Delocalized electron

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Benzene, with the delocalization of the electrons indicated by the circle.

In chemistry, delocalized electrons are electrons in a molecule, ion or solid metal that are not associated with a single atom or covalent bond.[1] Delocalized electrons are contained within molecular orbitals that extend over several adjacent atoms and is intrinsic in molecular orbital theory. Alternatively, resonance in conjugated systems and mesoionic compounds is referred to as electron delocalization as well despite its localized description in valence bond theory.


In the simple aromatic ring of benzene the delocalization of six π electrons over the C6 ring is often graphically indicated by a circle. The fact that the six C-C bonds are equidistant is one indication of this delocalization. In valence bond theory, delocalization in benzene is represented by resonance structures.

Delocalized electrons also exist in the structure of solid metals, where the d-subshell interferes with the above s-subshell. Metallic structure consists of aligned positive ions (cations) in a "sea" of delocalized electrons. This means that the electrons are free to move throughout the structure, and gives rise to properties such as conductivity.

In diamond all four outer electrons of each carbon atom are 'localized' between the atoms in covalent bonding. The movement of electrons is restricted and diamond does not conduct an electric current. In graphite, each carbon atom uses only 3 of its 4 outer energy level electrons in covalently bonding to three other carbon atoms in a plane. Each carbon atom contributes one electron to a delocalized system of electrons that is also a part of the chemical bonding. The delocalized electrons are free to move throughout the plane. For this reason, graphite conducts electricity along the planes of carbon atoms, but does not conduct in a direction at right angles to the plane.

In the case of ions it is common to speak about delocalized charge (charge delocalization) when meaning delocalized electrons. An example of delocalized electrons (delocalized charge) in ions can be found in the carboxylate group, wherein the negative charge is centered equally on the two oxygen atoms. Charge delocalization in anions is an important factor determining their reactivity (generally: the higher the extent of delocalization the lower the reactivity) and, specifically, the acid strength of their conjugate acids. As a general rule, the better delocalized is the charge in an anion the stronger is its conjugate acid. For example, the negative charge in perchlorate anion (ClO4) is evenly distributed among the symmetrically oriented oxygen atoms (and a part of it is also kept by the central chlorine atom). This excellent charge delocalization combined with the high number of oxygen atoms (four) and high electronegativity of the central chlorine atom leads to perchloric acid being one of the strongest known acids (with pKa values cited in the range of -7 .. -10). The extent of charge delocalization in an anion can be quantitatively expressed via the WAPS[2] parameter and an analogous WANS[3] parameter is used for cations.

WAPS values of anions of common acids and WANS values of cations of common bases
Compound WAPS·105 Compound WANS·105
(C2F5SO2)2NH 2.0[4] t-BuP4(dma) 0.6[5]
Fluoradene 2.7[4] Triphenylphosphine 2.1[3]
(CF3)3COH 3.6[4] Phenyl tetramethylguanidine 2.5[3]
Picric acid 4.3[2] Tripropylamine 2.6[3]
2,4-Dinitrophenol 4.9[2] MTBD 2.9[5]
Benzoic acid 7.1[2] DBU 3.0[5]
Phenol 8.8[4] TBD 3.5[5]
Acetic acid 16.1[2] N,N-Dimethylaniline 4.7[3]
HI 21.9[4] Pyridine 7.2[3]
HBr 29.1[4] Aniline 8.2[3]
HCl 35.9[2] Propylamine 8.9[3]

WAPS and WANS values are given in e/Å4. Larger values indicate more localized charge in the corresponding ion.

Delocalization in reactions[edit]

Delocalized electrons are important for several reasons; a major one is that an expected chemical reaction may not occur because the electrons delocalize to a more stable configuration, resulting in a reaction that happens at a different location. An example is the Friedel–Crafts alkylation of benzene with 1-chloro-2-methylpropane; the carbocation rearranges to a tert-butyl group stabilized by hyperconjugation, a particular form of delocalization. Delocalization leads to lengthening of wavelength of electron therefore decreases the energy.

Relation with localized electrons[edit]

Standard ab initio quantum chemistry methods lead to delocalized orbitals that, in general, extend over an entire molecule and have the symmetry of the molecule. Localized orbitals may then be found as linear combinations of the delocalized orbitals, given by an appropriate unitary transformation.

In the methane molecule for example, ab initio calculations show bonding character in four molecular orbitals, sharing the electrons uniformly among all five atoms. There are two orbital levels, a bonding molecular orbital formed from the 2s orbital on carbon and triply degenerate bonding molecular orbitals from each of the 2p orbitals on carbon. The localized sp3 orbitals corresponding to each individual bond in valence bond theory can be obtained from a linear combination of the four molecular orbitals.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ IUPAC Gold Book delocalization
  2. ^ a b c d e f Kaupmees K., Kaljurand I., Leito I. (2010). "Influence of Water Content on the Acidities in Acetonitrile. Quantifying Charge Delocalization in Anions". J. Phys. Chem. A 114: 11788–11793. doi:10.1021/jp105670t. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Kaupmees K., Kaljurand I., Leito I. (2014). "Influence of Water Content on Basicities in Acetonitrile". J. Sol. Chem. 43: 1270–1281. doi:10.1007/s10953-014-0201-4. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f Raamat E., Kaupmees K., Ovsjannikov G., Trummal A., Kütt A., Saame J., Koppel I., Kaljurand I., Lipping L., Rodima T., Pihl V., Koppel I. A., Leito I. (2013). "Acidities of strong neutral Brønsted acids in different media". J. Phys. Org. Chem. 26: 162–170. doi:10.1002/poc.2946. 
  5. ^ a b c d Kaupmees, K., Trummal, A., Leito, I. (2014). "Basicities of Strong Bases in Water: A Computational Study". Croat. Chem. Acta 87: 385–395. doi:10.5562/cca2472.