parking availability,tourist spots near metro stations,security and emergency helpline numbers.
Security on the Delhi Metro is handled by the Central Industrial Security Force (CISF), who have been guarding the system ever since they took over from the Delhi Police in 2007. Closed-circuit cameras are used to monitor trains and stations, and feed from these is monitored by both the CISF and Delhi Metro authorities at their respective control rooms. Over 3500 CISF personnel have been deployed to deal with law and order issues in the system, in addition to metal detectors, X-ray baggage inspection systems, and dog squads which are used to secure the system. About 5,200 CCTV cameras have been installed, which cover every nook and corner of each Metro station. Each of the underground stations has about 45 to 50 cameras installed while the elevated stations have about 16 to 20 cameras each. The monitoring of these cameras is done by the CISF, which is in charge of security of the Metro, as well as the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation. Intercoms are provided in each train car for emergency communication between the passengers and the train operator. Periodic security drills are carried out at stations and on trains to ensure preparedness of security agencies in emergency situations. DMRC is also looking at raising the station walls and railings for the safety of passengers.
Ticketing & Recharge
For the convenience of customers, Delhi Metro commuters have three choices for ticket purchase. The RFID tokens are valid only for a single journey on the day of purchase and the value depends on the distance travelled, with fares for a single journey ranging from 8 (13¢ US) to 30 (47¢ US). Fares are calculated based on the origin and destination stations using a fare chart. A common ticketing facility for commuters travelling on Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) buses and the Metro was introduced in 2011. Travel cards are available for longer durations and are most convenient for frequent commuters. They are valid for one year from the date of purchase or the date of last recharge, and are available in denominations of 200 (US$3.10) to 1,000 (US$15.70). A 10% discount is given on all travel made on it. A deposit of 50 (79¢ US) needs to be made to buy a new card which is refundable on the return of the card any time before its expiry if the card is not physically damaged. Tourist cards can be used for unlimited travel on the Delhi Metro network over short periods of time. There are two kinds of tourist cards valid for one and three days respectively. The cost of a one-day card is 150 (US$2.40) and that of a three-day card is 300 (US$4.70), besides a refundable deposit of 50 (79¢ US) that must be paid at the time of purchasing the card.
As the network has expanded, high ridership in new trains have led to increasing instances of overcrowding and delays on the Delhi Metro. To alleviate the problem, 8 coach trains have been introduced in yellow line and Blue line and an increase in the frequency of trains has been proposed. Infrequent, overcrowded and erratic feeder bus services connecting stations to nearby localities have also been reported as an area of concern. In 2010, severe overcrowding on the Yellow Line, which connects the north and south campuses of Delhi University, was reported to be a reason for students missing or reporting late for classes.
Delhi Metro has been registering a continuous increase in ridership since July, 2014, with the ridership figure creating a new record on the 8th of August, 2014.
While on the 21st of July, 2014, Delhi Metro's ridership figure touched the high of 26.84 lakhs, on 4 August, it crossed the 27 lakh barrier to reach 27.05 lakhs. On the 8th of August, the ridership figure has now reached a new high of over 27.60 lakhs breaking all previous records.
On 25 December 2014, it was reported that the ridership of the Airport Express had almost doubled in the past year to almost 6 lakh per month now, as compared to just above 3 lakh at the beginning of the calendar year. Officials also said that Delhi Metro’s highest ridership for the year was recorded on September 8, when 28,87,303 passengers commuted on its trains.
Currently, DMRC has a pool of 208 train sets (65 4-car, 85 6-car and 58 8-car). At present, the Delhi Metro is operational on six lines where more than 2500 train trips are made each day traversing over 69000 km in a day. With Phase-III of the network expected to cover about 108 kilometres (67 mi), the Delhi Metro network will expand to operate over 295 kilometres (183 mi) by 2016, making it one of the fastest expanding Metro networks in the world carrying about 40 lakh (4 million) passengers.
The Metro uses rolling stock of two different gauges. Phase I lines use 1,676 mm (5.499 ft) broad gauge rolling stock, while three Phase II lines use 1,435 mm (4.708 ft) standard gauge rolling stock. Trains are maintained at seven depots at Khyber Pass and Sultanpur for the Yellow Line, Mundka for the Green Line, Najafgarh and Yamuna Bank for the Blue Line, Shastri Park for the Red Line, and Sarita Vihar for the Violet Line.
The broad gauge rolling stock is manufactured by two major suppliers. For the Phase I, the rolling stock was supplied by a consortium of companies comprising Hyundai Rotem, Mitsubishi Corporation, and MELCO.The coaches have a very similar look to MTR Rotem EMU, except with only 4 doors and use sliding doors. The coaches were initially built in South Korea by ROTEM, then in Bangalore by BEML through a technology transfer arrangement. These trains consist of four 3.2-metre (10 ft) wide stainless steel lightweight coaches with vestibules permitting movement throughout their length and can carry up to 1500 passengers, with 50 seated and 330 standing passengers per coach. The coaches are fully air conditioned, equipped with automatic doors, microprocessor-controlled brakes and secondary air suspension, and are capable of maintaining an average speed of 32 km/h (20 mph) over a distance of 1.1 km (0.68 mi). The system is extensible up to eight coaches, and platforms have been designed accordingly.
The rolling stock for Phase II is being supplied by Bombardier Transportation, which has received an order for 614 cars worth approximately US$1.1 billion. While initial trains were made in Görlitz, Germany and Sweden, the remainder will be built at Bombardier's factory in Savli, near Vadodara. These trains are a mix of four-car and six-car consists, capable of accommodating 1178 and 1792 commuters per train respectively. The coaches possess several improved features like Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) cameras with eight-hour backup for added security, charging points in all coaches for cell phones and laptops, improved air conditioning to provide a temperature of 25 degrees Celsius even in packed conditions and heaters for winter.
The standard gauge rolling stock is manufactured by BEML at its factory in Bangalore. The trains are four-car consists with a capacity of 1506 commuters per train, accommodating 50 seated and 292 standing passengers in each coach. These trains will have CCTV cameras in and outside the coaches, power supply connections inside coaches to charge mobiles and laptops, better humidity control, microprocessor-controlled disc brakes, and will be capable of maintaining an average speed of 34 km/h (21 mph) over a distance of 1.1 km (0.68 mi).
Eight 6-car trains supplied by CAF Beasain were imported from Spain. CAF held 5% equity in the DAME project, and Reliance Infrastructure held the remaining 95% before DMRC took over the operations. The trains on this line are of a premium standard compared to the existing metro trains and have in-built noise reduction and padded fabric seats. The coaches are equipped with LCD screens for entertainment of the passengers and also provide flight information for convenience of air travellers. The trains are fitted with an event recorder which can withstand high levels of temperature and impact and the wheels have flange lubrication system for less noise and better riding comfort.
Signalling and telecommunication
The Delhi Metro uses cab signalling along with a centralised automatic train control system consisting of automatic train operation, Automatic Train Protection and automatic train signalling modules. A 380 MHz digital trunked TETRA radio communication system from Motorola is used on all lines to carry both voice and data information. For Blue Line Siemens Transportation Systems has supplied the electronic interlocking Sicas, the operation control system Vicos OC 500 and the automation control system LZB 700 M. An integrated system comprising optical fibre cable, on-train radio, CCTV, and a centralised clock and public address system is used for telecommunication during train operations as well as emergencies. For Red and Yellow lines ALSTOM has supplied signalling system and for line Green and Voilet Bombardier Transportation has supplied CITYFLO 350 signalling system.
The Airport Express line has introduced WiFi services at all stations along the route on 13 January 2012. Connectivity inside metro trains travelling on the route is expected in the future. The WiFi service is provided by YOU Broadband & Cable India Limited.
Environment and aesthetics
The Delhi Metro has won awards for environmentally friendly practices from organisations including the United Nations, RINA, and the International Organization for Standardization, becoming the second metro in the world, after the New York City Subway, to be ISO 14001 certified for environmentally friendly construction. Most of the Metro stations on the Blue Line conduct rainwater harvesting as an environmental protection measure. It is also the first railway project in the world to earn carbon credits after being registered with the United Nations under the Clean Development Mechanism, and has so far earned 400,000 carbon credits by saving energy through the use of regenerative braking systems on its trains. In order to reduce its dependence on non-renewable sources of energy, DMRC is looking forward to harness solar energy and install solar panels at the Karkardooma, Noida Sector-21, Anand Vihar and Pragati Maidan Metro stations and DMRC’s residential complex at Pushp Vihar.
The Metro has been promoted as an integral part of community infrastructure, and community artwork depicting the local way of life has been put on display at stations. Students of local art colleges have also designed decorative murals at Metro stations, while pillars of the viaduct on some elevated sections have been decorated with mosaic murals created by local schoolchildren. The Metro station at INA Colony has a gallery showcasing artwork and handicrafts from across India, while all stations on the Central Secretariat – Qutub Minar section of the Yellow Line have panels installed on the monumental architectural heritage of Delhi. The Nobel Memorial Wall at Rajiv Chowk has portraits of the seven Nobel Laureates from India: Rabindranath Tagore, CV Raman, Hargobind Khorana, Mother Teresa, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Amartya Sen and Venkatraman Ramakrishnan and provide details about their contribution to society and a panel each on Alfred Nobel and the Nobel Prizes.
- Transport in Delhi
- Delhi Suburban Railway
- National Capital Region Transport Corporation
- Rapid transit in India
- List of rapid transit systems
- List of metro systems
- "Delhi Metro Introduction". DMRC. 18 October 2014.
- Singh, Pragya (25 December 2014). "100 per cent rise in Airport Metro Line ridership". Deccan Chronicle Holdings Limited. The Asian Age. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- "Annual Report 2013-2014" (pdf). DMRC. 30 September 2014. p. 4. Retrieved 2015-02-22.
- "Mangu Singh to be next Metro chief". The Times of India. 20 October 2011.
- "Annual Report 2012-2013" (pdf). DMRC. 30 September 2013. pp. 5–6. Retrieved 2014-03-02.
- "Press Release: DMRC To Induct Two Six-Coach Trains By The End Of This Month On Line-3". DMRC. 3 December 2010. Retrieved 2010-12-07.
- "Delhi Metro to add extra coaches". Business Standard. 6 January 2010. Retrieved 2010-01-06.
- "Delhi Metro marks 11th anniversary". The Hindu. 2013-12-25.
- Sadana, Rashmi. "Metrocity Journal: Delhi's Changing Landscape". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2012-06-12.
- "Press Release". DMRC. 26 November 2010. Retrieved 2010-12-07.
- "More trains from Dwarka to Noida". The Times of India. 27 November 2010. Retrieved 2010-12-07.
- "Eight-coach train on Blue Line from today". The Hindu. 19 August 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-19.
- "Metro starts shift to six-coach trains to boost capacity". Hindustan Times. 25 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-29. From June onwards the metro will have 8 coach trains plying in yellow and blue lines, due to the increasing rush
- "Press Release: Delhi metro's total ridership since 2002 crosses the total population of India". DMRC. 23 August 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-27.
- Cities / Delhi : Delhi Metro gets UN certification. The Hindu (26 September 2011). Retrieved on 2011-10-24.
- Siemiatycki 2006, p. 279
- Siemiatycki 2006, pp. 279–280
- "History of Delhi Metro". DMRC. Retrieved 2009-09-17.
- Pucher, John; Nisha Korattyswaroopam,; Neenu Ittyerah (2004). "The Crisis of Public Transport in India" (pdf). Journal of Public Transportation 7 (4): 1–20. Retrieved 2009-09-17.
- "Structure of Delhi Metro". DMRC. Retrieved 2009-09-17.
- "Delhi metro rail work begins but without fanfare". The Indian Express.[dead link]
- "Delhi Metro showcases public sector success". The Indian Express. 13 April 2007. Retrieved 2009-09-10.
- "China Business/International Business". MTR. Retrieved 2011-06-02.
- "Delhi Metro Rail to adopt BG system". The Hindu Business Line. 7 August 2000. Retrieved 2009-09-10.[dead link]
- "Indian PM launches Delhi metro". BBC News. 24 December 2002. Retrieved 2010-04-22.
- "Phase 1 complete, Pragati Maidan now on Metro map". Express India. 27 October 2006. Retrieved 2010-04-18.[dead link]
- Nandini Lakshman (19 March 2007). "The Miracle-Worker of the Delhi Metro". BusinessWeek. Retrieved 2009-09-10.
- "Delhi Metro bridge collapses; 1 dead". IBN Live (CNN-IBN). 19 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-19.
- "A chronology of Delhi Metro accidents". Hindustan Times Online (Indo-Asian News Service). 12 July 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-12.
- Megha Suri (14 July 2009). "Day 2: 3 cranes fall, Metro image takes beating". The Times of India. Retrieved 2010-01-06.
- "Labourer dies at Delhi Metro construction site". Central Chronicle. 22 July 2009. Retrieved 2010-04-22.[dead link]
- Atul Mathur (7 December 2009). "City's nightmare on wheels". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 2009-12-08.
- "Delhi Metro Phase I and II". DMRC. Retrieved 2014-03-02.
- Smriti Kak Ramachandran (17 September 2007). "Delhi Metro confident of meeting deadline". The Hindu. Retrieved 2009-09-10.
- "Metro Station Numbers". DMRC. Retrieved 2014-03-02.
- Sanjay Kapoor (4 September 2010). "Metro:The Complete Picture". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 2010-09-04.[dead link]
- Atul Mathur (17 September 2009). "A swankier, smarter Metro". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 2009-11-12.
- "Delhi Metro crosses new horizons". Hindustan Times. 3 April 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-04.
- "Additional Information". Press Release. DMRC. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
- "On May 3, Metro to cross Yamuna again". The Times of India. 24 April 2009. Retrieved 2010-03-29.
- "Press Release: Prime Minister inaugurates Metro Rail services between Tis Hazari and Shahdara". Press Information Bureau, Government of India. 24 December 2002. Retrieved 2010-03-29.
- "Passengers swamp Delhi's new metro". Sydney Morning Herald. 27 December 2002. Retrieved 2010-03-29.
- "70,000 travel by Tri Nagar-Tis Hazari Metro rail". The Times of India. 5 October 2003. Retrieved 2010-03-29.
- "Metro Station Information". DMRC. Retrieved 2009-03-29.
- "DMRC to introduce six-coach trains on Dilshad Garden-Rithala line on Sunday". The Times of India. 23 November 2013. Retrieved 2014-05-12.
- "A subterranean journey begins". The Times of India. 20 December 2004. Retrieved 2010-03-29.
- "Metro creating a marvel in Walled City". The Hindu. 8 January 2004. Retrieved 2010-03-29.
- "Technological marvel set to unfold on July 2". The Hindu. 29 June 2005. Retrieved 2010-03-29.
- "Chhattarpur Metro Station To Become Operational From Tomorrow". DMRC. 25 August 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-26.
- "Chattarpur station to open today". The Times of India. 26 August 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-26.
- "Gurgaon gets a lifeline as CST-Qutub corridor opens". Sify News. 4 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-04.
- Nidhi Sharma (29 June 2005). "New Delhi Metro station, your connect with National rail". The Times of India. Retrieved 2010-03-29.
- "Secretariat to DU in 18 minutes flat". The Hindu. 1 July 2005. Retrieved 2010-03-29.
- "Metro enters Noida, set to change travelling habits of people". Daily News and Analysis. 12 November 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-12.
- "Metro to travel underground and overhead". The Times of India. 28 December 2005. Retrieved 2010-04-04.[dead link]
- Gaurav Vivek Bhatnagar (12 November 2006). "Delhi Metro just got bigger and better". The Hindu. Retrieved 2010-04-04.
- "Delhi Anand Vihar Metro line opens for public". The Economic Times. 7 January 2010. Retrieved 2010-01-08.[dead link]
- "Press Release: Anand Vihar – Vaishali Section To Open For Passenger Services From 14th July 2011". DMRC. 13 July 2011.
- "Vaishali Metro to kick off on July 14 minus Maya". Times of India. 13 July 2011.
- "Press Release: DMRC Extends Metro Services To Dwarka Sector 21 on Line-3". DMRC. 30 October 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-30.
- "Noida Metro line extended to Dwarka Sec-21". The Hindu. 30 October 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-30.
- "40000 Footfalls at Anand Vihar Metro on Day 1". Outlook India. 7 January 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-04.
- "Metro Goes To Mundka On new green line". The Times of India. 1 April 2010.
- "Delhi metro to launch standard-gauge trains in March". Daily News and Analysis. 21 February 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-06.
- "Metro gets first standard gauge depot". The Hindu. 23 February 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-06.
- "Metro from Central Secretariat to Sarita Vihar too". The Times of India. 3 October 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-04.[dead link]
- "DMRC opens Sarita Vihar–Badarpur section". Hindustan Times. 14 January 2011. Retrieved 2011-01-14.
- Megha Suri Singh (17 August 2010). "Hawk-eyed vigil on airport metro line". The Times of India. Retrieved 2010-08-17.
- "Delhi Airport Express rail link opens". Railway Gazette International. Retrieved 2012-07-07.
- "Airport Express Link: Metro gives a preview". The Indian Express. 6 November 2009. Retrieved 2010-11-09.
- "Airport Metro misses CWG deadline". NDTV. 3 October 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-09.
- "Cities / Delhi : Airport to be 20 minutes from Connaught Place from Wednesday". The Hindu. 21 February 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-24.
- "Delhi Airport Metro Express back on track". Financial Express. Retrieved 2013-03-31.
- "Delhi Metro takes over operations of Airport Express Line". The Hindu. 1 July 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-05.
- [ttp://www.business-standard.com/article/pti-stories/airport-metro-sees-30-rise-in-ridership-after-fare-reduction-115010400104_1.html "Airport Metro sees 30% rise in ridership after fare reduction"]. Business Standard. 1 Jan 2015. Retrieved 2015-01-19.h
- "Metro to cover whole of Delhi by 2012". Economic Times. 11 December 2011. Retrieved 2012-04-08.
- "Delhi Metro rings in the New Year under new chief". Jagran Post. 1 January 2012. Retrieved 2012-04-08.
- "Jung wants better access to all Metro stations". Indian Express. 23 April 2014. Retrieved 2014-04-24.
- "NFaster, greener trains for new lines". Times of India. 10 July 2014. Retrieved 2015-03-30.
- "Metro to connect more NCR areas in Ph III". The Times of India. 8 November 2011. Retrieved 2012-04-08.
- "Delhi Metro To Construct Record Number Of Underground Corridors In Phase 3". DMRC. Retrieved 2012-04-08.
- "Tunnelling work starts for Metro's Phase III". Economic Times. 31 January 2012. Retrieved 2012-04-08.
- "Metro to introduce advanced signalling system in Phase-III". Economic Times. 15 December 2011. Retrieved 2012-04-08.
- "DMRC to surpass London Metro by 2021". Hindustan Times. 18 November 2011. Retrieved 2012-04-09.
- "A Metro link for Narela Sub City". The Hindu. 29 Jan 2005.
- Gaurav Vivek Bhatnagar (25 December 2006). "Delhi Metro map to cover Greater Noida". The Hindu. Retrieved 2009-09-10.
- Megha Suri (30 January 2010). "Pvt metro link to get Central nod soon". The Times of India. Retrieved 2010-02-02.
- "Metro line between Noida, Greater Noida approved". The Times of India. 10 July 2012.
- "2014 Annual Report" (pdf). DMRC. Retrieved 2015-02-25.
- "Press Release: Measures to Ensure Safe Passage for Metro Train Passengers". Press Information Bureau, Government of India. 27 August 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-27.
- "Delhi Metro routes now on Google Maps". The Economic Times. 5 March 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-11.[dead link]
- "Delhi Metro to reserve coach for women from October 2". The Times of India. 26 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-27.[dead link]
- "Women get exclusive coach in Delhi Metro". Hindustan Times. 2 October 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-02.
- "DMRC launches smart phone app". The Hindu. 23 August 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
- "CISF to take over Delhi Metro security". The Times of India. 7 March 2007. Retrieved 2010-04-15.
- "Delhi metro parking areas to be bought under CCTV cameras". Daily News and Analysis. 21 March 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-15.
- Megha Suri Singh (30 March 2010). "Moscow blasts put Metro security in alert mode". The Times of India. Retrieved 2010-04-15.
- "Commuters Guide to Security on Delhi Metro". DMRC. Retrieved 2010-04-15.
- "Mock drills at 4 Metro stations". The Times of India. 26 March 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-15.
- "Metro to raise height of walls at stations". The Times of India. 9 May 2012. Retrieved 2012-05-09.
- "Route & fare". DMRC. Retrieved 2010-09-22.
- "Common tickets for DTC, Metro by 2011". Sify News. 26 March 2010.
- "10 % Discount on Metro SMART CARDS". DMRC.[dead link]
- Sweta Dutta (16 November 2009). "Widening reach, Metro looks at ways to ease rush". The Indian Express. Retrieved 2009-11-21.
- Atul Mathur (19 November 2009). "Crowded stations, slow trains". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 2009-11-21.
- Atul Mathur (8 December 2009). "Feeder service or the lack of it". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 2009-12-08.
- "Parking, feeder bus woes on Metro's Noida line". India Today. 12 November 2009. Retrieved 2009-12-08.[dead link]
- Vatsala Shrangi (7 December 2010). "Many compelled to miss classes ahead of crucial exams". Mid-day. Retrieved 2010-12-07.
- "Delhi Metro breaks passenger record again in August". India Today (Living Media India Limited). 9 August 2014. Retrieved 2014-11-01.
- Singh, Pragya (25 Dec 2014). "100 per cent rise in Airport Metro Line ridership". The Asian Age. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- Rao Yanamadala (2 August 2011). "Press Release: Delhi Metro Carries 1.8 Million (18 Lakh) Passengers For the First Time Ever". DMRC. Retrieved 2011-08-13.
- Reuters – Hyundai Rotem gets m order to supply trains. In.reuters.com. Retrieved on 2011-10-24.
- "Delhi Metro gets standard gauge train". The Hindu Business Line. 18 March 2009. Retrieved 2010-02-02.[dead link]
- Sweta Dutta (13 May 2009). "Eight depots for Metro as it chugs along ever-widening network". The Indian Express. Retrieved 2009-09-26.
- "Delhi Metro, India". Railway-Technology.com. Retrieved 2014-05-12.
- "Metro gets first standard gauge depot". The Hindu. 23 February 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-28.
- "Delhi Metro constructs Asia's highest train washing plant". The Economic Times. 25 April 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-28.[dead link]
- "Delhi Metro says no to Maglev technology". Indian Express. 2012-08-08. Retrieved 2013-03-31.
- P. Manoj (25 August 2005). "BEML to rake in big money from proposed metro projects". The Hindu. Retrieved 2009-09-26.
- "Second Metro rail arrives in Delhi". The Times of India. 15 October 2002. Retrieved 2009-09-26.
- "Rolling Stock: Ensuring Passenger Comfort, Safety and Reliability" (jpg). DMRC. Retrieved 2010-09-27.
- "Metro Rail gets first train". The Hindu. 27 July 2002. Retrieved 2009-09-26.
- "Bombardier to Deliver Further 76 MOVIA Metro Cars to Delhi Metro from Savli India Site". Press Release. Bombardier. 5 September 2011. Retrieved 2011-11-03.
- "Bombardier to supply coaches to Delhi Metro". projectsmonitor.com.[dead link]
- "Metro to get swankier, bigger coaches". The Times of India. 17 September 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-26.
- "BEML delivers India's 1st standard gauge metro car". The Economic Times. 11 September 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-26.
- Smriti Kak Ramachandran (30 July 2009). "Trial run begins on first standard gauge Metro line". The Hindu. Retrieved 2009-07-26.
- "Airport line handed over to Reliance Infra". Indian Express. 20 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-05.
- "Delhi Airport line contracts finalised". Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles.
- "Technical Notes: Signalling". DMRC. Archived from the original on 12 March 2008. Retrieved 2009-11-23.
- "Delhi Metro Railway Corporation, India". Motorola Electronics. Retrieved 2010-01-03.[dead link]
- "Metro Line 3, New Delhi, India". Siemens AG. Retrieved 2008-07-06.[dead link]
- "Technical Notes: Telecommunication". DMRC. Archived from the original on 26 December 2007. Retrieved 2009-11-23.
- "Reliance Metro Airport Express,WiFi-enabled,EVS Chakravarthy, CEO YOU Broadband". Business Wire India. Retrieved 2012-08-04.
- "Delhi Metro offered fully-automated, driverless train system". Retrieved 25 May 2012.[dead link]
- "Delhi Metro gets UN certificate for preventing carbon emission". The Times of India. 22 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-10.
- "Delhi Metro gets OHSAS 18001". DMRC. Archived from the original on 7 June 2008. Retrieved 2009-09-10.
- "Press Release: Delhi Metro Receives ISO 14001 For Eco-friendly Systems". USAID. 24 December 2002. Retrieved 2010-09-27.[dead link]
- "Delhi Metro shows the way with water harvesting units". The Times of India. 26 September 2005. Retrieved 2010-09-27.
- "Delhi Metro is first rail project to earn carbon credits". The Economic Times. 5 January 2008. Retrieved 2010-02-02.
- Neha Sinha (20 December 2009). "Delhi Metro on track to earn carbon credits". The Indian Express. Retrieved 2010-02-02.[dead link]
- "Metro mulls solar panels at stations to go green". The Times of India. 5 June 2012.
- "Delhi Metro to install three new solar power plants". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
- Siemiatycki 2006, p. 284
- Anuradha Mukherjee (13 December 2002). "Vibrant murals bring cheer". The Times of India. Retrieved 2009-11-30.
- Preeti Jha (10 October 2007). "Murals by Salwan Public School students decorate Metro pillars on Pusa Road". The Indian Express. Retrieved 2010-02-02.[dead link]
- "At INA Metro station, a gallery for traditional art, crafts". Indian Express. 2 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-21.
- Smriti Kak Ramachandran (2 September 2010). "Delhi metro gets a handicrafts gallery". The Hindu. Retrieved 2010-09-21.
- Siemiatycki, Matti (June 2006). "Message in a Metro: Building Urban Rail Infrastructure and Image in Delhi, India". International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 30 (2): 259–277. Archived from the original on 2014-05-13. Retrieved 2009-09-17.
- Rashmi Sadana (30 May – 2 June 2012). "Metrocity Journal: Up, Up and Away". The Wall Street Journal.
- Rashmi Sadana (13 November 2010). "On the Delhi Metro: An Ethnographic View". Economic and Political Weekly 45 (46): 77–83.
- G. S. Dhillon (29 January 2004). "Trenchless tunnelling". The Tribune.
- "A dream revisited: an archival journey into the making of the Delhi Metro Rail". DMRC. 2003. OCLC 54073649.
- "A journey to remember". DMRC. 2008. p. 94. OCLC 300027063.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Delhi Metro.|
- Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd. - official site
- Responsive Website for Delhi Metro
- Real distance map of the Delhi Metro Network
- Delhi Metro, India (Railway-Technology.com)
- Delhi Metro News